23 de março - Memórias - História

23 de março - Memórias - História

CAMP PENNSYLVANIA, Kuwait (Army News Service, 24 de março de 2003) - A poeira fraca do deserto pousou levemente sobre um par de botas de combate esta manhã. Um rifle preto invertido estava caído, encimado por um capacete de camuflagem gravado com a clava preta da Brigada Bastogne.

Um conjunto de placas de identificação de prata estava pendurado imóvel no rifle, capturando um brilho do sol da manhã. Nessas etiquetas estava gravado um nome que pesava sobre a névoa matinal: Capitão Christopher Seifert, 28 anos, capitão, assistente do S2, quartel-general da 1ª Brigada, 101ª Divisão Aerotransportada. A 101ª havia perdido um dos seus.

Por volta da 1h30 da manhã de domingo, explosões de granadas atingiram barracas ocupadas por membros da equipe do quartel-general da brigada. 16 soldados, a maioria deles oficiais designados para o estado-maior da brigada, ficaram feridos, de acordo com o major-general David H. Petraeus, comandante da divisão.

Vários soldados foram evacuados para hospitais militares, onde Seifert morreu mais tarde. Outros três foram operados e estão em estado grave, mas estável.

No meio dos preparativos finais para entrar no Iraque, os soldados da 1ª Brigada suspenderam a guerra por um tempo esta manhã em Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait, para prestar suas últimas homenagens ao primeiro Screaming Eagle a cair nesta campanha.

"Eu amei Chris Seifert", disse o major Kyle Warren, brigada S2, chefe de Seifert. "Ele era o soldado incrível que todos aqui queriam. Ele era o soldado que você queria liderar, ele era o soldado que você queria seguir."

Seifert foi um líder de pelotão de infantaria, uma escola aerotransportada e graduado no Curso Básico de Infantaria, e mais tarde frequentou o Curso de Oficial Avançado de Inteligência Militar. Ele era um oficial distinto, trabalhador e muito respeitado por seus superiores e subordinados, disse Warren.

"Ele foi positivo", disse ele. "Ele gostaria que estivéssemos neste ponto ... para ir em frente e fazer o que temos que fazer."

Os rostos de alguns dos soldados começaram a brilhar enquanto Warren falava sobre a família de Seifert. Sua esposa, Theresa, e o bebê Benjamin, residentes de Clarksville, Tennessee, estavam visitando parentes em Morrisville, Pensilvânia, quando foram notificados da morte de Chris no domingo.

"Ele teve um novo menino, Benjamin, e qualquer um teria adorado ter um filho assim", disse Warren. Ele passou a dizer que quando a guerra acabar ele irá falar com Theresa sobre como ela se sente e o sacrifício que ela fez, e ele se sente confiante em sua força para suportar.

“Quando eu falar com Terri, tenho certeza que ela será a mesma mulher, a ótima esposa que ela foi quando disse que queria fazer parte da vida de Chris”, disse ele. "E tenho certeza que ela vai querer contar ao filho sobre o pai dele. Tenho certeza que ela vai querer que ele seja um homem como Chris era."

Warren descreveu as emoções agitadas em seu estômago e como é bom para os soldados se unirem para curar as feridas em seus corações doloridos.

"A raiva do ataque é muito real e eu quero sentir isso, e acho que todos nós queremos sentir isso."

Um camarada abatido antes do tempo por fogo hostil é bastante moderado, mas o que agrava o processo de cura para a divisão é a dor da traição e da descrença: um colega soldado da 101ª, ligado a uma unidade no Acampamento Pensilvânia separada da 1ª Brigada, é suspeito de realizar o ataque.

"O que aconteceu ontem afetou a todos nós até certo ponto, alguns mais do que outros", disse o capelão da Brigada Rodie Lamb, que sofreu ferimentos leves no domingo. "Estamos tentando descobrir por que alguém de nossas fileiras cometeria tais atos. Nossos corações estão preocupados, com muitas perguntas sem resposta."

Lamb leu uma passagem do Livro de João, que diz: "Confie e obedeça. Não há outra maneira a não ser confiar e obedecer."

"Não precisamos temer ou ter dúvidas de fé em um futuro incerto", disse Lamb. "Confie em Deus e ele lhe dará descanso. Lembre-se, temos um encontro com o destino."

O coronel Frederick B. Hodges, comandante de brigada, que sofreu ferimentos leves no braço, manteve-se alto e firme. Ele disse aos soldados como está orgulhoso de como eles reagiram na manhã de domingo durante o ataque.

"Eu vi soldados rasos, sargentos e oficiais respondendo com frieza, eficiência e velocidade, enquanto protegiam a área, prendiam o atacante e ganhavam responsabilidade por todos os nossos soldados, equipamento e munição", disse ele. "As circunstâncias foram muito difíceis, então eu não poderia estar mais orgulhoso de como cada um de vocês reagiu."

Hodges disse que Seifert foi diretamente responsável por muitas partes integrantes em trazer a brigada para o combate desde que chegou ao Kuwait, e suas habilidades e personalidade farão falta.

"Sei que ele está sorrindo agora, ao nos ver nos preparando para partir neste (comboio de assalto terrestre) e começar nossa missão. É exatamente assim que ele gostaria, e essa é a melhor maneira de homenageá-lo, continuando nossa missão ", disse ele.

Hodges lembrou a suas tropas que haverá outros dias difíceis pela frente, mas que eles podem ser tolerados e serão.

"Eu não sou um líder de torcida, mas deixe-me dizer uma coisa", disse ele. "Não há nada que possa impedir uma Águia Gritante."

Comandante Sgt. O major Bart E. Womack, sargento-mor do comando de brigada, chamou a atenção dos soldados. "Apresentar armas!" ele gritou.

As mãos direitas encontraram as testas enquanto os soldados prestavam uma última cortesia ao capitão Seifert. Eles pararam, enquanto a lata de metal da corneta tocava as batidas sombrias. Três rajadas foram disparadas, quebrando a relativa quietude da manhã.

Oficiais e alistados trocaram abraços. Os soldados lutaram para manter a compostura, permanecendo calmos mesmo enquanto as lágrimas eram derramadas por seu amigo.

A maior parte do acampamento já conseguiu lidar com a dor e o choque e seguir em frente, disse o tenente-coronel Marcus F. De Oliviera, comandante do 1º Batalhão do 327º Regimento de Infantaria.

Os feridos na explosão mantiveram os ferimentos cobertos e tentaram não mostrar qualquer sinal de fraqueza. A maioria deles não deu nenhum sinal de estar ferido.

"Estou bem", disse Hodges, girando um pouco o pulso direito para mostrar que o braço ainda estava funcionando. Sua saudação e seu aperto de mão ainda são firmes.

Os soldados da Brigada Bastogne partiram lentamente, reunindo força de vontade para começar um longo dia de trabalho. Eles devem se reunir em um comboio de assalto terrestre e se preparar para seguir para o norte, para o Iraque. Atrás deles permanecem a arma de Seifert, seu capacete, suas botas e suas etiquetas brilhantes, tudo em pé contra a paisagem do deserto.

(Nota do editor: Pfc. James Matise é um jornalista da 101ª Divisão Aerotransportada.


Quer saber mais sobre o Machine Gun Corps?

durante a Grande Guerra 1914-1918.

  • Abrahamson John Alexander. Able Seaman (falecido em 16 de novembro de 1916)
  • Alderton John Henry. Pte. (d.18 de setembro de 1918)
  • Alexander David. Pte.
  • Alexander James. Pte.
  • Allen Arthur Hewitt. Tenente
  • Allen Wellington L. Pte. (d.22 de agosto de 1917)
  • Allison William. Pte. (d. 7 de junho de 1917)
  • Almond John. Pte. (d.19 de agosto de 1916)
  • Anderson Henry McDonnell. Lt. (d.30 de maio de 1918)
  • Andrews Ernest William. L / Sgt.
  • Andrews Henry Edmund. Pte.
  • Aron. Subtenente (falecido em 13 de novembro de 1916)
  • Atkins Arthur Leslie. Pte.
  • Atkinson James. Able Seaman (falecido em 13 de fevereiro de 1917)
  • Avison Arthur Thomas. Pte. (dia 15 de novembro de 1917)
  • Ayton. Able Seaman (falecido em 13 de novembro de 1916)
  • Bailey Francis Samuel. Cpl.
  • Bailey Harry. Pte. (dia 21 de março de 1918)
  • Baker Edwin Horace. Pte.
  • Baker T. A .. Pte. (d.Oct 1916)
  • Baker William Ingram. (d. 7 de junho de 1917)
  • Bolas Daniel Methuen Francês. Pte.
  • Barber Frank Earnest Edward. (d.8 de agosto de 1917)
  • Bardrick John Alexander. Pte.
  • Barker John. Tenente
  • Barnes Septimus Willis. Pte
  • Barnett Harry. Pte.
  • Barnwell John. Mjr.
  • Barrell Arthur. Pte. (d.11 de junho de 1917)
  • Barrell Reginald Percy. Rflmn. (d.26 de março de 1918)
  • Barry John Joseph. Pte (dia 25 de agosto de 1918)
  • Baston William Edwell. Pte. (d.1 de janeiro de 1918)
  • Beamer Ellis. Pte. (d.18 de novembro de 1917)
  • Beamer Ellis. Pte. (d.18 de novembro de 1917)
  • Beard Lewis Digby Mansell. 2º Tenente (falecido em 19 de outubro de 1916)
  • Beard Lewis Digby Mansell. 2º Tenente (d.19 de outubro de 1916)
  • Beaton William James. 2º Tenente (dia 24 de setembro de 1917)
  • Bethune Douglas. Pte. (dia 1 de julho de 1916)
  • Bethune Thomas.
  • Bíblia Geoffrey Roskell. 2º Tenente (dia 1 de julho de 1916)
  • Bicker Claude Thomas. Pte. (dia 1 de junho de 1917)
  • Binks Walter. Pte (falecido em 22 de julho de 1917)
  • Pássaro Alfred Allan. Pte
  • Black George Harold. Sgt.
  • Bloore Arthur Cyril. Pte
  • Blows E. J .. Pte.
  • Blythe John. Pte. (d. 8 de setembro de 1916)
  • Bollands Walter. Pte.
  • Bond Frederick Alexander. Pte.
  • Bond Milton. Pte (d. 27 de julho de 1916)
  • Boon John Charles. Pte. (d.16 de novembro de 1916)
  • Chefe John William. Sgt.
  • Boston. Tenente
  • Botto Frank. Pte. (d.14 de outubro de 1916)
  • Bottoms Thomas. Pte. (dia 01 de julho de 1916)
  • Bower Joseph William. Pte (d.3 de dezembro de 1917)
  • Bowler Edward. Pte.
  • Boyle Edward. Pte. (d.28 de junho de 1917)
  • Boyle Thomas. Pte.
  • Bradley Alfred. Pte. (d.6 de junho de 1917)
  • Bradley Alfred. Pte. (d.6 de junho de 1917)
  • Bradshaw Harry Eccles William. Cpl. (d.17 de julho de 1919)
  • Bradshaw William. Pte. (d.3 de dezembro de 1917)
  • Brampton Reginald. Pte.
  • Brennan John. Pte. (d.9 abril de 1917)
  • Brewer Herbert Noton. Cpl.
  • Brian Reginald. Pte. (d.16 de abril de 1917)
  • Brighton George. Pte. (d.3 de novembro de 1918)
  • Bromley William Henry. Cpl. (dia 15 de julho de 1916)
  • Brooke Horace. L / Sgt.
  • Brophy Daniel. Pte. (d.4 de novembro de 1918)
  • Brotherton W .. Pte. (d. 21 de março de 1918)
  • Brown George Thomas. Sgt. (d. 31 de julho de 1917)
  • Brown Wilfred. Gema
  • Brown William. L / Cpl. (d.22 de agosto de 1918)
  • Buckley Reginald. 2º Tenente
  • Burdock Albert Victor. Pte. (d.3 de dezembro de 1917)
  • Burgoine G. Lt.
  • Burnley Albert. Pte. (dia 16 de setembro de 1917)
  • Burt George. Pte. (d.11 de novembro de 1917)
  • Burton C J. Lt.
  • Butterworth Frank. Pte ..
  • Buxton Jocelyn Murray Victor. 2º Tenente (dia 1 de julho de 1916)
  • Buxton Robert. Pte. (dia 15 de julho de 1918)
  • Cable Charles Ernest. Rfmn. (d.22 abril de 1917)
  • Caddle J .. Cpl. (dia 01 de novembro de 1918)
  • Caine Evan Idwal. Pte. (dia 9 de junho de 1917)
  • Campbell H .. Pte.
  • Candy Charles. Cpl. (d.4 de maio de 1917)
  • Cannon Patrick. Pte. (dia 23 de agosto de 1917)
  • Cardwell John. Pte. (dia 25 de abril de 1918)
  • Carter Edgar. Pte.
  • Caulfield Frederick A .. Pte. (d. 29 de agosto de 1916)
  • Cave Robin Douglas. (d.18 de agosto de 1918)
  • Cavin Thomas. Pte. (d.28 de junho de 1917)
  • Chaisty Lawrence. Pte.
  • Chantler Henry. Pte.
  • Chatfield Albert Edward. Sjt.
  • Chatt J. W .. Pte.
  • Chatter John Howard. Pte. (d.1 de maio de 1916)
  • Chilman Richard Henry. Pte. (d. 8 de junho de 1917)
  • Churchill Alfred Henry.
  • Clark Archibald Ernest. Sgt.
  • Clark Charles Alexander.
  • Clark Fred. Sjt (falecido em 9 de março de 1918)
  • Clarke Charles St Aubyn. 2º Tenente (d.30 de julho de 1918)
  • Clarke William James Thomas. Pte.
  • Clarke William A. St. Aubyn. Sub-Lt. (d.30 de dezembro de 1917)
  • Cleak Frederick George. Pte. (dia 2 de setembro de 1918)
  • Cleveland Sydney. Pte.
  • Cockbill Harry Vernon. Qtr.Mstr.Sgt. (falecido em 10 de abril de 1918)
  • Coleman Ernest James. Sgt. (dia 28 de abril de 1917)
  • Colley Robert Archibald. Capt. (D. 27 de fevereiro de 1917)
  • Collins Joseph. Pte. (d.18 de setembro de 1918)
  • Columbine Herbert George. Pte. (d.22 de março de 1918)
  • Constable Thomas. Pte.
  • Coombe N .. Pte. (dia 01 de julho de 1916)
  • Harry Cornish. L / Sgt.
  • Brian Cragg. Pte.
  • Craike-Pickering Maurice Stanley. Lt. (falecido em 14 de abril de 1918)
  • Crawford Hugh. L / Cpl. (d.4 de abril de 1918)
  • Crawford John. WO2.
  • Crawford William John. Pte.
  • Crickmore John.
  • Philip Crumbley. Pte. (falecido em 18 de julho de 1917)
  • Currie George Francis. Pte.
  • Cutts Leonard. Pte.
  • Daniels William James. Pte. (d.3 de setembro de 1916)
  • Davidson Thomas. Sgt. (d.24 de fevereiro de 1917)
  • Davies Daniel. L / Cpl. (d. 21 de setembro de 1918)
  • Davies M .. Sgt.
  • Davies Robert William. Pte.
  • Davies Thomas Ivor. Pte.
  • Davy Percy Raymond. Pte. (d. 31 de agosto de 1918)
  • Deane Robert L .. Cpt.
  • Dennison Albert Christopher. Pte. (dia 1 de julho de 1916)
  • Dillon J .. Sgt.
  • Dixon Allan. Pte.
  • Dobson Bramley. Pte. (d.5 de abril de 1918)
  • Dockery William. Pte. (d.5 de outubro de 1917)
  • Dockrey William. Pte. (d.5 de outubro de 1917)
  • Donald George Moir. Pte.
  • Donald George Moir. Pte.
  • Dossett Walter. Pte. (dia 25 de junho de 1918)
  • Dryburgh Walter Hulton. Pte. (dia 1 de julho de 1917)
  • Duke John. Sgt. (dia 01 de julho de 1916)
  • Eagle James. Pte. (d.3 de dezembro de 1917)
  • Ebbs George Edward. Pte. (dia 01 de julho de 1916)
  • Edmondson Charles Edward. Pte. (dia 2 de junho de 1918)
  • Edwards Thomas. Pte.
  • Eggleton Henry. Tenente
  • Eldred Charles. Pte (d.22 de março de 1918)
  • Ellis Gordon Gerald. Privado
  • Ellis Harry. Pte.
  • Ellis Trevor Edgar. 2º Tenente (falecido em 10 de abril de 1918)
  • Evans Levi Henry. Sgt (d.11 de novembro de 1917)
