McGillivray, Alexander - História

McGillivray, Alexander - História

McGillivray, Alexander (1759-1793) Principal chefe dos índios Creek: McGillivray era de ascendência mista Creek e europeia. e se tornou uma figura proeminente durante a Guerra Revolucionária. Seu pai, Lachlan, era bem relacionado no comércio com os nativos americanos, permitindo que Alexander McGillivray se movesse confortavelmente nos círculos de Savannah e no mundo da civilização Creek. