Garganta Profunda Revelada

Garganta Profunda Revelada

Depois de mais de 30 anos de sigilo, a identidade de Deep Throat, o informante de Watergate que vazou informações para o Washington Post que levou à renúncia do presidente Richard Nixon, é revelada em um artigo da Vanity Fair escrito por John O'Connor. Em uma entrevista por telefone em 31 de maio de 2005, O'Connor descreve as razões por trás da decisão do ex-deputado do FBI Mark Felt de finalmente ir a público.


QUEBRANDO: Kamala Harris & # 8217 DARK Past REVEALED

O deputado Tulsi Gabbard acusou a candidata democrata Kamala Harris de ser uma promotora cruel, colocando & # 8220mais de 1.500 pessoas na prisão por violações da maconha & # 8221 e depois brincando sobre fumar maconha.

Gabbard então acrescentou: “Ela bloqueou as evidências que teriam libertado um homem inocente do corredor da morte até que os tribunais a obrigassem a fazê-lo”.

Isso é em grande parte verdade, como o Sacramento Bee anotado (links originais):

Em fevereiro, o governador da Califórnia Gavin Newsom ordenou novos testes de DNA no caso de assassinato de 1983 de Kevin Cooper. Cooper veio poucas horas após a execução em 2004, após ser acusado dos assassinatos de um casal adulto e dois filhos. Harris se opôs ao teste quando ela era procuradora-geral do estado.

Desde então, ela disse que apoia os testes de DNA e encorajou Newsom a aprovar o pedido de clemência de Cooper. Ela não deu detalhes sobre o motivo pelo qual não aprovou o teste durante sua gestão.

Em resposta a um pedido de comentário, a campanha de Harris apontou para uma declaração anterior em que o senador ligou para um colunista do New York Times no ano passado, dizendo-lhe: "Eu me sinto péssimo com isso".

o San Francisco Chronicle observado no momento em que Harris posteriormente mudou sua postura e endossou o teste de DNA.

O prisioneiro, Kevin Cooper, não foi libertado enquanto os testes de DNA continuam e ainda não está claro se ele é inocente, embora muitos pensem que ele é inocente.

o Abelha também observou que outra queixa contra Harris - desta vez, do ex-vice-presidente Joe Biden - de que um juiz federal libertou 1.000 presos depois que descobriu que um laboratório criminal de San Francisco havia usado indevidamente as provas, e que o então promotor Harris não revelou que a evidência possivelmente tinha sido contaminada.

o Washington Post relembrou no início deste ano: “Foi revelado em março de 2010 que Harris e sua equipe não haviam informado os advogados de defesa que as provas do laboratório de crime administrado pela polícia poderiam ter sido contaminadas. Um juiz decidiu em maio de 2010 que Harris não havia informado os réus conforme exigido por lei. Harris disse ... ela assumiu a responsabilidade e 'não deu desculpas' para o fracasso. ”

Harris agora funciona em uma plataforma que envolve a reforma da justiça criminal e afirma que se opõe à pena de morte.

21 comentários

Harris é uma mulher má e incompetente e não deveria ter permissão para exercer a advocacia. Ela chegou onde está ou sua prática de usar o cartão de corrida.


Garganta profunda revelada (novamente)

A invasão de Watergate foi há 27 anos hoje. Feliz Dia Watergate! Este aniversário é marcado pelo lançamento de um novo livro de Bob Woodward sobre como Watergate (e, por implicação, o próprio Woodward) mudou a presidência para sempre e pela publicação de uma edição do 25º aniversário de Todos os homens do presidente (clique aqui para enriquecer ainda mais Woodward e o co-autor Carl Bernstein). Com todas essas memórias de Watergate girando, é hora de revisitar a questão: quem foi Garganta Profunda?

Chatterbox está se referindo à fonte anônima de Watergate (interpretada por Hal Holbrook no filme de Todos os homens do presidente) que ajudou Woodward a quebrar o Watergate ao aconselhá-lo a "seguir o dinheiro". Adivinhação Garganta ProfundaA identidade de Washington tem sido o jogo de salão favorito de Washington por quase três décadas. Chatterbox não sabe quem Garganta Profunda era. No entanto, ele está convencido de que grande parte do mistério foi resolvido em maio de 1992, quando o Atlantic Monthly publicou um artigo sobre esta questão de James Mann, um ex- Washington Post repórter que agora trabalha para o Los Angeles Times. O artigo de Mann não resolveu a questão de “quem”, mas fez de forma bastante persuasiva, responda à pergunta “o quê”. Ou seja, Mann identificou onde Garganta Profunda trabalhou: no Departamento Federal de Investigação. De acordo com Mann, Garganta Profunda foi provavelmente W. Mark Felt, então o cara número 3 do FBI, e mais tarde famoso por aprovar invasões ilegais para investigar o Weather Underground. (Sentiu foi perdoado pelo presidente Reagan.) Ou, possivelmente, Garganta Profunda era Charles Bates, subdiretor da Divisão Geral de Investigação. Ou - Mann acha isso menos provável -Garganta Profunda foi um dos Agentes de campo do FBI em Washington que estavam trabalhando em Watergate.

Chatterbox revisará a evidência de Mann em um momento, mas faz uma pausa primeiro para refletir sobre um mistério mais profundo: Por que, quando o soberbo de Mann atlântico peça foi publicada, não atraiu a atenção? Todo o Chatterbox encontrado em uma pesquisa do Nexis foi uma coluna desmascaradora de Richard Cohen no Washington Post Magazine (cuja própria teoria, de que eram os técnicos do Serviço Secreto que mantinham o aparelho de escuta da Casa Branca, também atraiu pouca atenção quando o publicou alguns anos antes em Nova york revista). Ardósia O vice-editor Jack Shafer deu à teoria de Mann um comentário simpático em Jornal da cidade, um semanário alternativo em Washington, D.C., que Shafer editou na época. Caso contrário, ninguém parece ter notado a peça de Mann. Não é nem mesmo recuperável no atlânticoPágina da Web, que possui um arquivo bastante extenso. Talvez o jogo de adivinhação Garganta ProfundaA identidade de é tão divertida que as pessoas não querem considerar as evidências que correm o risco de acabar com ela.

Vamos prosseguir com essa evidência. Mann enfatiza no atlântico peça que J. Edgar Hoover, que dirigiu o FBI desde a década de 1920, morreu um mês antes da invasão de Watergate. Para Mann, isso é tão importante quanto saber no início do Conto de Natal que Jacob Marley estava morto como uma fechadura. Hoover resistiu com bastante eficácia aos esforços da Casa Branca de Nixon para politizar o FBI. (O FBI tinha, é claro, envolvido em muitas das mesmas atividades ilegais que Nixon estava tentando fazer com que ele realizasse - escutas telefônicas, roubos e coisas do tipo - mas era Hoover, não Nixon, quem comandava.) Nos meses antes de Hoover morrer , Fieis a Hoover A agência temia que Nixon planejasse nomear um estranho para suceder Hoover – Jerry V. Wilson, então chefe de polícia do Distrito de Columbia. Vejam só, bem naquela época, o Washington Post comecei a contar histórias sobre um FBI investigação de corrupção no departamento de polícia de D.C. Embora as histórias não envolvessem diretamente Wilson, elas levaram a Casa Branca a se opor publicamente FBI controle da investigação. Essas histórias, presumivelmente baseadas em FBI vazamentos, foram escritos por Bob Woodward.