  • Everard Nathaniel Joshua. Sgt. (d. 9 de outubro de 1917)
  • Fall Reginald. Pte. (d. 24 de março de 1918)
  • Farrell Mark Vincent. Pte (dia 2 de julho de 1917)
  • Farrell Thomas. Sjt.
  • Featherstone George Maurice. Pte.
  • Ferguson Ernest Victor. Pte. (d.20 de fevereiro de 1917)
  • Fisher Thomas. Pte. (d.24 de março de 1918)
  • Flanagan Robert. Pte. (d. 7 de outubro de 1916)
  • Forman Alfred. (dia 2 de junho de 1917)
  • Foulkes Walter Joseph. Dvr.
  • Fowler Frederick William. Pte. (dia 9 de junho de 1917)
  • Frith Willis Hirwen. Pte. (d. 8 de junho de 1917)
  • Fulbrook Frederick George. Pte. (d. 7 de junho de 1917)
  • Gable Reuben Harry. Pte.
  • Jogue Roland Cavendish. Sargento
  • Gardner Charles Lyall. Pte. (d.30 de setembro de 1918)
  • Garner Charles William. Pte. (d.27 de novembro de 1917)
  • Gaskin Peter. Sgt (d.17 set 1918)
  • Gaule John. Pte. (d.4 de julho de 1918)
  • Gawthorpe William. Pte. (dia 21 de março de 1918)
  • Gaze George.
  • George Walter John. Pte. (d.11 de abril de 1917)
  • Geraghty Denis. L / Cpl. (d.13 de abril de 1918)
  • Geraghty John. Sgt. (d.14 de dezembro de 1919)
  • Gifford Frederick W .. Pte. (d.4 de julho de 1917)
  • Glancy Michael John. A / Cpl (falecido em 16 de março de 1916)
  • Gogarty Christopher. Pte. (d.30 de março de 1918)
  • Goldney A. L.Y ..
  • Gomes Alvaro Druce. Tenente
  • Goodman Arthur. Sgt.
  • Gourlay Benjamin. Sgt. (d.18 de maio de 1917)
  • Graham Benjamin. Mar Capaz.
  • Grant Robert William. Pte. (d. 7 de junho de 1917)
  • Gray John. Pte. (dia 9 de junho de 1917)
  • Gray W M. 2º Tenente
  • Green Alfred. Pte. (d.13 de dezembro de 1917)
  • Alfred Bertie verde. Pte.
  • Green Henry Alfred.
  • Griffith Herbert Burrows. Pte. (d. 21 de março de 1918)
  • Griffiths George. Pte. (dia 25 de outubro de 1918)
  • Griffiths George. Pte. (d.6 novembro de 1918)
  • Convidado James. Privado
  • Hallums Cecil Albert. Pte.
  • Halsall Walter. (dia 1 de agosto de 1917)
  • Mãos Henry. Sargento
  • Harbridge James Thomas. L / Cpl. (d.3 de dezembro de 1917)
  • Harding Sidney James. Pte. (d.24 de outubro de 1918)
  • Harmer Charles. Pte.
  • Harmer Ezra Jack. Pte. (d.4 de outubro de 1917)
  • Harris George. Pte. (d.3 de julho de 1917)
  • Hart Andrew Chichester. Pte. (dia 01 de julho de 1916)
  • Hartley Ernest Henry. Pte. (falecido em 10 de abril de 1917)
  • Hartley James Henry. Pte. (d.20 de abril de 1918)
  • Hartshorn Cornelius John. Pte. (d.26 de agosto de 1916)
  • Harvey William Henry. Sgt.
  • Harvey William Henry. Sgt.
  • Haskell Henry John. Pte.
  • Hawker Robert Harcourt. Pte. (d.19 de junho de 1919)
  • Hawkins Leslie William. 2º Tenente
  • Hazeley E. Lt.
  • Healy Patrick. Pte.
  • Heanes Arthur. Sgt.
  • Hession J .. Pte.
  • Heybyrne Henry Ivor.
  • Hickey John. L / Cpl (d.22 set. 1917)
  • Highcock Peter. Cpl. (d.14 novembro de 1918)
  • Hill Thomas. Pte. (d.6 de julho de 1916)
  • Hills Leslie Clarence. Cpl.
  • Hilton Ernest. Pte.
  • Hitchen Richard James. (d.16 de maio de 1917)
  • Hodson William. Pte.
  • Holmes James Joesph. Pte. (d.12 de outubro de 1918)
  • Holmes Sydney John. Pte. (d.13 de abril de 1918)
  • Hopkins Francis John. L / Cpl
  • Houghton Richard. Pte.
  • Howells Harry. A.Cpl.
  • Hubbard Joseph Henry.
  • Hughes Robert Ellis. Pte.
  • Hullah Joseph Llewellyn. L / Cpl. (d.20 de outubro de 1917)
  • Humphreys Noel Forbes. Capitão (falecido em 27 de março de 1918)
  • Hutting William. Pte.
  • Jebbett E .. Pte. (d.19 de outubro de 1917)
  • Jennings James. Pte. (d.6 de setembro de 1917)
  • Jones A M. Lt.
  • Jones David Tudor. Tenente / Capt.
  • Jones W .. Pte.
  • Kay F .. L / Cpl.
  • Kay John Brayshaw. Pte.
  • Kay John Brayshaw. Pte.
  • Keech Edward Thomas. Pte. (dia 2 de julho de 1918)
  • Kendall Charles. Pte. (dia 21 de agosto de 1918)
  • Kenny Daniel. Cpl. (d.11 de abril de 1918)
  • Kent John Walter. Pte.
  • Kerr Andrew Smith. Sgt. (d. 19 de abril de 1917)
  • Rei Thomas. Pte. (d.02 de dezembro de 1917)
  • Knowles Amos. Pte. (d.21 de outubro de 1916)
  • Lamb John Alfred. Pte. (d.26 de abril de 1917)
  • Lancaster Thomas. Sgt.
  • Lanchester Walter G .. (d.30 de setembro de 1918)
  • Langford V G.
  • Frank grande. Privado
  • Larn Cyril Francis. Mjr.
  • Lathlan William John. Pte. (d.11 de janeiro de 1917)
  • Lathlane William John. Pte. (d.11 de janeiro de 1917)
  • Lawrence William H .. Pte.
  • Lax Theodore Bertram. Pte.
  • Leatherby Robert. Pte. (d.27 de setembro de 1918)
  • Lee Kenneth. Pte. (d.30 de maio de 1918)
  • Lee Patrick. Pte.
  • Leitch Mathew Bryce. Pte.
  • Lewis David Thomas. Pte.
  • Lewis David Evan. 2º Tenente
  • Lewis Sydney G .. Ptr.
  • Light Earl Eustace. Pte.
  • Lockley John Bright. CQMS (d.5 de abril de 1918)
  • Mackay Angus. Cpl. (d.5 de maio de 1917)
  • Mackay Angus. Cpl. (d.5 de maio de 1917)
  • Maggs Bertram. Spr.
  • Malkin Lawrence. Pte.
  • Mallaby James. Cpl.
  • Mallon Michael. Sjt. (d.26 de setembro de 1917)
  • Mansfield Harry. Pte. (d.17 abril de 1918)
  • Mark William John. Sgt.
  • Marsh William. Pte. (d. 9 de outubro de 1916)
  • Marshall Harvey William. Pte. (d.11 de dezembro de 1918)
  • Martin William. Pte. (d.12 de setembro de 1918)
  • Maxwell George Barton. 2Lt.
  • McAlpin Kenneth Furgus. T / Capt
  • McCarthy Laurence. Pte. (d.16 de outubro de 1918)
  • Mccarthy Laurence. Pte. (d.16 de outubro de 1918)
  • McConachie William. Principal.
  • McDermott Thomas. L / Cpl. (dia 01 de dezembro de 1917)
  • McDonald James Francis. Sgt. (dia 9 de setembro de 1919)
  • McDougall William. Sgt.
  • McGregor David Stuart. Lt. (d.22 de outubro de 1918)
  • McGurk Bernard. Pte. (d.6 de setembro de 1917)
  • McIlhone John. Pte.
  • McKenzie Hugh McDonald. Tenente (d.30 de outubro de 1917)
  • McKenzie James. L / Cpl.
  • McLauchlan James Smith. Pte. (d.18 de agosto de 1916)
  • McNally Joseph Brunton. Pte.
  • McPhee Isaac. Pte.
  • McQueen Samuel Brown. 2º Tenente
  • McQuillin Stephen Alfred. Sgt.
  • McTernan Patrick. L / Cpl. (d.18 de outubro de 1918)
  • Measey Thomas. Pte. (d.20 de janeiro de 1917)
  • Mickle Frederick William. Pte. (falecido em 14 de julho de 1917)
  • Miles George Ernest. A / Sgt.
  • Millett William H .. Cpl. (d. 29 de novembro de 1917)
  • Mills Archibald. Pte.
  • Millsop Samuel. Pte (d.17 de outubro de 1918)
  • Milton Edwin. Pte.
  • Mingham Joseph. Pte.
  • Mingham Joseph. Pte.
  • Minnis Thomas. Pte. (d. 27 de abril de 1918)
  • Mitchell Thomas. Pte.
  • Mogg Samuel Henry Earnest. Pte (d.3 de julho de 1917)
  • Moloney Peter. Pte. (falecido em 12 de março de 1916)
  • Dinheiro John William. Sgt. (d. 31 de julho de 1916)
  • Moorhouse Abraham. A / SM.
  • Morgan John Wilson. Pte
  • Moritz Oscar Frank. 2º Tenente (d. 27 de julho de 1916)
  • Mowatt George. Pte. (d.20 de julho de 1918)