Então, em meados de maio de 1972, George Wallace foi baleado. Mann, citando o anterior Publicar Livro Watergate do editor da cidade, Barry Sussman, O grande encobrimento, diz que Woodward disse a Sussman que ele tinha uma boa fonte do FBI que poderia ajudar a obter informações sobre o suposto assassino de Wallace. Woodward, diz Mann, “foi capaz de fornecer detalhes sobre a vida e as viagens de Arthur Bremer ... praticamente assim que FBI os investigadores os descobriram. ”

Então, em 17 de junho, ocorreu a invasão do Watergate. Na época, Mann era um Publicar repórter metropolitano cobrindo o tribunal federal de D.C. e muitas vezes trabalhou em estreita colaboração com Woodward. “[D] urante o verão e o início do outono”, escreve Mann, “Woodward falou-me repetidamente de 'minha fonte no FBI, 'Ou, alternativamente, de'meu amigo do FBI'- a cada vez deixando claro que esta era uma fonte especial e excepcionalmente bem localizada. ” Embora Woodward não tenha identificado especificamente o FBIamigo”Como a pessoa mais tarde conhecida como Garganta Profunda, Mann aponta que muitos Membros do FBI desconfiava de L. Patrick Gray, o "estranho" que Nixon tinha agora nomeado para suceder Hoover, e temia que a Casa Branca de Nixon estivesse tentando restringir sua investigação Watergate - assim como havia restringido o FBIInvestigação do departamento de polícia de D.C. Sentiu,Bates, e Robert Kunkel, agente especial encarregado do escritório de campo de Washington, reuniu-se com Gray em julho de 1972 para reclamar da interferência da Casa Branca na investigação de Watergate. Será que uma dessas pessoas não teria revidado vazando para Woodward? Embora Sentiu escreveu em 1979 que "nunca vazou informações para Woodward e Bernstein ou para qualquer outra pessoa", escreve Mann em seu atlântico peça que Sentiu “Era conhecido em Washington como uma pessoa disposta a falar com a imprensa”. (Tradução para não jornalistas: “A ética profissional me impede de dizer isso diretamente, mas Sentiu vazou como uma peneira para mim. ”) Bates supervisionou o FBIInvestigações sobre a corrupção policial de D.C. e o tiroteio de Wallace, além de supervisionar a investigação Watergate.

O que prega o FBI conexão para Mann é que um dia após os assaltantes de Watergate foram indiciados em setembro de 1972, ele ligou para Woodward para se despedir (Mann tinha acabado de deixar o Publicar e estava indo para a Itália por um ano). Mann perguntou a Woodward sobre as acusações, e Woodward disse: “Acabei de falar com meu amigo do FBI. Acho que chegamos a um nível totalmente novo nisso. ” Mann combina essa troca com uma passagem em Todos os homens do presidente em que Woodward e Bernstein relatam que "no dia seguinte ao que as acusações foram proferidas" - ou seja, no mesmo dia em que Woodward e Mann falaram - Woodward telefonou Garganta Profunda e foi dito para “ir muito mais forte” na história. Dois dias depois, o Publicar publicou sua primeira história ligando a invasão de Watergate a altos funcionários da campanha de Nixon.

[Atualização, 04/08/99: Depois de muito importunar online e por telefone, Chatterbox finalmente conseguiu O Atlantico para postar em seu site da Web a peça Deep Throat de Jim Mann. Clique aqui e não se pergunte mais sobre o local de trabalho de Deep Throat.]


Descubra o que está acontecendo na Casa Branca com atualizações gratuitas em tempo real do Patch.

Reagan e Gorbachev: A cúpula de Moscou

Dois dias depois do início da Cúpula de Moscou em 1988, as coisas tiveram um início difícil entre o presidente Ronald Reagan e Mikhail Gorbachev, então secretário-geral do Partido Comunista da União Soviética.

A cúpula foi anunciada como um seguimento comemorativo da cúpula de outubro de 1987, onde Reagan e Gorbachev assinaram o inovador Tratado de Forças Nucclear de Alcance Intermediário (INF), que eliminou uma classe inteira de mísseis nucleares da Europa.

A reunião de 31 de maio consistiu em "palestras" de Reagan a Gorbachev sobre como melhorar o histórico de direitos humanos da União Soviética para a frustração marcante de Gorbachev quando ele disse que poderia ser "um momento de bater os punhos na mesa" para chegar a um acordo de armas . Em outras ocasiões, Reagan falava diante de um grupo de estudantes e intelectuais russos ou fazia um passeio a pé por igrejas antigas. A reunião de cúpula foi considerada uma vitória do estilo sobre a substância.

Identidade da figura "Garganta Profunda" de Watergate revelada

Após 30 anos de especulação, a identidade de "Garganta Profunda" - a fonte anteriormente não identificada que vazou detalhes importantes do encobrimento de Nixon em Watergate para repórteres do Washington Post - revelou-se Mark Felt, 91, descrito como "o número dois na o FBI no início dos anos 70. "

Para algum contexto, o escândalo Watergate aconteceu quando o público soube que cinco homens haviam sido presos por invadir e grampear ilegalmente a sede do Comitê Nacional Democrata no complexo Watergate em Washington, DC Um dos suspeitos, James W. McCord Jr. , foi revelado como coordenador de segurança assalariado do presidente Richard Nixon.

Para saber mais sobre a história americana, Patch tem tudo para você.


Garganta Profunda

Deep Throat / Bob Woodward: Primeiro, Vanity Fair pegou o Washington Post com o artigo expondo a identidade de Deep Throat. Então USA Today's Mark Memmott conquistou o Publicar com seu resumo do livro de Bob Woodward. Então Woodward deu a Tom Brokaw - não o Publicar - o endereço da garagem onde se encontrou com Mark Felt. Woodward não parece se importar com o fato de seus colegas terem de tentar recuperar o atraso. Ele diz a Erik Wemple: “Qual era o problema - algumas pessoas estavam atrasadas para o jantar?”

Deep Throat: entrevista de Tom Brokaw com Bob Woodward para o especial da NBC sobre Deep Throat.

Deep Throat / William Gaines: William Gaines, o professor de jornalismo cuja turma erroneamente dedilhou Deep Throat (primeiro, Patrick Buchanan, depois Fred Fielding), diz que havia discrepâncias nos relatos de Woodstein que os enganaram: 1. Mark Felt teria fumado um cigarro na presença de Woodward, embora ele tenha parado de fumar décadas antes. 2. Deep Throat forneceu informações confiáveis ​​obtidas ao ouvir as gravações secretas de Nixon durante uma reunião em novembro de 1973. Isso foi vários meses depois que Felt deixou o FBI. E para complicar ainda mais as coisas, ninguém do FBI havia estado na reunião em que as gravações foram tocadas. De acordo com Gaines, isso significa que Felt só poderia ter aprendido sobre o conteúdo das gravações em terceira mão, na melhor das hipóteses. Felt era, como Gaines colocou em uma nota por e-mail, “" tão distante que seus comentários a Woodward teriam de ser considerados boatos, e não o tipo de coisa que um repórter poderia escrever sobre fatos citando uma fonte anônima ”.

Bob Woodward: o Washington Post, um tanto desajeitadamente, usa as memórias de Bob Woodward de seu relacionamento com Deep Throat para traçar o perfil de Woodward - e explicar o que o livro diz sobre o mais reticiente dos repórteres: "Para ler O homem secreto, -- junto com Todos os homens do presidente, O livro hipnotizante de Woodward e Bernstein, de 1974, sobre suas reportagens sobre Watergate - é notar que Woodward não tinha medo de desafiar as regras de Felt. Ele telefonou para Felt quando realmente precisava. E durante sua primeira visita à garagem subterrânea, em um ponto em que sua fonte parou de falar repentinamente, o repórter 'agarrou seu braço e disse que estávamos jogando um jogo degradante de merda, fingindo que ele não estava passando informações novas e originais para mim. '"

Livro Deep Throat / Woodward: O que Woodward revela sobre Deep Throat em Homem secreto: Um petisco. Mark Felt fumou durante suas reuniões clandestinas, possivelmente por nervosismo. Bob Woodward's The Secret Ma não deve sair até a próxima quarta-feira, mas um EUA hoje O repórter o comprou na quinta-feira em uma loja em Fairfax County, VA., que por engano colocou cópias à venda. Mark Memmott escreve: "Woodward suspeitava na época de sua reportagem sobre Watergate que alguém da Publicar estava vazando informações sobre suas fontes para a Casa Branca. Nunca foi descoberto quem poderia ter sido o vazador, mas a informação levou a Casa Branca perto de identificar Felt como uma das fontes de Woodward. "

Garganta Profunda / Segredo Quase Dado Fora em 1976: A identidade de Garganta Profunda, o Washington Post's A principal fonte de Watergate foi quase revelada há quase três décadas, de acordo com o novo livro de Bob Woodward sobre seu relacionamento com W. Mark Felt. No O homem secreto, a ser publicado na próxima semana por Simon & amp Schuster, Woodward - agora um Publicar editor administrativo assistente - escreve que soube em 1976 com o então procurador-geral assistente Stanley Pottinger que Felt, que havia sido o segundo homem do FBI, se entregou enquanto testemunhava perante um grande júri. Perguntado: "Você era Garganta Profunda?" Felt disse inicialmente: "Não", mas seu olhar atordoado alertou Pottinger para a probabilidade de ele estar mentindo. Naquele procedimento do grande júri, escreve Woodward, Pottinger silenciosamente lembrou a Felt que ele estava sob juramento. Ele então se ofereceu para retirar a questão como irrelevante para o assunto da investigação, que era invasões ilegais conduzidas pelo FBI em busca de radicais anti-guerra do Weather Underground. Felt rapidamente aceitou a oferta. Pottinger disse a Woodward, que não confirmou sua conclusão, que guardaria seu conhecimento para si mesmo. “Para seu crédito eterno”, escreve Woodward, ele fez exatamente isso.

Detalhe dos memorandos do FBI O envolvimento de Mark Felt nos esforços para identificar a fonte secreta do Watergate: O oficial sênior do FBI agora revelado como "Garganta Profunda" - a fonte do Watergate Washington Post o repórter Bob Woodward - ordenou a seus subordinados que "lembrem à força todos os agentes da necessidade de serem mais cautelosos ao falar sobre este caso com qualquer pessoa fora do Bureau", de acordo com documentos desclassificados do FBI postados hoje pelo Arquivo de Segurança Nacional da Universidade George Washington. Muitos desses documentos - que foram desclassificados em 1980 - foram citados em artigos recentes em A nação e a Washington Post.

Deep Throat / The Complicated Mr. Felt: Uma revisão de dezenas de milhares de páginas de documentos desclassificados da Casa Branca e do FBI, e entrevistas com mais de duas dezenas de pessoas que tiveram relações com Mark W. Felt, revelam uma personalidade excepcionalmente complicada, de acordo com uma nova análise pelo Washington Post. É impossível separar o sentimento de indignação de Felt sobre o que estava acontecendo com o país de seu próprio desejo de subir ao topo da "pirâmide do FBI", uma frase que ele mais tarde usou como título de uma autobiografia pouco notada.

The Deep Throat Collective: Rex Smith, editor do Albany Times-Union, afirma que seu jornal relatou na semana passada que Deep Throat era mais de uma pessoa - que era um grupo de funcionários do FBI que estava vazando: "No dia seguinte ao oficial aposentado do FBI W. Mark Felt revelou que ele era a fonte secreta que derrubou o Washington Post para a intriga da Casa Branca durante o Watergate, Harry Rosenfeld entrou em meu escritório e, estranhamente, fechou a porta. Rosenfeld, como muitos de vocês sabem, foi editor do Times-Union por muitos anos, e antes disso chefiou a redação local do Washington Post, onde seus repórteres produziram a cobertura inovadora de Watergate. Rosenfeld relatou que um funcionário aposentado do FBI ligou para ele para dizer que havia mais na história de Garganta Profunda: Felt, de acordo com o ex-agente, não era um vazador desonesto, mas sim parte de um grupo de altos funcionários do FBI que escolheu cuidadosamente o que transmitir à imprensa. Eles estavam lutando para evitar que a Casa Branca esmagasse a investigação Watergate do FBI, acreditando que se os cidadãos soubessem dos fatos, a guarda interna de Nixon não seria capaz de encobrir a verdade. "

FBI: As recentes revelações sobre a identidade de W. Mark Felt como o informante Garganta Profunda da fama de Watgergate foram dramáticas e amplamente divulgadas. Mas o papel de Felt como a fonte anônima mais famosa da história dos Estados Unidos foi ainda mais complexo do que sugere a conta pública recentemente revisada. De acordo com documentos originalmente confidenciais do FBI - alguns escritos por Felt - que foram obtidos por A nação dos arquivos do FBI, Felt foi ao mesmo tempo encarregado de encontrar a fonte dos furos do Watergate de Woodward e Bernstein. Em uma reviravolta digna de le Carré, Deep Throat recebeu a missão de desenterrar - e parar - Deep Throat.

Deep Throat / Watergate: Em uma coluna no Observador, o escritor Ron Rosenbaum diz que os jornalistas deveriam ter investido seu tempo para descobrir quem ordenou a invasão, e não quem foi Deep Throat. Ele elogia o historiador Stanley Kutler por fornecer transcrições de fitas que indicam que Nixon ordenou o assalto. "Nesta fita, Nixon começa dando o que será sua linha pública, a mentira que ele vai aderir de que ficou chocado com o fato de os ladrões decidirem invadir a sede do Comitê Nacional Democrata, porque os políticos sofisticados sabem que a sede do partido não está onde o material suculento deve ser encontrado. 'Meu Deus, o comitê não vale a pena ser incomodado, na minha opinião', ele diz a Haldeman. Mas eu não lhe dei a citação completa de Nixon para Haldeman: 'Meu Deus, o comitê não' Não vale a pena grampear, em minha opinião. ' E então ele diz (e esta é a frase que destaquei em minha coluna de 1999): 'Essa é minha fala pública.' 'Essa é a minha linha pública'! Ele teve que mentir para encobrir o fato de que sabia exatamente por que alguns ladrões invadiram o local. Como o Sr. [David] Greenberg colocou em seu Vezes artigo de opinião em 29 de julho de 2003: '[A] s o jornalista Ron Rosenbaum observou, o texto [' linha pública '] implica que ele tinha alguma suspeita particular em contrário.' (Para dizer o mínimo.)"

Deep Throat / George McGovern: "Precisamos de alguém assim em uma posição elevada para nos dizer o que realmente está acontecendo. Sabemos que fomos enganados no Iraque", disse McGovern à Fox News Radio. "Esta guerra no Iraque, em minha opinião, é pior do que qualquer coisa que Nixon fez. Acho que Nixon merecia ser expulso do cargo em vista do encobrimento que realizou e das leis que violou."

Deep Throat / Woodward & amp Bernstein Back Together Again: O escritor Murray Kempton certa vez os chamou de Tom e Huck do jornalismo americano, e seus sobrenomes tornaram-se um único substantivo composto de fanfarrão: Woodstein. Agora Bob Woodward e Carl Bernstein estão juntos novamente, unidos em um abraço visivelmente afetuoso, às vezes estranho, pela revelação da identidade de Garganta Profunda. "Um era colorido e extravagante, e o outro achou que estava tudo bem", disse Robert Redford, que ajudou a produzir o filme de Todos os homens do presidente, no qual ele interpretou o Sr. Woodward. "Bob sentia-se bastante confortável com Carl sendo o mais colorido, porque isso o ajudava a fazer o que ele fazia de melhor, que era ter um instinto assassino mascarado por uma presença presbiteriana muito legal. Eu costumava diga a ele: 'Não estou conseguindo entender você, você é meio chato'. E ele disse: 'Não, estou mesmo.' "

Garganta Profunda / O Filho de Bernstein contou a um Amigo: O filho de Carl Bernstein disse a um amigo no acampamento de verão que sua mãe lhe disse que Mark Felt era Garganta Profunda. Sua mãe era Nora Ephron. Tanto ela quanto Bernstein dizem que ela nunca teve informações privilegiadas: "Eu sabia que Garganta Profunda era Mark Felt porque eu descobri. Carl Bernstein, com quem fui casado por um breve período, certamente nunca teria me dito que ele era demais inteligente para me contar um segredo desses. Ele se recusou a contar também aos filhos dele, que também são meus filhos, então eu contei a eles, e eles contaram aos outros, e mesmo assim, anos se passaram e ninguém deu ouvidos a nenhum de nós ”.

Watergate / Netos de Nixon e Felt são amigos: Nicholas T. Jones e Jarett A. Nixon, colegas da faculdade de direito aqui, trocaram contos sobre a Costa Rica, onde o Sr. Nixon nasceu e o Sr. Jones gostava de viajar. Eles praticaram falar espanhol juntos, e em um ponto no ano passado, o Sr. Nixon, 28, tentou recrutar o Sr. Jones, 23, para trabalhar em um jornal de direito na escola, o Hastings College of the Law. "Ele é um cara bom", disse Nixon sobre Jones. "Nós tivemos um relacionamento amigável." O que nenhum dos dois sabia até que a identidade de Garganta Profunda foi revelada esta semana, no entanto, é que eles vêm de lados opostos de uma das mais profundas divisões da história política americana moderna. O tio-avô do Sr. Nixon, de quem ele se lembra com carinho como Tio Dick, era o Presidente Richard M. Nixon, um relacionamento que ele nunca havia compartilhado com o Sr. Jones. Seu avô, Donald Nixon, era irmão do presidente.