  • Muirhead Thomas Barrie. L / Cpl. (d.16 de março de 1917)
  • Murphy Patrick. Pte. (d.12 de setembro de 1918)
  • Musgrove William. L / Cpl. (d.5 de julho de 1918)
  • Neal Josiah. Pte.
  • Neal William Leonard. Pte. (d.23 de novembro de 1917)
  • Nesbitt David. Pte.
  • Newcombe J .. (d. 9 de novembro de 1918)
  • Newman Frederick. Pte. (d.22 novembro de 1917)
  • Newton J .. Pte. (d. 8 de junho de 1917)
  • Nicholson Cyril Howard. Pte. (d.12 de outubro de 1918)
  • Nicholson Cyril Howard. Pte. (d.12 de outubro de 1918)
  • Norton John William. Pte.
  • Oakley Frank. L / Cpl. (dia 2 de agosto de 1917)
  • Olive Frank Leslie. Pte. (d.11 de novembro de 1918)
  • Orvis Henry William. Sgt. (dia 15 de maio de 1918)
  • Osborne William. Pte. (d.3 de julho de 1917)
  • Owen James. Pte.
  • Owers Frank. L / Cpl. (d.5 de abril de 1918)
  • Packham Edward. Pte. (dia 25 de outubro de 1917)
  • Página Harry. Sgt.
  • Pain Major William. Pte. (d. 7 de junho de 1917)
  • Panter Herbert. Pte. (d. 9 de abril de 1918)
  • Parker Charles Frederick. Pte. (d. 21 de março de 1918)
  • Parker G H. Sgt.
  • Parr Harry William Charles. Pte.
  • Perkins Albert. 2nd.Lt. (d.4 de outubro de 1917)
  • Petchell Arthur. Pte. (falecido em 10 de março de 1915)
  • Pittman Arthur George. Pte. (d.13 de outubro de 1918)
  • Pitts William Henry. L / Sgt. (d.22 de junho de 1917)
  • Plant Edward. A / L / Cpl.
  • Tom satisfeito. Pte. (d.5 de julho de 1916)
  • Portch Stanley George. Pte.
  • Potts John William. L / Cpl. (d.26 de setembro de 1917)
  • Powell Norman de'Orfe. Pte
  • Preston Frank Albert George. Pte. (d.28 de novembro de 1917)
  • Priestley Dyker Stanton. 2 / Lt. (dia 1 de julho de 1916)
  • Príncipe Henry George. Pte.
  • Pyrah Joseph. Pte. (d. 8 de outubro de 1918)
  • Quincey George Henry. Cpl.
  • Ratcliffe John. Pte. (d. 8 de setembro de 1917)
  • Reece Thomas. Pte.
  • Reeve Harry William. Pte. (dia 25 de outubro de 1917)
  • Richardson James Andrew. L / Cpl.
  • Richardson William. Pte. (d.8 de outubro de 1916)
  • Richmond Harold Thomas. Pte.
  • Rickard Reginald. Pte. (dia 1 de julho de 1916)
  • Ritchie John. Pte. (d. 21 de março de 1918)
  • Roberts Charles. Sgt.
  • Roberts Harry. L / Cpl.
  • Roberts John Stephen. L / Cpl
  • Roberts William Ivor.
  • Robinson George Ellis. Pte
  • Robinson George Ellis.
  • Robinson Samuel.
  • Robinson T .. Pte. (dia 9 de junho de 1917)
  • Robson John. Pte. (d.19 de setembro de 1916)
  • Rodgers Gilbert. Sgt.
  • Rome John. Pte. (d.30 de março de 1917)
  • Rosser George Archibald. Capitão
  • Rout Henry Walter. Pte.
  • Rowell Thomas Richmond. 2º Tenente
  • Ruddell George. Pte.
  • Ruddock Bertrand Frederick. (d. 29 de junho de 1918)
  • Rymer Robert. Sjt. (falecido em 10 de abril de 1918)
  • Sampson Charlie George Melrose. Pte. (d.11 de julho de 1917)
  • Sanders Samuel. Pte (falecido em 27 de julho de 1917)
  • Sanderson Gervase Greenwell. Pte.
  • Sawyer Hebert Walter. L / Cpl. (d.26 de novembro de 1917)
  • Seymour Charles Thomas. Pte.
  • Seymour Thomas J. Cpl. (d. agosto de 1915)
  • Sheehan P .. Pte.
  • Shepherd George Edward. Pte. (d.12 de outubro de 1916)
  • Shepherd Thomas Bell. Pte.
  • Sherrott Edward. Pte. (d. 27 de março de 1918)
  • Patrick Etherington curto. Pte.
  • Simmons Constant Samuel. Pte.
  • Simpson Frederick Charles Wilfred. Cpl. (d.22 de agosto de 1918)
  • Simpson James. Sgt. (d.17 de outubro de 1916)
  • Simpson Reginald. Cpl.
  • Simpson Stanley William. Pte.
  • Sinclair George Ebenezer Bertram. Pte.
  • Slack Albert Edward. Sgt. (d.19 de julho de 1916)
  • Smith Frank. Sgt. (falecido em 10 de agosto de 1918)
  • Smith Joseph William. Pte. (dia 15 de novembro de 1916)
  • Sparling John. Pte
  • Spear William. Cpl.
  • Springer Walter Burnett. Sgt.
  • Squires James Arthur. (d.3 de setembro de 1918)
  • Stafford Benjamin Milburn. Pte. (d.20 de abril de 1917)
  • Starkey Edwin. Pte. (dia 01 de julho de 1916)
  • Starkey Harry Stephen. L / Cpl. (dia 21 de fevereiro de 1919)
  • Stenson Thomas. Pte.
  • Stevenson John Henry. Pte. (dia 01 de julho de 1916)
  • Stewart Donald. Pte. (d. 7 de junho de 1917)
  • Stones Walter. Pte.
  • Sultan Joseph. Pte. (falecido em 10 de julho de 1916)
  • Swales George Frederick. L / Cpl. (d.23 de setembro de 1917)
  • Swalwell Wilfred. L / Cpl (d.10 de setembro de 1918)
  • Espada David Stevenson. Pte. (d.14 de julho de 1917)
  • Symes George William. 2º Tenente
  • Taylor Harold Richard. Lt. (d.17 de março de 1917)
  • Taylor James. Pte (falecido em 8 de outubro de 1918)
  • Thomas James Charles. Pte. (d.30 de novembro de 1917)
  • Thomson W .. Pte. (d. 7 de junho de 1917)
  • Timms J. W .. Cpl.
  • Toohey Michael. Pte.
  • Toomath David. Pte.
  • Tough James. Pte.
  • Townsend George Lowe. Tpr.
  • Trim Samuel. Pte. (d.24 de dezembro de 1916)
  • Trivett Walter Thomas. Pte. (d. 27 de outubro de 1918)
  • Trull James. Pte.
  • Unsworth John William. Pte.
  • Vigus Henry Abraham. Pte. (d.20 de setembro de 1917)
  • Vincent Seymour Livingston. Capitão
  • Vint W. P .. 2 / Lt.
  • Vollans Stanley Arthur James. L / Cpl.
  • Wale Edgar Henry. 2Lt.
  • Walker John. Pte. (falecido em 10 de junho de 1917)
  • Walker John. Pte. (d.20 de junho de 1917)
  • Wall Hubert Henry. Pte. (d.22 de outubro de 1917)
  • Wallace John. Cpl.
  • Ward Leonard Richard. Cpl. (d.24 de março de 1918)
  • Waring Samuel. CSM.
  • Watson George Meers. Pte. (d. 28 de março de 1918)
  • Watson James.
  • Weaver Harold. Pte
  • Weaver Henry. Pte. (d. 21 de novembro de 1917)
  • Weeden Albert. Pte.
  • Westall William Herbert. Sgt. (d.23 de março de 1918)
  • Weston William Henry. Pte (d.12 de outubro de 1917)
  • Whalley Ralph. (morto em 4 de abril de 1918)
  • Wheadon Charles. Pte.
  • Whitley Thomas David. Pte. (d.17 de dezembro de 1918)
  • Whybrow Robert Edward.
  • Wickings Ernest. Pte. (dia 01 de novembro de 1917)
  • Wilby Harry. Tpr.
  • Wilde James. Pte.
  • Wilkes C .. Pte.
  • Wilkin Thomas. Pte.
  • Williams George Shaw. L / Cpl. (d. 28 de setembro de 1916)
  • Williams Nathan. Pte. (d. 21 de março de 1918)
  • Willis Charles Richard. Pte
  • Willison Harry Cooper. Pte.
  • Willson John Bertram.
  • Wilson Charles Robert. (d.24 de maio de 1917)
  • Wilson James. Pte. (d.4 de setembro de 1916)
  • Winney Ernest. Pte.
  • Winter George. Pte. (d.4 de novembro de 1918)
  • Wolff Gustav Frederick. A / Maj. (dia 21 de março de 1918)
  • Wood E .. Pte. (d. 21 de março de 1918)
  • Wood Ernest. Pte. (d. 21 de março de 1918)
  • Wood Richard Thomas. 2º Tenente (dia 25 de abril de 1918)
  • Wooldridge Frederick George. Pte. (dia 25 de novembro de 1917)
  • Wright Harold. Pte. (d.17 de novembro de 1917)
  • Yallop Ronald Robert. Pte. (d.12 de abril de 1917)
  • Yearwood William Armel. Tenente
  • Yewdall David. Sgt.
  • Jovem Robert. Pte.
  • Young W. B ..