Watergate / Unsolved Mysteries: COM o desmascaramento de Deep Throat, um dos maiores mistérios políticos do século XX foi resolvido. Mas outros enigmas sobre Watergate permanecem. Nixon ordenou a invasão do Watergate? Qual foi o propósito da invasão? O que foi perdido no intervalo de 18 1/2 minutos nas fitas da Casa Branca? Quem apagou a fita? Por que Nixon não destruiu as fitas?

Deep Throat / O Passado de Mark Felt na Segunda Guerra Mundial Espionagem: W. Mark Felt, cujos métodos de camuflagem contribuíram para sua mística como Garganta Profunda, aprendeu as artes negras da espionagem durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial quando, como um jovem agente do FBI, ele correu um caso, de codinome Peasant, no qual usava um agente alemão comprometido para fornecer informações falsas ao Terceiro Reich. O Sr. Felt baseou-se em sua experiência em espionagem em 1972, quando insistiu que o Washington Post o repórter Bob Woodward percorre rotas tortuosas para suas reuniões clandestinas em um estacionamento subterrâneo e usa sinais de comunicação elaborados que foram narrados pelo Sr. Woodward e Carl Bernstein em seu livro Todos os homens do presidente.

Garganta Profunda / Herói ou Traidor ?: A revelação de W. Mark Felt de que era Garganta Profunda gerou um debate sobre se ele deveria ser elogiado como um herói por vazar informações para o Washington Post ou condenado como traidor por sair do sistema legal. Sua família tem procurado retratá-lo como um herói e estimulando-o a revelar sua identidade como uma fonte secreta para o Publicar no escândalo Watergate, tomou medidas para moldar seu legado em uma luz positiva. Mas o papel de Felt como informante de jornal levanta questões sobre as obrigações dos funcionários de instituições como o FBI. Essas obrigações devem ser definidas como aderência aos regulamentos do bureau e às leis sobre a liberação de informações secretas? Ou existe uma vocação maior quando os encarregados da aplicação da lei pensam que estão sendo obstruídos nos mais altos escalões do governo?

Deep Throat / Significado Histórico: O significado de Deep Throat certamente foi inflado por jornalistas, que ficaram fascinados por uma história que importa mais para eles do que para a história. Bob Woodward e Carl Bernstein tinham dezenas de fontes para suas reportagens sobre Watergate e, embora Deep Throat - ou, como deveríamos dizer agora, W. Mark Felt, o ex-vice-diretor associado do FBI - era uma importante, ele o fez não expor sozinho os "horrores da Casa Branca" de Richard Nixon. O papel mítico de Deep Throat na imaginação do público, no entanto, continua forte.

Deep Throat / Papel do FBI: A revelação de que um oficial sênior do FBI era a fonte secreta de Watergate conhecida como Deep Throat reacendeu uma controvérsia sobre o papel da burocracia governamental na derrubada do presidente Richard M. Nixon. A maioria dos relatos do desfecho da conspiração de Watergate se concentraram nos esforços públicos de jornalistas, do promotor especial e do Congresso para documentar os abusos de poder que levaram à renúncia de Nixon em 8 de agosto de 1974. As batalhas burocráticas dentro da administração entre os leais a Nixon e os oponentes têm atraído muito menos atenção dos historiadores - pela simples razão de que ocorreram em segredo, longe do olhar do público. À medida que o registro histórico se torna mais completo, alguns especialistas em Watergate estão se preparando para uma nova onda de histórias revisionistas examinando a relação complexa e mutuamente benéfica entre repórteres que perseguem a maior história política da história americana moderna e suas fontes frequentemente anônimas.

Deep Throat / Elogios de Nixon para Felt: Em uma estranha nota de rodapé na história, Richard M. Nixon testemunhou involuntariamente em nome de Deep Throat em um julgamento em um tribunal federal em outubro de 1980 - seis anos depois de Nixon ter sido forçado a renunciar ao cargo de presidente por causa de seu envolvimento no escândalo Watergate. Seis anos depois que Nixon foi afastado do cargo, Felt e Edward S. Miller, ex-chefe da divisão de inteligência doméstica do FBI, foram acusados ​​de autorizar ilegalmente agentes do governo em 1972 e 1973 a invadir casas sem mandado em busca de bombardeios contra a Guerra do Vietnã suspeitos da organização radical Weather Underground. Nixon, então um cidadão comum, testemunhou que acreditava que, na época, o diretor do FBI e seus representantes tinham autorização direta do presidente para ordenar invasões no interesse da segurança nacional. Felt foi posteriormente condenado e multado em US $ 5.000. Mas cinco meses depois, o presidente Ronald Reagan perdoou Felt com base em que ele "agiu com base em princípios elevados" para pôr fim ao terrorismo que ameaçava a nação.

Deep Throat / Marketing da história: Grandes editoras - HarperCollins, Random House e Little, Brown entre elas - receberam ligações de David Kuhn, um agente de mídia que representa a família de Mark Felt e seu advogado, ontem em Nova York. Eles podem ter ouvido com ceticismo ou entusiasmo, ou uma mistura de ambos, mas muitos se inscreveram para reuniões no final desta semana. A família também está interessada em projetos de televisão e filmes. "Se você me perguntasse há dois dias quanto pagaria pelas memórias de Garganta Profunda, eu diria que o céu é o limite", disse David Hirshey, vice-presidente sênior da HarperCollins . "Agora que o grande mistério foi resolvido, tenho certeza que o céu está um pouco mais baixo. Mas Deep Throat ainda é um dos maiores 'get' de todos os tempos e espero que as grandes editoras o perseguam como Ahab fez o baleia. E eu vou tirar o arpão. "

Explicação de Deep Throat / Woodward: Bob Woodward explica no Washington Post onde conheceu Mark Felt e como a amizade deles se desenvolveu. Eles se conheceram na Casa Branca um dia quando Woodward, então na Marinha, estava entregando alguns documentos do almirante Thomas H. Moorer, chefe das operações navais. Woodward manteve contato, confessando que o fez de maneira calculada para fazer amizade com pessoas em posições importantes. Felt logo se tornou o segundo oficial do FBI. Um dos primeiros vazamentos de Felt para Woodward foi dizer-lhe que o vice-presidente Spiro Agnew fora pego aceitando suborno. Woodward tentou descobrir possíveis pistas, mas não chegou a lugar nenhum. Felt mais tarde forneceu a Woodward pistas sobre a tentativa de assassinato de George Wallace em 1972. Felt ajudou Wopodward com a reportagem de Watergate desde o início, ajudando o Washington Post estabelecer que E. Howard Hunt foi o principal suspeito no roubo de Watergate. Quando Woodward não conseguiu falar com Felt ao telefone em uma ligação posterior, ele apareceu na casa de Felt na Virgínia. Foi então que Felt, que tinha trabalhado na espionagem durante a 2ª Guerra Mundial, disse que a partir de então só se comunicariam cara a cara e em segredo. Sem mais ligações. "Eu disse que tinha uma bandeira de tecido vermelho, com menos de trinta centímetros quadrados - do tipo usado como avisos em cargas de caminhões longos - que uma namorada tinha encontrado na rua. Ela a enfiou em um vaso de flores vazio na varanda do meu apartamento . Senti e combinamos que moveria o vaso com a bandeira, que geralmente ficava na frente perto da grade, para a parte de trás da sacada se eu precisasse de uma reunião com urgência. Isso teria que ser importante e raro, disse ele severamente . Felt disse que se houvesse algo importante, ele poderia chegar ao meu New York Times - como, eu nunca soube. A página 20 seria circulada e os ponteiros de um relógio na parte inferior da página seriam desenhados para indicar a hora da reunião naquela noite, provavelmente 2 da manhã, no mesmo estacionamento de Rosslyn. "Woodward diz que não sabe como Felt ficava de olho em sua varanda. Por que Felt falava? "Felt acreditava que estava protegendo a agência ao encontrar uma maneira, clandestina como era, de divulgar algumas das informações das entrevistas e arquivos do FBI ao público, para ajudar a construir pressão pública e política para tornar Nixon e seu povo responsáveis. "

Garganta Profunda: O Washington Post confirmou hoje que W. Mark Felt, um ex-funcionário número dois do FBI, era "Garganta Profunda", a fonte secreta que forneceu informações que ajudaram a desvendar o escândalo Watergate no início dos anos 1970 e contribuíram para a renúncia do presidente Richard M. Nixon. A confirmação veio de Bob Woodward e Carl Bernstein, os dois Washington Post repórteres que divulgaram a história de Watergate e seu ex-editor principal, Benjamin C. Bradlee. Os três falaram após a família de Felt e Vanity Fair A revista identificou Felt, de 91 anos, agora aposentado na Califórnia, como a fonte há muito anônima que forneceu orientação crucial para algumas das histórias inovadoras do jornal sobre Watergate. Felt foi condenado na década de 1970 por autorizar invasões ilegais em casas de pessoas associadas ao radical Weather Underground. He was pardoned by President Reagan in 1981.

Deep Throat: W. Mark Felt, the No. 2 official at the FBI during the Nixon era, made the admission to Vanity Fair revista. Now, an ailing and aging former FBI agent in California, Felt told Vanity Fair magazine that he was the one who leaked certain secrets about Mr. Nixon's Watergate coverup to the Washington Post reporters."I'm the guy they used to call Deep Throat," Mr. Felt told John D. O'Connor, a lawyer and the author of the Vanity Fair article, the magazine said today in a press release. Mr. Felt, who is 91 and living in Santa Rosa, Calif., was the second-in-command at the Federal Bureau Investigation in the early 1970's.

Deep Throat/Who Guessed Right: Esquire had it wrong The Atlantic Monthly had it right. Leonard Garment's book missed the mark Ronald Kessler's was on the money. William Gaines's college journalism class flunked the test Chase Culeman-Beckman's high school paper, though he didn't get an "A" when he turned it in in the late 1990s, should have put him at the head of the class. A three-decade national guessing game is over.

Deep Throat/Washington Post Caught by Surprise: For 30 years, the Washington Post kept secret the identity of Deep Throat, waiting for the right moment to disclose the name of the person who helped the paper develop the biggest story in its history. Yesterday, the paper was scooped on Deep Throat's identity by a monthly magazine. The revelation by the magazine, Vanity Fair, caught the Publicar by surprise and threw the paper into turmoil. o Vanity Fair article said Mr. Felt's family wanted to collaborate with Mr. Woodward on an article, wondering at one point why Mr. Woodward should "get all the glory" for what they saw as their father's courage. Vanity Fair said Mr. Woodward scheduled two visits with the family to talk about a collaborative effort but he canceled them and never rescheduled. Mr. Woodward has declined to comment. But it was known in New York publishing circles that Mr. Woodward, a prolific author, was planning to write his own book about Deep Throat.

Deep Throat/Woodward's Small Lies: Slate's Tim Noah, who long pointed to Felt before he started to doubt himself, notices that Woodward engaged in some small-bore misdirection or, shall we say, lying. Quoting Noah: "One [lie] is that, in All the President's Men, Deep Throat is described as a heavy smoker. But Felt quit smoking in 1943. I suppose Woodstein would call this necessary misdirection. I call it conscious fabrication, however trivial. Also, a November 1973 Woodward and Bernstein Post story sourced anonymously to 'White House sources' is described in All the President's Men as being sourced to Deep Throat. Yet Felt was not a 'White House source.' It's conceivable that Deep Throat was an additional, unacknowledged source on the story, but it's also possible that Woodward and Bernstein were misleading readers about where they got their information. Which was it, gentlemen? Finally, why did Woodward, in a 1979 Playboy interview with J. Anthony Lukas, flatly deny that Deep Throat was anyone inside the 'intelligence community'? The FBI, where Felt worked, is most definitely part of the intelligence community.

Deep Throat/Woodward's Own Book About Felt: Woodward had prepared for Felt's eventual death by writing a short book about a relationship he describes as intense and sometimes troubling. His longtime publisher, Simon & Schuster, is rushing the volume to press -- but the careful unveiling of the information did not proceed as Woodward or the Publicar had envisioned. In an article being prepared for tomorrow's Washington Post, Woodward will detail the "accident of history" that connected a young reporter fresh from the suburbs to a man whom many FBI agents considered the best choice to succeed the legendary J. Edgar Hoover as director of the bureau. Woodward and Felt met by chance, he said, but their friendship quickly became a source of information for the reporter. On May 15, 1972, presidential candidate George Wallace was shot and severely wounded by Arthur H. Bremer, in a parking lot in Laurel. Eager to break news on a local story of major national importance, Woodward contacted Felt for information on the FBI's investigation. Ben Bradlee knew only Felt's status as a top FBI official. The editor did not learn Felt's name until after the Publicar had won the Pulitzer Prize for its Watergate coverage and Nixon had resigned.

Deep Throat/How Vanity Fair Got the Story: Vanity Fair's big scoop almost didn't happen. The problem for Vanity Feira was that lawyer John D. O'Connor wanted the magazine to pay Felt and Felt's family for the story -- a condition the magazine would not agree to. O'Connor tried then to sell the story to a book publisher, but after a year returned to Vanity Fair when he couln't.

Deep Throat/His Motivation: Six days after the Watergate break-in, President Richard M. Nixon had a secretly recorded conversation about W. Mark Felt, the number two man at the FBI. Nixon was hatching a plan to stop the FBI from investigating the burglary at Democratic National Committee Headquarters, and the president figured that friends at the CIA could persuade the FBI to drop the investigation. The White House figured their appointee, FBI acting director L. Patrick Gray, would go along. But what about Felt, a 30-year, dyed-in-the-wool Bureau man who ran its day-to-day operations? "Mark Felt wants to cooperate because . " Nixon chief of staff H.R. Haldeman told the president. "Yeah," Nixon responded. ". because he's ambitious," Haldeman said.

Deep Throat/Reaction: Prominent figures from the Watergate era expressed a mixture of reactions yesterday, from shock to admiration, upon learning that the number two official at the FBI had guided Washington Post reporters investigating illegal activities by the Nixon administration. Richard Ben-Veniste, a top lawyer in the Watergate Special Prosecution Force, said W. Mark Felt's acknowledgement of his role showed that "the importance of whistle-blowers shouldn't be underestimated, particularly when there are excesses by the executive branch of government -- which in this case went all the way to the executive office. But Charles W. Colson, a senior Nixon adviser who served seven months in prison for obstruction of justice in connection with Watergate abuses, declared that he was"personally shocked."

Deep Throat/Why He Talked to Publicar Reporters: Felt believed that the White House was trying to frustrate the FBI's Watergate investigation and that Nixon was determined to bring the FBI to heel after Hoover's death in May 1972, six weeks before the break-in at the Democratic National Committee's Watergate offices occurred. "From the very beginning, it was obvious to the bureau that a cover-up was in progress," Felt wrote in his 1979 memoir, The FBI Pyramid. Felt may have had a personal motivation as well to begin talking to Publicar reporter Bob Woodward. At the time of Hoover's death, he was a likely successor to take over as FBI director. Instead the White House named a bureau outsider, L. Patrick Gray, then an assistant attorney general, as acting director and then leaned on Gray to become a conduit to keep the White House informed of what the FBI was learning.


Deep Throat Revealed - HISTORY

The Post's Watergate team of Bob Woodward, Carl Bernstein and Ben Bradlee hasn't worked together for a while, but they were definitely out and about and on air today.

Woodward and Bernstein started off their day on MSNBC and Don Imus, according to Tina Gulland, the Post's Director of Television and Radio Projects. Next, they appeared on the Today Show. Then, Good Morning America and at 9 pm, they'll sit down with Larry King Live.

Bradlee took questions on washingtonpost.com is scheduled to appear tonight onHardball with Chris Matthews.

The weekend is still up in the air, Gulland said, although Woodward has said he's through being interviewed for a while.

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Posted at 12:02 PM ET, 06/ 2/2005

'All the President's' Amazon.com Sales

Jennifer Frey writes in this morning's Post about the money that stands to be made from new book and movie projects related to Deep Throat. But what about the money generated by the relevant-all-over-again "All the President's Men"?

As of this morning, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein's book on Watergate ranked No. 5 on Amazon.com's list of top-selling nonfiction books and as the No. 27 seller in books overall. The DVD of the 1976 movie starring Robert Redford and Dustin Hoffman has also shot up on Amazon's list it now ranks No. 15 overall, one notch above "The Incredibles." Not bad for a DVD that was released in 1997.

In case you're wondering, Warner Bros. already had a special 30th anniversary edition of the DVD slated for release in 2006. A date has not been set, but Ronnee Sass, executive director of publicity and communications for Warner Home Video, confirmed in an e-mail that the revelation of Deep Throat will likely play a role in the disc's extra features. May I suggest a commentary track recorded jointly by the Felt family and Hal Holbrook?

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Posted at 2:39 PM ET, 06/ 1/2005

Traitor or Nobel Prize Winner?