Todos os nomes desta lista foram enviados por parentes, amigos, vizinhos e outras pessoas que desejam se lembrar deles, se você tiver quaisquer nomes para adicionar ou quaisquer lembranças ou fotos dos listados, por favor, adicione um nome a esta lista

Procurando ajuda com a Pesquisa de História da Família?

Por favor, veja FAQ's de História da Família

Observação: não podemos fornecer pesquisas individuais gratuitamente.


30 anos atrás: o IRS tenta vender memórias de Willie Nelson & # 8217s & # 038 falha

30 anos atrás, esta semana, a maior história da música country, e a maior história no Texas e em muitas partes além, foi o esforço impetuoso do IRS para liquidar o império de Willie Nelson devido a impostos atrasados ​​não pagos. Eles tentaram vender suas memórias. Não saiu exatamente como o IRS planejou.

Em 9 de novembro de 1990, o IRS fez movimentos agressivos contra todos os ativos de Willie Nelson & # 8217s, confiscando suas propriedades, invadindo sua casa e estúdio em Austin, fugindo com instrumentos, equipamentos musicais, móveis, lembranças, placas de disco de ouro e qualquer coisa que não esteja acertada que eles possam leiloar por dinheiro. Se não fosse por sua filha Lana resgatando o famoso violão Trigger de Willie das garras dos Federados no último minuto, ele também teria sido confiscado. “Contanto que eu tenha meu violão,” Willie Nelson disse na época, "Eu vou ficar bem[It & # 8217s] apenas coisas, nada que não possa ser substituído. ”

Como Willie Nelson acabou devendo cerca de $ 16,7 milhões de dólares ao governo federal é uma história meio complicada, e ainda é questionável o quanto Willie Nelson foi o culpado. O IRS começou a questionar os impostos de Willie Nelson & # 8217s em 1984, quando viu uma grande dedução para um investimento em paraísos fiscais. No entanto, isso não era um esquema improvisado arquitetado por um gerente de negócios para sonegar impostos. Era um produto financeiro oferecido publicamente pela firma de contabilidade Price Waterhouse no qual Willie aplicara seu dinheiro, acreditando ser um investimento seguro.

Mas o IRS viu isso de forma diferente e exigiu que Willie Nelson pagasse os $ 6 milhões que ele devia da dedução de 1984. Eles também exigiram que ele pagasse mais US $ 10 milhões em multas e juros que acumulou desde 1972, após mais investigações e auditorias em seus registros financeiros. Willie e seus representantes não estavam sentados em suas mãos o tempo todo. Eles tentaram trabalhar com a Receita Federal e o caso foi objeto de recurso para o Tribunal Tributário. Willie alegou que o problema era a orientação de Price Waterhouse, mas acabou perdendo o caso.

Em agosto de 1990, antes das apreensões de propriedade, Willie processou a Price Waterhouse em US $ 45 milhões pelo & # 8220reparar o prejuízo sofrido por ele nas mãos do governo, que o penalizou pelo que equivale a um erro de conselho dado a ele pela Price Waterhouse. & # 8221 Price Waterhouse disse que a compra de Willie para o abrigo fiscal foi sua própria decisão, e eles não poderiam ser responsabilizados. Esse processo foi resolvido mais tarde, mas os detalhes nunca foram divulgados.

Por que Willie simplesmente não pagou o IRS e os tirou de suas costas? Não foi tão fácil. Claro, Willie Nelson ainda tinha um grande poder aquisitivo no início dos anos 90 e 8217, mas seu pico comercial já havia passado. E durante o apogeu de Willie & # 8217, o dinheiro estava saindo tão rápido quanto estava entrando, deixando pouco para economizar. Além disso, durante toda a disputa com o IRS, Willie estava trabalhando com a ideia de que, em última análise, tudo seria resolvido a seu favor, uma vez que, em sua mente, a culpa era de Price Waterhouse. Mas isso nunca aconteceu e, com o passar do tempo, multas e juros continuaram a acumular-se.

Mesmo depois que Willie Nelson e seu advogado Jay Goldberg negociaram a eventual conta de impostos para US $ 6 milhões, Willie ainda não conseguia pagá-la. “Ele não tinha $ 1 milhão - ele provavelmente não tinha $ 30.000, ” filha Lana Nelson disse Texas Mensal no momento. Além disso, a apreensão de equipamentos musicais e ativos tornou mais difícil para Willie trabalhar para pagar sua dívida.

Portanto, após os ataques de novembro de 1990, quase tudo de propriedade de Willie Nelson estava no bloco de leilões na semana final de janeiro de 1991, com o IRS buscando o lance mais alto. O governo federal primeiro colocou Willie & # 8217s propriedade de 44 acres na área de Austin no bloco em 26 de janeiro. Ele & # 8217d comprou o terreno do médico que o entregou quando bebê. Mas, infelizmente para o IRS, nenhum licitante apareceu. Nem mesmo um. Assim, nos dias subsequentes, eles continuaram a oferecer ao público a propriedade de 44 acres com casa de 2 andares e estábulos para cavalos em um lance inicial incrivelmente baixo. Ainda assim, ninguém apareceu para comprá-lo, e nenhum lance foi inserido.

A história era a mesma para várias outras propriedades que Willie Nelson possuía no Texas que o IRS estava tentando leiloar. Uma venda de itens retirados do clube de campo de Willie & # 8217s e seu estúdio de gravação de Pedernales em 23 de janeiro rendeu cerca de US $ 68.000 para o IRS, mas algumas das lembranças mais importantes da propriedade de Willie & # 8217s & # 8212 incluindo pôsteres, disco de ouro e instrumentos & # 8212não foi tocado. O IRS estava começando a descobrir o quanto o Texas amava Willie Nelson.

Então, finalmente, em 29 de janeiro de 1991 & # 8212, o terceiro dia em que o IRS listou Willie Nelson & # 8217s Austin ranch para venda & # 8212, ele fez o lance mínimo de $ 203.840, que estava bem abaixo do valor de mercado e bem abaixo do que o IRS esperava . Quem foi o comprador? Foi um fã de Willie Nelson que o comprou a pedido de um grupo de fazendeiros que Willie ajudou ao longo dos anos por meio de sua iniciativa Farm Aid. Eles logo o venderiam de volta para a lenda do país.

Vendo a escrita na parede e talvez tendo uma mudança de opinião, o IRS também decidiu vender os itens restantes de Willie Nelson, como seus discos e instrumentos de ouro, para o & # 8220Willie Nelson and Friends Showcase & # 8221 por US $ 7.000. Em suma, o plano do IRS de liquidar os ativos de Willie Nelson para pagar sua conta de impostos foi um fracasso colossal. Os compradores do Texas recusaram-se a jogar bola.

″ Todos vieram em minha defesa e isso foi avassalador, ″ Willie disse na época.

Mas esse não era o caso em todos os lugares. Uma propriedade de 44 acres em Evergreen, Colorado, de propriedade de Willie, foi vendida por US $ 650.000 a um empreendedor de construção chamado Everett Randleman, cuja família já possuía o terreno antes, e que superou a oferta de cerca de 100 outros compradores em potencial que compareceram ao leilão do IRS.

Mas a casa de Willie Nelson e # 8217s no Texas e alguns de seus bens mais valiosos foram salvos. No entanto, ainda havia a dívida remanescente com o IRS que permaneceu sem solução. Então, Willie Nelson arregaçou as mangas e trabalhou o dobro nos anos seguintes para tentar pagar o IRS de volta. Willie pagou ao IRS cerca de US $ 6 milhões entre 1990 e o início de 1993 para ajudar a pagar a dívida.

Ainda assim, um saldo pendente permaneceu, então Willie Nelson e o IRS planejaram lançar o álbum de Willie Nelson As fitas do IRS: quem comprará minhas memórias? Basicamente, um álbum de compilação de algumas canções lançadas anteriormente e algumas novas escritas por Willie (exceto uma que Hank Cochran co-escreveu), foi lançado primeiro por telefone e por correspondência em 1991.

As fitas do IRS foi o primeiro de seu tipo. Nunca antes um artista havia celebrado um acordo de divisão de receita com o IRS. Uma grande campanha de marketing, e o telefone 1- (800) IRS-TAPE estava por trás do álbum que foi vendido por US $ 19,95, apenas por telefone.

Do preço, $ 9,95 foram para a empresa de telemarketing que promoveu o álbum, $ 1,60 foram para despesas relacionadas ao álbum, $ 2,49 foram para a Sony Records e Nelson recebeu $ 6 e # 8212 $ 3 para pagar sua dívida existente do IRS, $ 1 para pagar por seu processo contra Price Waterhouse, e $ 2 para o imposto que seria gerado com a venda do álbum. Com a parte do leão sendo tirada dos operadores de telemarketing, o álbum não gerou tanto quanto o esperado. Mas quando recebeu um amplo lançamento para as lojas em dezembro de 1992, sem o corte de telemarketing, se saiu muito melhor.

As fitas do IRS: quem comprará minhas memórias? acabou gerando US $ 3,6 milhões para o IRS e, nos anos seguintes, Willie pagou um total de US $ 9 milhões para finalmente satisfazer sua carga tributária do IRS.

A batalha real de Willie Nelson e # 8217 com o IRS se tornou uma lenda. O IRS tentou vender memórias de Willie Nelson & # 8217s, mas o Texas não estava comprando.


Todas as suas memórias do Facebook estão agora em um só lugar

Hoje, estamos lançando Memórias, um lugar único no Facebook para refletir sobre os momentos que você compartilhou com a família e amigos, incluindo postagens e fotos, amigos que você fez e eventos importantes da vida.

Todos os dias, mais de 90 milhões de pessoas usam o On This Day para relembrar esses momentos que compartilharam no Facebook, e pesquisas sugerem que esse tipo de reflexão pode ter um impacto positivo no humor e no bem-estar geral das pessoas. É por isso que estamos atualizando a experiência para garantir que todas as suas memórias sejam fáceis de encontrar.