The talk show regulars and assorted big names from the Watergate era have lined up to praise or condemn Mark Felt for his role in the scandal, and there are few surprises so far.

Pat Buchanan, the former presidential candidate and Nixon speechwriter, labeled Felt "sneaky" and "dishonorable" on MSNBC's "Hardball." Daniel Ellsberg, who leaked the Pentagon Papers to the press, suggested to Salon that Felt deserved "an honorary Nobel Prize."

Online observers of the Deep Throat story are also divided. Here are some sample judgments pulled from the washingtonpost.com Message Boards:

-- Lindsay Howerton and Hal Straus

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Posted at 1:30 PM ET, 06/ 1/2005

Deep Throat Abroad

The news has gone worldwide, mostly with straightforward coverage of "The Man Behind the Mystery," as The Independent Online in South Africa calls Felt.

In Beijing, the government-controlled China Daily plays up the testimony of former Nixon White House aides who say Felt betrayed them and the law.

The Guardian of London writes that Vanity Fair "outscooped" the Post with "a two-year negotiation process involving 15 editors, a San Francisco lawyer, and a dummy issue of the glossy magazine."

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Posted at 9:39 AM ET, 06/ 1/2005

Follow the Money

Perhaps the most famous piece of advice Deep Throat gave Post reporter Bob Woodward during the Watergate investigation was to "follow the money" to find out who was behind the Watergate break-in.

So, it's not entirely surprising that pundits are asking what role money may have played in the identification of Mark Felt -- and in the financial consequences of yesterday's disclosure for Woodward.

Boston Globe columnist Eileen McNamara questions the motives of the Felt family in confirming to Vanity Fair's John D. O'Conner that Felt was Deep Throat. She also criticizes Felt's role in approving illegal break-ins as part of the FBI's investigation of the Weather Underground. "Felt's commitment to the Bill of Rights in 1973 was as selective as his family's motives in 2005 are self-serving," writes McNamara.

In O'Conner's Vanity Fair piece, Felt's daughter Joan recalls discussing money with her father. "Bob Woodward's gonna get all the glory for this, but we could make at least enough money to pay some bills, like the debt I've run up for the kids' education," Joan recalls saying. "Let's do it for the family."

Newsday columnist Ellis Henican notes somewhat gleefully that Bob Woodward's income will probably suffer because of his decision not to reveal his source's name. ". a big pile of money just went flying from the legendary reporter's bank account," Henican writes. "No one wants to buy a book from the second guys to tell you who Deep Throat is."

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Posted at 8:26 AM ET, 06/ 1/2005

Redford Weighs In

So, it turns out Robert Redford isn't Bob Woodward after all. He had no idea who Deep Throat was.

Well, some idea. Redford, who played Woodward in the Watergate movie "All the President's Men," told Editor & Publisher's Greg Mitchell that he suspected Deep Throat was in the FBI. But the actor guessed that Woodward's source was agency director L. Patrick Gray, not Mark Felt.

There's a lot of "revisionism" today from people who say "I always knew it was Felt," Redford added, but said he would not join in.

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Posted at 7:15 AM ET, 06/ 1/2005

More Firsts

Before moving on to today's reactions to the naming of Deep Throat, we offer two more nominations for the coveted "Who Guessed First" award.

The first, submitted by Adam, goes to James Mann for his May, 1992 article in The Atlantic.

Writing 20 years after the Watergate scandal, Mann emphasized that he didn't know who Deep Throat was, but correctly identified the FBI as the place where DT worked. Mann also concluded that Deep Throat "could well have been Mark Felt" and did a fine job delving into the motivations of many key Watergate figures.

Washingtonian Magazine's Jack Limpert also gets a nomination for two 1979 pieces suggesting that Felt had motive and opportunity, and was the most likely suspect. The second article includes a denial by Felt, who Limpert described as "the handsome, engaging, distinguished former associate director of the FBI."

Please feel free to vote or enter your own "Who Guessed First" nominee as a Comment, or simply enlighten us with other bits of Watergate trivia.

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Posted at 8:50 PM ET, 05/31/2005

Haldeman Had It Right

Mark Felt kept most of the country guessing for more than 30 years -- but it's worth noting that former White House chief of staff and Watergate figure H.R. "Bob" Haldeman thought Felt was leaking information to Post reporter Bob Woodward during the height of the Watergate scandal.

What's more, Haldeman told his boss, former president Richard M. Nixon.

Tim Noah at Slate reported in 1999 on the taped conversation that took place in 1972 between Haldeman and Nixon. Noah published this excerpt:

Noah answered questions online earlier today about the confirmation of Deep Throat's identity.

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Posted at 8:36 PM ET, 05/31/2005

Bad Guess

If the Hartford Courant and others got Deep Throat right, many others apparently did not -- among them Adrian Havill.

In his 1993 book "Deep Truth," Havill claimed Deep Throat was a composite of several sources, including Alexander Haig. More recently, in a Feb. 4 letter to Romenesko, Havill changed his mind and wrote that Deep Throat was George H.W. Arbusto.

"George Herbert Walker Bush, the president's father, is Deep Throat," Havill explained. "Did Bush have motivation? You bet. It was Richard Nixon who urged Bush to leave a safe seat in Congress, hinting there would be a position as assistant Secretary of the Treasury waiting for him if he failed to win a Senate seat held by Ralph Yarborough. When Bush lost, Nixon reneged and asked him to take the U.N. slot instead but teased him by hinting he would be the replacement for Spiro Agnew in 1972. Instead, he was given the thankless task of heading the Republican National Committee in 1973."

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Posted at 8:19 PM ET, 05/31/2005

Motives Abound

After several hours of simply repeating that W. Mark Felt is the source formerly known as Deep Throat, Internet bloggers are beginning to switch into pundit mode -- offering theories as to why Felt confirmed important pieces of the Watergate investigation.

"It was an act of revenge, pure and simple. Felt had a vendetta against the president, and he got back at him by spoon feeding information to Woodward, knowing it would fatally damage Nixon," said Punditguy.

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Posted at 7:15 PM ET, 05/31/2005

John Dean's Guess

Deep Throat's identity was a well-kept secret until today, but there have been hints in recent months that the most famous un-named source in American political history was about to be named.

Former White House counsel and Watergate pioneer John Dean wrote in a Feb. 6 commentary that, "We'll all know one day very soon" who Deep Throat is.

But Dean was less accurate in predicting Deep Throat's identity, writing that the Watergate source would turn out to be "one of my former Nixon White House colleagues." Former FBI official W. Mark Felt never worked in the Nixon White House.


Reviews & Commentary

User Reviews

I have list of movies that are must-see movies. There can only be 2 per year.

The "must-see" notion is a combination of best (whatever that means at the time), and most influential. Perhaps if there is a singular advance or adventure, it may qualify.

This surely is one of the most influential movies ever made. It spawned an industry that is larger than movies. That industry literally drove the market for recorded movies and then became the backbone of the web.

It also plays a role — a significant one — in changing attitudes about sex acts, and became a focus for the religious nuts and feminist movement. And there's a side note about the name being used in the greatest political scandal until recent times.

So, surely this has to be on any list of influential movies. But the funny thing is that there is no value in actually watching it. The interaction with it as a movie has no relationship to its importance as a movie.

Rather than recommend watching this, I'd recommend "Inside Deep Throat," except that does a less than stellar job itself.

An amazing thing this: an important film not worth watching.

Ted's Evaluation -- 1 of 3: You can find something better to do with this part of your life.


'Deep Throat' Revealed as Ex-FBI Official Felt

Woodward had a source in the Executive Branch who had access to information at [the Committee to Reelect the President] as well as at the White House. His identity was unknown to anyone else. He could be contacted only on very important occasions. Woodward had promised he would never identify him or his position to anyone. Further, he had agreed never to quote the man, even as an anonymous source. Their discussions would be only to confirm information that had been obtained elsewhere and to add some perspective.

In newspaper terminology, this meant the discussions were on "deep background." Woodward explained the arrangement to managing editor Howard Simons one day. He had taken to calling the source "my friend," but Simons dubbed him "Deep Throat," the title of a celebrated pornographic movie. O nome pegou.

At first Woodward and Deep Throat had talked by telephone, but as the tensions of Watergate increased, Deep Throat's nervousness grew. He didn't want to talk on the telephone, but had said they could meet somewhere on occasion.