Sua página de memórias pode incluir várias seções:

  • Neste dia: O conteúdo que você conhece e adora ainda estará disponível nesta seção, mostrando suas postagens anteriores e os principais acontecimentos dessa data.
  • Amigos feitos neste dia: Esta seção incluirá uma lista de amigos que você fez nesta data no passado, incluindo vídeos especiais ou colagens que celebram seus amigos e versos.
  • Recapitulações de memórias: Esta seção apresentará recapitulações sazonais ou mensais de memórias que foram agrupadas em uma mensagem ou vídeo curto.
  • Memórias que você pode ter perdido: Se você não verificou suas memórias recentemente, esta seção mostrará as postagens que você pode ter perdido na semana passada.

Sabemos que as memórias são profundamente pessoais - e nem todas são positivas. Tentamos ouvir o feedback e projetar esses recursos para que eles sejam atenciosos e ofereçam às pessoas os controles certos e fáceis de acessar. Trabalhamos muito para garantir que tratamos o conteúdo como parte da experiência pessoal de cada indivíduo e somos gratos pelas opiniões que as pessoas compartilharam conosco nos últimos três anos.


Encontrar uma postagem

Se você estiver procurando por uma postagem ou memória específica, poderá pesquisar por data e mês. Para pesquisar uma data ou hora, faça o seguinte:

Passo 1

Visite a página do seu Perfil e clique em & # 8216Filtros & # 8217, que deve estar localizado abaixo da caixa & # 8220O que & # 8217s em sua mente? & # 8221.

Passo 2

Use as opções de filtro para restringir seus critérios de pesquisa.

Etapa 3

Use a opção Grid View para ver mais posts. Quando você encontrar aquele em que está interessado, clique nele, compartilhe, exclua ou faça as edições necessárias.

Posso deletar minhas memórias?

Yes, but unfortunately only one at a time. When an old post pops up that you wish you would’ve deleted simply click on the three horizontal dots in the upper right-hand corner and click to delete the post.

Why am I only seeing some memories?

Next to preferences check your Notifications options. A drop-down menu will appear, click ‘All Memories’ if ‘Highlights’ or ‘None’ are checked.


About Shaheed Diwas History

Shaheed Diwas date falls on March 23 every year. On March 23, 1931, the three freedom fighters Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev were hanged to death in Lahore (Pakistan) jail. They were arrested for their involvement in the Lahore conspiracy during the British rule in India, later they received the death penalty for the same. After Lala Lajpat Rai's death in November 1928, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev and others vowed to avenge his death as Rai was a respected leader in India's freedom movement.

They plotted to kill James A Scott, who was the Superintendent of Police in the British Raj, as he had ordered the lathi charge where Lala Lajpat Rai eventually got injured and passed away due to the injuries. However, the trio killed John P Saunders, an Assistant Superintendent of Police, instead of James A Scott, due to mistaken identity. They were later charged for the murder of Saunders, and sentenced to death. India commemorates the sacrifice of these brave Indian men for the freedom of India.


Tasty memories: 97 long-gone Portland restaurants we wish were still around

Restaurants are special places. We celebrate milestones like birthdays and anniversaries there. We go out to eat when we need a taste of comfort after a hard day. And the best eateries leave us with wonderful memories of great meals and laughter that can last a lifetime.

Oregonian file photos

But restaurants tend to have short lifespans, with many of them lasting only a handful of years. Even restaurants with unbelievable staying power eventually run out of gas. This year, several longtime Portland favorites closed their doors. The 21-year-old Indian restaurant Bombay Cricket Club poured its last mango margarita in August. In September, downtown's Veritable Quandary closed after 45 years. In November, Old Town's Alexis Restaurant dished up its last souvlaki after 36 years in the dining game.

Rose Howerter, The Oregonian

And early next year, the German restaurant Der Rheinlander will end its 53-year run of schnitzels, bratwurst and singing waiters. And so it goes …

But these long-gone restaurants live on in our memories. Earlier this year, we asked readers which closed restaurant they missed the most, and the response was incredible. From the elegant Italian spot Alba Osteria & Enoteca to the legendary Zefiro, which redrew Portland's dining map, here are 97 historic dining spots we wish were still around. Some were quirky reflections of who we are. Others elevated our tastes and expectations.

Brian Feulner, The Oregonian

Alba Osteria & Enoteca

Southwest Portland's Hillsdale neighborhood has never had the concentration of ambitious restaurants that you find in other parts of town, but this wine-focused Italian kitchen ranked among the city's best during its seven-year run. Chef-owner Kurt Spak specialized in Piedmontese cuisine, including house-made pasta, like agnolotti stuffed with veal, pork and rabbit. The wine list offered Italian vintages not found elsewhere, and the vibe was spiffy without being stuffy, making it popular with regulars. It closed on New Year's Eve in 2010, making way for Sasquatch Brewing Company.

Alberta Street Oyster Bar & Grill

The late restaurateur Peter Hochman created this Alberta Arts District temple to surf & turf in 2005, where then up-and-coming chef Eric Bechard celebrated not just oysters, but rustic fare like fried veal sweetbreads with glazed shallots, chestnuts and a raisin sauce. But heavy debt sunk the restaurant's fortunes. After a change in ownership forced it to briefly close and reopen, it never fully recovered, closing for good in 2009. Bechard went on to open McMinnville's acclaimed Thistle (and achieved notoriety over a fist fight over the provenance of a pig), and the space is now the Irish pub T.C. O'Leary's.

Torsten Kjellstrand, The Oregonian

For 36 years, dining at Old Town’s Alexis Restaurant felt like a party in a boisterous Athens tavern. The Greek fare included comforting fare like braised lamb shanks, fried calamari, and saganaki, an ouzo-drenched cheese that was served in flaming glory. The business gradually expanded to include a line of products sold at grocery stores. But it became challenging to attract diners in recent years, as lower West Burnside became the epicenter of Portland’s homeless problem. In November, owner Gerry Tsirimiagos shuttered the restaurant, which he had opened just a few years after immigrating from Greece.

Rob Finch, The Oregonian

In 1995, New York attorney Darryl Joannides and his wife, Sarah, opened this Sellwood Italian restaurant, which got terrific reviews and drew big crowds. Under chef Teodoro KuMay, the kitchen produced an array of meat and seafood dishes. But the real stars were the 18 types of pasta, including lemony spaghetti with seared scallops and homemade ravioli. If you couldn’t decide on one, you could order a sampling of noodles, chosen by the chef and served with great ritual to the entire table. After a decade, the Joannideses sold the business to new owners, who opened a short-lived second location in Beaverton. Two years later, the original closed, too.

Stephanie Yao Long, The Oregonian

In the 1980s and ➐s, this romantic restaurant on the 30th floor of the U.S. Bancorp building was one of the city's top dining destinations. The big draw, of course, was the stunning view of downtown Portland, the city's east side and (on clear days) Mount Hood. At its peak in the mid-➐s, under then-wunderkind chef Mark Gould, the kitchen served towering constructions of food – this was the era of architectural cuisine – with hints of Asia running throughout. Meals became less reliable after several chef changes, but the bar remained a vital part of the city's jazz scene, with live music most nights, including a standing gig by the late Leroy Vinnegar, the grandfather of the walking bass. In 2001, the restaurant lost its lease and closed, making way for Portland City Grill, which has those same great views, but little of the magic.

Joel Davis, The Oregonian

B. Moloch/Heathman Bakery & Pub

For 10 years, this downtown delicatessen, bakery and pizza spot was a popular pre-theater spot with the symphony crowd, drawn by affordable sandwiches and salads in a cheery two-level space featuring large paintings by 19th-century French caricaturist Colomb – who signed his name backwards as B. Moloch. In its early years, the rustic Northwest menu was overseen by chef Greg Higgins, who was chef at the sister Heathman Restaurant, and later would go on to win a James Beard award at his own namesake restaurant. In 1998, B. Moloch served its last designer pizza, and the space was transformed into the seafood restaurant SouthPark.

Angela Pancrazio, The Oregonian

There was no way diners could keep from smiling while having breakfast at this funky North Portland café, which dished up creative breakfasts and hefty sandwiches beginning in 1994 on a then-gritty stretch of North Killingsworth Avenue. Owners Bill Lockner and Virlis Kikel filled the dining room with old car memorabilia – vintage hubcaps, hood ornaments and fenders were everywhere. The menu’s stars were omelets, like Green Eggs and Ham, a pesto-egg scramble filled with Black Forest ham. After 20 years, it closed in 2014, and the space now is a marijuana dispensary.


The Life of William Wallace

To understand the story of Sir William Wallace, we must take a look at the political climate of Scotland in 1286. King Alexander III of Scotland had three children at the time, two sons and one daughter, but by 1286, all three were dead.

His only daughter, Margaret, had given birth to just one other daughter, also named Margaret, and then died shortly thereafter. This daughter, although being just three-years-old, was recognized as Queen of Scots, but she died in 1290 while traveling from her father’s home in Norway back to Scotland, leaving the Scots without a monarch.

Naturally, many different members of the nobility stepped forward to proclaim their right to the throne, and tensions rose as each man jockeyed for control Scotland was on the brink of Civil War.

To stop this, the King of England at the time, Edward the I, stepped in after being requested to arbitrate by the Scottish nobility. He was to choose who would take over the throne, but Edward had a condition: he wanted to be recognized the Lord Paramount of Scotland, to which they agreed.

The most credible claims were John Balliol and Robert Bruce, grandfather of future king. A court decided who would be the rightful heir to the throne and by 1292 John Balliol was selected to be the next King of Scotland.

Yet Edward had very little interest in allowing the Scots to live free. He levied taxes upon them, which they accepted well enough, but he also demanded that the Scots give military service in the war effort against France.

The response to Edward’s demand was a renouncement of paying homage to the King of England by the Scots and an attempt to secure an alliance with France to wage war against the English.

Upon learning about such a decision, King Edward I of England moved his forces into Scotland and sacked the city of Berwick, seizing control of it and demanding that King John Balliol surrender the rest of his territories. The Scots fought back at the Battle of Dunbar and were utterly crushed.

John Balliol abdicated the throne, earning him the nickname of “empty coat.” It was this point that the English occupation of Scotland became a reality and the nation was more or less conquered by King Edward.

This created tension within Scotland but with their king’s leadership failing to inspire a great fight against the British and the occupation of their lands, there was not much that they could do without a leader. It would seem that as long as the English stood strong, they would ultimately be subjugated by King Edward.


'Incredibly difficult year'

The prime minister said he would observe the minute's silence at noon privately.

Other senior politicians have given their support to the event, with Labour leader Sir Keir Starmer, Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon and Welsh First Minister Mark Drakeford all saying they would take part.

Mr Johnson said: "This has been an incredibly difficult year for our country. My thoughts are with all those who have lost loved ones, and who have not been able to pay tribute to them in the way they would have wanted.

"As we continue to make progress against the virus, I want to thank people for the sacrifices they continue to make, and hope they can look forward to being reunited with loved ones as restrictions are cautiously eased."

Alongside the minute's silence and doorstep vigil, the day will also see community-led activities take place, such as virtual assemblies, choirs, services and yellow ribbons being wrapped around trees.

A series of free online talks organised by the Good Grief Festival will also take place, featuring experts, bereaved families and celebrities.

It is hoped people will help create a nationwide "beacon of remembrance" on their doorsteps by beaming phones, candles and torches into the night sky at 20:00.

Marie Curie chief executive Matthew Reed said it was "important that we all come together to reflect on our collective loss, celebrate the lives of the special people no longer here, support those who've been bereaved and look towards a much brighter future".


Conducting Oral Histories with Family Members

Preparing For The Interview

  • The more you know about your subject, the better the interview will be. If possible, do some research ahead of time. Study genealogy charts for dates and names if you have old diaries or letters, read them if you have family photos or movies, look at them. And don't forget more general historical sources. If you want to talk about your father's experiences as a soldier in World War II, you'll ask more informed questions if you've read a good historical study of the war. If you want to understand your aunt's involvement in the civil rights movement, find out more about the bigger picture. That way you'll know what questions to ask and can raise topics that your interviewee might otherwise not think of or be hesitant to discuss.
  • Draw up an outline for the interview ahead of time. You may not follow it exactly, but it will provide a general blueprint. In general, a chronological organization is usually the best structure for an oral history interview. It allows you to see how the interviewee's experience and ideas developed over time, gives depth and richness to the topics being discussed, and offers a convenient organizing structure so that the two of you don't simply drift in a welter of random reminiscences. Once you've finished your outline, list as many topics under each heading as you can think of. Of course you won't use every one of the questions you come up with in the interview, but it's a helpful way of starting to think about the kinds of things you want to discuss. (See sample outline and questions.)
  • It will be helpful if you can give the interviewee an outline ahead of time so that they can see the topics you'd like to discuss (and also add new ones of their own). Don't give them a complete list of questions, however. Then you run the risk that they'll simply run down the list of questions one by one rather than engaging in the kind of spontaneous discussion that makes for a good interview. Also explain what you plan to do with the interview and who will have access to it. Are you going to give complete copies of the recordings to everyone in the family so that they can all listen to everything that was said? Are you merely going to pull information and quotes out of the interviews for a family history you're writing and that you will then run past the interviewees for review? And what will you do with material that is potentially painful or humiliating to the interviewee or hurtful to others in the family? You'll probably want some kind of policy that says you'll erase material that people decide they don't want on the record or will not make it available to anyone else in the family for a specified number of years. This too should be conveyed to the interviewee before the interview begins and hopefully will make for a more candid interview. Finally, if you are planning on publishing portions of the interviews, putting them on a website, or using them in any way that goes beyond the family itself, you need to have a signed agreement. Remember that legally and ethically this is the interviewee's story, and you need permission for any use you make of it.
  • Insist that each interview be between you and the one person being interviewed. If you have a third person in the room, what you will get is the two people's agreed-upon version of reality in which individual experiences do not emerge as clearly and viewpoints that do not fit into the shared reality do not get aired.

Interviewing Techniques

  • An oral history interview is not about the interviewer. The focus should be on the interviewee and they should do most of the talking, with occasional questions from you to guide them in directions you think are the most productive.
  • As indicated above, in general, a life history interview should proceed chronologically. Since memory does not follow a strict chronology, however, inevitably the interviewee will jump around a good deal in time. That jumping around is important and shows how they connect different areas of their experience, and you do not want to discourage it entirely. On the other hand, if they jump around too much, the chronological thread of the interview will be lost entirely. Sometimes you will decide that it is productive to have them leap to another time to illuminate the point they are making. However, once they've finished making their point, you'll generally want to indicate that, although you do want to hear what they have to say, right now you want to bring them back to the time period you were discussing.
  • Once the interviewee begins talking, don't interrupt them. Interruptions disrupt the flow of their narrative, break their concentration, and mean you may never get to hear the rest of what they had to say. Wait until they complete their train of thought to ask a follow-up question or introduce a new topic. With exceptionally long-winded or rambling interviewees, you may need to learn to jump in very quickly and firmly when a story is completed and may also need to set expectations at the beginning of each interview session about how much of the material on your outline you need to cover that day.
  • Don't just follow questions on a list. Instead, ask a question and then listen and build on what they say with follow-up questions.
  • Open up a new topic with a large question that allows the interviewee to describe their experience at length. Questions that begin "Tell me about . . ." or "Can you describe . . ." are good ways of stimulating the interviewee's memory and allowing them to generate their own story rather than simply responding to the predetermined forms that you lay out. In general, think of the various topics of your interview as structured like an inverted pyramid: broad, general questions first, followed by follow-up questions that ask for more detail.
  • Remember that what you are after are narratives-stories, that is, that convey the interviewee's experience- not just facts or opinions. Though you may be looking for some of the facts of your family history (the whos, wheres, and whens), you'll also want to ask questions that will lead people to talk about their lives more reflectively and in greater detail (the whys, hows, and whats).
  • Try to get the specifics of an interviewee's lived experience before you ask them to evaluate that experience or offer more general opinions on the subject. For example, instead of simply asking people for their opinions on how children should be raised, you'll get a richer sense of their actual thoughts and practices if you talk about what they actually did with their own children and only once you've heard the specifics, asking them to give their larger philosophy or reflect on what they would do differently in retrospect.
  • Yes or no questions are useful when you need to clarify a specific detail but should otherwise be avoided because they do not generate the rich, full answers that open-ended questions do. Similarly, avoid questions that are leading ("Don't you think that . . .") or either/or questions that allow for only a couple of options. Such questions foreclose opportunities to hear the interviewee's own take on an issue, which may be very different than the options you had plotted out.
  • Be open to hearing disturbing experiences and negative or ambivalent feelings. When we do family history, we often end up succumbing to a kind of family boosterism where family members feel they need to promote the idea of the always happy and conflict-free family. But families are complex entities and people's feelings do not fit neatly into pre-determined categories. Ideally, an oral history should offer the interviewee the opportunity to reflect on their life and relationships thoughtfully and honestly without having to follow a party line. And it is your attentiveness and willingness to take the interviewee's feelings and experiences seriously that enables that thoughtful reflection. (Which doesn't, of course, mean that you will necessarily make everything one family member says available to all the others or include everything in your written family history.)
  • The converse of the above problem is that there may be sensitive issues that you would like to discuss but are concerned that the interviewee won't be willing to discuss. In such cases there are several strategies you may follow. First of all, try to create a comfortable interview atmosphere in general. Don't start the first interview session with highly personal or sensitive questions. As the interviewee becomes more relaxed with the interview situation and with you as an interviewer, they may open up more and be willing to discuss issues they would not have been willing to discuss at the beginning of the interview. Second, if possible, instead of suddenly springing the big taboo topic late in the interview, try to build up to it by discussing matters that are less threatening but related to it early on. For example, if you know the interviewee completely broke off relations with his father later on in life but you don't know why, you may try to spend a good deal of time early in the interview exploring their family relationships, including their relationship with their father, when they were growing up. This approach has two advantages: one, even if the interviewee never discusses the actual reason for the estrangement, you will still get a sense of the relationship and some of the issues involved two, it gives you something to refer back when you want to open up the issue later ("You had said that when you were a boy, your father never wanted to let you run your own life. Did he continue to have that attitude once you moved out?") and it leads the interviewee into the topic gently so that maybe they are more comfortable talking about it later on. Finally, if you have a relationship with the interviewee where you can honestly discuss the question before the interview, ask them how they feel about discussing the sensitive topic, and if you think it should be discussed, tell them why. If, however, they do not want to discuss the issue, always respect their wishes.
  • Simply because you are respecting the interviewee's right to tell their story the way the want it told doesn't mean you shouldn't challenge them when necessary. If you know there is more to a story than they are telling or if they seem to be glossing over negative aspects or alternative views, find ways to suggest contradictions or raise alternatives that don't attack them directly. If the interviewee gives a very one-sided view of a conflict, ask them if they can provide any explanations for why the other party behaved the way they did or what their viewpoint was. If they leave out crucial information, indicate that you've heard other versions of the story and ask if they know any way to reconcile the two (though don't implicate other family members unless the interviewee already know that those family members disagree with them). In general, if the interviewee expresses very decided opinions on an issue, raise possible objections in a very neutral way without implying that the objections are your opinion ("I've heard it said that . . ." or "I understand what you're saying, but what would you say to the objection that . . .").
  • An hour and a half to two hours is usually about the right length of time for an interview session. After that point, both the interviewer and the interviewee generally begin to tire. Note too that you cannot do a full life history interview in one session. In general you should plan to do at least three or four sessions with each interviewee.