Deep Throat didn't want to use the phone even to set up the meetings. He suggested that Woodward open the drapes in his apartment as a signal. Deep Throat could check each day if the drapes were open, the two would meet that night. But Woodward liked to let the sun in at times, and suggested another signal.

When Woodward had an urgent inquiry to make, he would move [a flower pot with a red flag to the rear of his balcony.] During the day, Deep Throat would check to see if the pot had been moved. If it had, he and Woodward would meet at about 2:00 A.M. in a predesignated underground parking garage.

From 'All the President's Men' by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward (Simon & Schuster)

The Washington Post has confirmed that the infamous secret source known as Deep Throat is a former FBI agent. W. Mark Felt, the No. 2 man at the bureau during the contentious Watergate investigations, was revealed as the source in an article in Vanity Fair released Tuesday.

Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein had long vowed to keep the source's name a secret until his death. The revelations from Felt fueled the pair's reporting during a tumultuous time that resulted in the resignation of President Richard Nixon in August 1974.

The Post 's executive editor at the time, Ben Bradlee, said tonight that Felt's senior position at the FBI meant, "I knew the paper was on the right track."

In an article on the Post Web site, Woodward acknowledged the central role Felt had played. He aided the disclosure of crimes orchestrated by President Nixon's inner circle -- from the break-in at Democratic headquarters to electoral fraud and a conspiracy to cover up their crimes.

California lawyer John D. O'Connor befriended Felt, now 91, and wrote an article for the July issue of Vanity Fair . Felt had previously denied that he had been Woodward's source.

But O'Connor wrote that on several occasions, Felt told him, "I'm the guy they used to call Deep Throat."


"Deep Throat" finally revealed

Ending one of Washington's favorite parlor games and eliciting a huge sigh of relief from the many wrongly suspected "Deep Throats," the Washington Post said Tuesday that a former FBI official, W. Mark Felt, was the confidential source who provided the newspaper information that led to President Nixon's impeachment investigation and eventual resignation.

The announcement comes after a Tuesday article in Vanity Fair magazine by Felt's attorney revealed his infamous identity as Deep Throat.

"I'm the guy they used to call Deep Throat," he was quoted as telling lawyer John D. O'Connor, author of the magazine article.

After getting confirmation from the two reporters, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein as well as the paper's then-managing editor, the Post made its announcement on its Web site. Earlier, Felt, 91 and living in California, talked to a lawyer who wrote the magazine article for Vanity Fair.

But until Tuesday, Felt had publicly denied being the Post's infamous secret source, the man Woodward and Bernstein would meet in the parking garage for tidbits of information, reports CBS News Correspondent Wyatt Andrews.

"No, no, I am not Deep Throat and the only thing I can say is that I wouldn't be ashamed to be," Felt said in 1979.

Notícias populares

However, taped conversations between Nixon and his chief of staff, H.R. Haldeman, indicate the White House may have known that Felt was the informant.

Felt, the second-in-command at the FBI in the early 1970s, kept his secret even from his family for almost three decades before confiding he was the Post reporters' source on the Watergate scandal, according to a Vanity Fair article published Tuesday.

"The No. 2 guy from the FBI, that was a pretty good source," said Ben Bradlee, who had been the key editor at the Post in the Watergate era.

"I knew the paper was on the right track" in its investigative stories, Bradlee said, citing the "quality of the source."

Felt, who lives in Santa Rosa, is said to be in poor mental and physical health because of a stroke. His family did not immediately make him available for comment, asking the news media to respect his privacy "in view of his age and health."

Now, he wants "his honor back," O'Connor told CBS Chief White House Correspondent John Roberts.

Woodward, fellow reporter Bernstein, and Bradlee, their former boss at the Post, had long maintained they would never go public with the identity of Deep Throat until after his death. But with the family's confirmation, they decided collectively to go public.

"The family believes that my grandfather, Mark Felt Sr., is a great American hero who went well above and beyond the call of duty at much risk to himself to save his country from a horrible injustice," a family statement read by grandson Nick Jones said. "We all sincerely hope the country will see him this way as well."

Mas como Andrews reports, Felt actually spent years feeling ashamed, Vanity Fair's report says. He was old school FBI, and hated when agents leaked to the press. That's why, the family says, he needed convincing.

According to the article, Felt once told his son, Mark Jr., that he did not believe being Deep Throat "was anything to be proud of. . You (should) not leak information to anyone."

His family members thought otherwise, and persuaded him to talk about his role in the Watergate scandal, saying he deserves to receive accolades before his death. His daughter, Joan, argued that he could "make enough money to pay some bills, like the debt I've run up for the children's education."

As the decades-old secret was released, CBS News Correspondent Jim Axelrod reports that some other Watergate-era officials breathed sighs of relief.

"I'm relieved that I'm no longer on this list of 'most wanted' for Deep Throat," David Gergen, a Nixon speechwriter, said.

The existence of Deep Throat, nicknamed for an X-rated movie of the early 1970s, was revealed in Woodward and Bernstein's best-selling book "All the President's Men."

CBS' Dan Rather says Felt had a huge hand in exposing the Watergate scandal and, hence, bringing down the Nixon White House.

A hit movie starring Robert Redford as Woodward, Dustin Hoffman as Bernstein and Hal Holbrook as Deep Throat was made in 1976. In the film, Holbrook's shadowy, cigarette-smoking character would meet Redford in dark parking garages and provide clues about the scandal.

The movie portrayed the cloak-and-dagger methods that Woodward and Deep Throat were said to have employed. When Woodward wanted a meeting, he would position an empty flowerpot containing a red flag on his apartment balcony. When Deep Throat wanted to meet, the hands of a clock would appear written inside Woodward's New York Times.

The identity of the source has sparked endless speculation over the last three decades. Nixon chief of staff Alexander Haig, White House press aide Diane Sawyer, White House counsel John Dean and speechwriter Pat Buchanan were among those mentioned as possibilities.

Felt himself was mentioned several times over the years as a candidate for Deep Throat, but he regularly denied that he was the source.

"I would have done better," Felt told The Hartford Courant in 1999. "I would have been more effective. Deep Throat didn't exactly bring the White House crashing down, did he?"

Woodward, who had visited with Felt as recently as 1999, refused to confirm or deny, even to the man's family, that Felt was his source, and wondered whether Felt was mentally competent to decide whether to go public after all these years, the magazine reported.

Woodward and Bernstein were the first reporters to link the Nixon White House to the June 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Headquarters in Washington's Watergate complex.

Nixon, facing almost-certain impeachment for helping to cover up the break-in, resigned in August 1974. Forty government officials and members of Nixon's re-election committee were convicted on felony charges.

One of them was White House counsel John Dean, who served a sentence of only four months after becoming the chief informant for Watergate investigators.

Dean says the claim that Felt was Deep Throat raises many questions, as he does not believe Felt had access to either the White House or the Committee to Re-elect the President. Dean also says he doubts that Felt, who was in charge of day-to-day operations at the FBI, could have all by himself come up with the information that wound up in Woodward and Bernstein's stories.

In 2003, Woodward and Bernstein reached an agreement to keep their Watergate papers at the University of Texas at Austin. At the time, the pair said documents naming Deep Throat would be kept secure at an undisclosed location in Washington until the source's death.

Felt was convicted in the 1980 of authorizing illegal break-ins at homes of people associated with the radical group The Weather Underground. He was pardoned by President Reagan in 1981.

First published on May 31, 2005 / 12:03 PM

© 2005 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. The Associated Press contributed to this report.


Who Was Deep Throat?

After 36 years as a full-time reporter at the Chicago Tribune, I retired in 1999 to teach journalism at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. During that first semester, as the students searched for an investigative project to tackle, I showed them All the President’s Men. This 1976 movie is based on the book by Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, who won a Pulitzer Prize for the Publicar in 1973 for their stories about the political scandal known as Watergate. The film, starring Robert Redford as Woodward and Dustin Hoffman as Bernstein, accurately portrays how investigative reporters comport themselves, ask questions, conduct interviews, even the unobtrusive way they hold a notebook. What most intrigued the students, however, were the secret meetings between the Woodward character and a high-level government official, played by Hal Holbrook, that the book referred to only as Deep Throat. The name echoes a 1972 pornographic movie and plays off the term “deep background,” or information provided to a reporter on the condition that the source be neither identified nor quoted directly.