Equipment/Recording

  • If you are going to be doing a number of interviews and you intend them to be handed down to children and grandchildren, invest in reasonable quality equipment that will record a cleaner sound and image than your computer or smart phone. A guide to buying an audio recorder can be found on the site "Oral History in the Digital Age" at http://ohda.matrix.msu.edu/askdoug/ If you are doing video, a little on-line research can help you identify well-reviewed recorders in your price range. "Oral History in the Digital Age" also provides some basic tips on recording video interviews at http://ohda.matrix.msu.edu/2012/08/quick-tips-for-better-interview-video/
  • Test your equipment out beforehand to make sure that the sound and/or image are adequate for your purposes. Practice recording with the equipment until you are completely comfortable with it and understand how to troubleshoot it if anything goes wrong.
  • Conduct the interview in as quiet a place as possible. Sounds that you may not even notice during the interview will inevitably be magnified on the recording, sometimes to the point of making the interview almost inaudible. So don't record in a public place and try to avoid settings with background noises such as construction, humming machines, etc.
  • Before you begin each interview session, do a brief test recording with the interviewee on site and play it back to make sure the equipment is functioning properly and that there is no distracting background noise.
  • Develop a filing system in which you label your recordings with the interviewee's name and the date so that nothing gets misplaced. And, above all, back your recordings up in several different places-you don't want those memories to vanish with a computer crash or a lost flash drive.

Sample Family History Outline

I. Early Childhood and Family Background

  • Ask when and where they were born and then start off with a general question: "Tell me about your parents" or "Tell me about your family background"
  • Where was family originally from? What do they know about that place? Have they ever visited it?
  • What stories did they hear growing up about earlier ancestors whom they never knew?
  • What parents did for a living? As a child, did they contribute to the family income or help parents in their work in any way?
  • What was parents' religious background? How was religion observed in their home?
  • What were parents' political beliefs? What political or other organizations were they involved in?
  • What other relatives did they have contact with growing up?
  • What do they remember about their grandparents?
  • Describe their siblings and their interactions with when they were young. What did they do together? What conflicts did they have? Who were they closest to?
  • Describe the house they grew up in. Describe their room.
  • What were family's economic circumstances? Do they remember any times when money was tight? Do they remember having to do without things they wanted or needed?
  • What were their duties around the house as a child? What were the other children's duties? How did duties break down by gender?
  • What skills did they learn (e.g., cooking, carpentry, crafts) and who taught them? What activities did the family do together?
  • Any special food they remember from their childhood? Do they currently make any traditional family foods?
  • What did they do on Christmas? Thanksgiving? Birthdays? Other holidays?

B. Community Grew Up In

  • Describe the community they grew up in and especially their own neighborhood.
  • Races and ethnicities in neighborhood, what people did for a living, class differences.
  • Where did they shop? What was the largest town or city they remember visiting when they were young and what were their impression of it.
  • Description of school they attended. What was school like for them? What did they like about it? What was hard about it?
  • Friends. Favorite teachers.
  • Favorite subjects.
  • Special activities.
  • Discipline.
  • Any teasing or bullying.

D. Friends and Interests

  • What did they do in their spare time?
  • Who were their friends and what did they do when they got together?
  • Hobbies? Favorite stories? Favorite games or make-believe?
  • What did they want to be when they grew up?

II. Teenage Years

  • How did relationship with parents change when they became a teenager?
  • Additional responsibilities, chores?
  • If they had conflict with parents, what was it over?
  • Favorite subjects? Particular interests?
  • Least favorite subjects?
  • Memorable teachers? Describe their teaching style. How did they influence them?
  • Different groups in school? Which did they belong to? How do they think they were perceived by others?
  • Extracurricular activities.
  • What were their plans when they finished school? Education? Work?
  • What did their parents think of their plans? What did their friends plan to do?
  • Did the boys and girls in the family have different plans/expectations?

D. Social Life and Outside Interests

  • Who were their friends and what backgrounds did they come from? What did they do together?
  • Age began dating? Kind of activities? Describe first date.
  • Parents' advice/rules related to dating/contact with opposite sex? Advice from church or school? Peer group's norms with regard to dating and relationships with opposite sex?
  • Hobbies/interests? Books read? Music listened to? Sports played? Crafts participated in?

III. Adulthood

B. Marriage or Formation of Significant Relationships

  • How met. What drew them together
  • Describe decision to marry/move in together
  • What was most difficult being in a relationship originally? What was most satisfying?
  • Changes in relationship
  • Break-ups, divorces, deaths.
  • Who worked in the household and how did they support the family?
  • Specifics of their employment: positions they held, duties, part-time employment or self-employment
  • Difficulties and stresses on the job/Rewards
  • Balancing work and family
  • Describe the birth of children.
  • What they were each like when they were young. How they have changed or not changed.
  • Relationships with when young and now
  • What activities did the family do together?
  • Family traditions.
  • What was most satisfying to them about raising children? What was most difficult?
  • What values did they try to raise their children with? How did they go about doing that?
  • What forms of discipline did they use and why?

E. Church, political and other involvement: specifics of, reasons for and passions behind

F. Ongoing interests and hobbies

4. Overview and Evaluation

  • What has provided them the greatest satisfaction in their life?
  • How would they say the world has changed since they were young?

In addition, don't forget to ask people about historically significant events they lived through:

  • How was their family affected by the Depression?
  • Did they or anyone close to them serve in World War II and what do they remember of that experience?
  • Did they support or were they opposed to the war in Vietnam or the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and how did they express their political opinions?
  • Did they participate in or do they have any memories of any of the movements that came out of the fifties, sixties, and seventies-the civil rights movement, the women's liberation movement, the gay liberation movement, and so forth?
  • If the interviewee belongs to a group that has traditionally been discriminated against, ask them what they were told, both positive and negative, about their group inside their family and outside of it. Ask them about discrimination they experienced and also who their role models were.
  • If the interviewee is an immigrant or their parents or grandparents were immigrants, ask them to describe what they know of the country they came from, why they immigrated, how they immigrated, and the specifics and difficulties of beginning a life in a new country.
  • Do they remember their first contact with such significant inventions as radio, television, personal computers, etc.? When did their family first buy them and how did the family use them?

Family History Resources

Sharon DeBartolo Carmack, "Interviewing Mom and Grandma: Oral History Tips." Available at genealogy.com (http://www.genealogy.com/95_carmack.html).

William Fletcher, Recording Your Family History: A Guide to Preserving Oral History with Videotape, Audiotape, Suggested Topics and Questions, Interview Techniques (Tenspeen Press, 1986). Workbook with numerous sample questions. Primarily for young adults.

Hasker Nelson, Listening for Our Past: A Lay Guide to African American Oral History Interviewing (Heritage Research Creations, 2000). Focuses on African American family history. More concerned, however, with genealogical questions than with asking interviewees about their own lives.

Donald Ritchie, Doing Oral History: A Practical Guide (Oxford University Press, 2003). A clear, readable introduction to oral history in general.

Vera Rosenbluth, Keeping Family Stories Alive: Discovering and Recording the Stories and Reflections of a Lifetime (Hartley and Marks Publishers, 1997). Includes interviewing tips, questions, and excerpts from sample interviews.

Elizabeth Stone, Black Sheep and Kissing Cousins: How Our Family Stories Shape Us (Penguin, 1984). Explores how families use their shared stories to define themselves.

Katherine Scott Sturdevant, Bringing Your Family History to Life through Social History (Cincinnati: Betterway Books, 2000). Introduction to family history that makes it more than names and dates. Includes information on analyzing family artifacts and photographs, conducting effective oral history interviews doing library research, and writing rich family histories that give the reader a better sense of your family and the times they lived in.

Robert M. Wendlinger, The Memory Triggering Book (Proust Press, 1995). Helps readers find triggers that can inspire vivid, sensory access to past events.


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