Deep Throat met with Woodward seven times between September 1972 and May 1973 to help the two reporters break several stories about the involvement of Nixon administration officials in the June 17, 1972, burglary of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office-apartment-hotel complex in Northwest Washington. (The burglars, who were seeking information that could be used against Democrats in the upcoming elections, were indicted later for conspiracy, burglary, wiretapping and planting secret listening devices.)

o Publicar’s stories, along with those of other newspapers and several rulings by Judge John Sirica, the chief judge for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia and the Watergate trials, led to televised hearings in the U.S. Senate about the break-in. From these, a riveted nation learned about an administration coverup of the break-in and a covert White House operation that engaged in burglary and political spying. The hearings were followed by impeachment proceedings by the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives. But before the full House could vote on whether the president should be impeached, Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974, and Vice President Gerald Ford was sworn in as president. At least 19 high-level officials and other conspirators would plead guilty to or be convicted of various crimes related to Watergate.

Besides adding the suffix "-gate" to our lexicon as an indicator of scandal, and evoking campaign finance reform bills, Watergate resulted in a lasting public distrust of government. It also left one of the century’s most intriguing political mysteries unsolved.

For the past 30 years, guessing the identity of Deep Throat has become something of a parlor game among journalists, pundits and conspiracy theorists. At least three books and scores of articles have delved into the identity of Deep Throat. The list of likely suspects has included former White House aide and current network anchor Diane Sawyer Nixon’s chief of staff, Alexander Haig acting FBI director Patrick Gray and John Sears, one of Nixon’s deputy counsels. At the same time, some have argued that Deep Throat wasn’t one person but a composite of several sources, while others have posited that he was merely a literary invention.

Woodward and Bernstein have both said they will not reveal their secret source’s name until the individual dies, although Woodward did disclose that Deep Throat was a living male. Likewise, Ben Bradlee, executive editor of the Washington Post during the Watergate era, has said he knows Deep Throat’s identity but won’t divulge it. About 75 archival boxes, containing more than 250 notebooks, assorted files, galleys for the book All the President’s Men, and photographs, which the University of Texas bought for $5 million this past April, will be available to the public in the fall of 2004. But documents referring to Deep Throat and other confidential sources will be kept sealed in an undisclosed location until the sources’ deaths.

Why, my students asked, was Deep Throat’s identity still not known after so many years? It was not an easy question to answer. Walt Harrington, a fellow journalism professor at the University of Illinois, once told me he had heard Bradlee say that anyone wanting to learn Deep Throat’s identity should search a computer database for Watergate figures who were actually in Washington at the time of those meetings. To my knowledge, no one had ever done so. Though few organizations would have the resources or motivation to unmask Deep Throat, it seemed a challenging pursuit for my students.

The students read autobiographies of potential suspects and filled a computer spreadsheet with dates, meetings, events and other information. During eight semesters, about 60 undergraduate and graduate students pored over more than 16,000 pages of FBI reports on microfilm in our university library, as well as all the newspaper stories Woodward and Bernstein had written in the first two years of the scandal. From those documents, they concluded that only a member of the FBI or the White House would have had access to the information Deep Throat evidently leaked to Woodward. Later, we concluded that Deep Throat could not be in the FBI after we found a quote in a 1973 Woodward and Bernstein Publicar story attributed to a "White House" source that was similar in wording to one attributed to Deep Throat in All the President’s Men. In an unpublished early draft of that book, we also read that neither reporter had FBI sources. The admission was later excised, in our view, to protect Deep Throat’s identity.

We obtained the 1972 and 󈨍 White House staff directories, which listed 72 people in high-level jobs of those, 39 were living males. The students then ruled out anyone not working at the White House between September 1972 and May 1973, the period when Deep Throat met with Woodward. Newspaper reports showed that some promising Deep Throat candidates, including Chief of Staff Alexander Haig, were out of the country during the time of those meetings. Because the reporters had written that Deep Throat drank Scotch whisky and smoked, the students also eliminated confirmed teetotalers and nonsmokers.

That left just seven candidates: Patrick Buchanan, speechwriter and special assistant to Nixon and later a newspaper columnist and presidential candidate Stephen Bull, a personal aide to Nixon David Gergen and Raymond Price, both speechwriters Jonathan Rose, attorney for regulatory affairs Gerald Warren, deputy press secretary and Fred Fielding, an attorney and assistant to White House chief legal counsel John Dean.

In June 2002, "Dateline NBC" interviewed the students about our project. The students said the leading candidate was Buchanan. But a month later, one of them, Jessica Heckinger, got a note from him: "Please thank the class for me—for the unanimous vote. It is one of the few primaries I have won, outside of the Reform Party where I won them all. However, you made some mistakes. Buchanan gave up smoking on the China trip (February 󈨌) and Buchanan has no motive." It was not a flat-out denial, but most of the students and I found Buchanan’s remarks persuasive. We struck him from the list.

A few weeks later, we got a break. We were trying to determine who on our shortlist would have had knowledge of the secret slush fund controlled by members of Nixon’s reelection campaign committee. This money bank-rolled the Watergate burglars.

Judith Hoback, a bookkeeper for Nixon’s reelection campaign committee, was the general accountant for the fund. No All the President’s Men, Hoback says that soon after the break-in, she deduced that the money she was disbursing might have something to do with the burglary, so she approached the FBI. She told them that cash disbursements of more than $50,000 apiece were given to committee officials Herbert Porter and Jeb Magruder. In their book, Woodward and Bernstein recalled that Hoback had revealed her suspicions about a slush fund to Woodward in an interview. Before the pair published a story about the secret fund in the Publicar, they confirmed the information, including the amounts, with Deep Throat.

The breadth of Deep Throat’s information surprised my students. How could he have knowledge of the reelection committee’s secret finances?

The students learned that the FBI had shared some of its findings with the White House counsel, John Dean. We did not consider Dean himself to be a candidate because he had left the White House in April 1973. This led us to Dean’s assistant, Fred Fielding, who was already on our shortlist.

In the fall of 2002, student Thomas Rybarczyk dug up a June 1973 letter from Fielding that noted that Dean had given him a summary of a July 1972 FBI report detailing Hoback’s account of the cash transactions. However, Hoback’s recollections of the disbursements were mistaken she had initially provided the FBI as well as Woodward and Bernstein with incorrect figures. In fact, Magruder had received $20,000, not the $50,000 she remembered. Curiously, though, Deep Throat had confirmed the incorrect figures, which suggests that he gleaned the information from the FBI report given to Dean.

Other clues started pointing us toward Fielding. For instance, Woodward and Bernstein omitted Fielding’s name from stories about the White House counsel’s office. Leaving a key source’s name out of a story is a journalistic commonplace it not only protects sources but prevents rival reporters from learning the identity of a valuable informant.

As far as we could determine, Fielding shared Deep Throat’s taste for cigarettes and whisky. He had access to information that Deep Throat corroborated for Woodward and Bernstein. And as student Robert Breslin found in 2002, Fielding even fit a characterization of the mysterious source that Woodward and Bernstein deleted from that early, unpublished draft of their book. The reporters wrote that Deep Throat was "perhaps the only person in government in a position to possibly understand the whole scheme and not be a potential conspirator himself."

Fielding, who helped Dean run the White House’s law office during the growing Watergate crisis, left the White House before Nixon resigned and returned to private law practice. In 1981, he became chief counsel to President Reagan and served in the White House for another five years before again returning to private practice. Fielding became a member of the Bush-Cheney transition team in 2000. In 2002, he became a member of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Today, at age 64, he is a senior partner in the law firm Wiley Rein & Fielding LLP in Washington, D.C.

In 1978, Bob Haldeman, Nixon’s first chief of staff, wrote in his book O Fim do Poder about his belief that Fielding was Deep Throat and that "only Dean, or his associate, had access from the White House to the CRP [Committee to Re-elect the President], the FBI and the Justice Department during Watergate." Fielding denied the charge at the time. But Woodward has said, as recently as October of this year at a lecture, that "Deep Throat is a source who lied to his family, to his friends and colleagues denying that he had helped us." (Fielding did not respond to Smithsonian magazine’s request for comment.)

When my students contacted Woodward during the first semester of the investigation and asked him if he would talk to us about our investigations of Deep Throat, he declined. When we approached Carl Bernstein to ask him about our final seven suspects, he denounced our project, saying it undermined journalistic principles to reveal the identity of a confidential source.

On April 22 of this year, at a press conference in the Watergate Hotel, I announced that my students and I had deduced that Fred Fielding was indeed Deep Throat. The next day, I got an e-mail from John Dean: "I’ll bet you a hundred dollars that you’re wrong about Fielding."


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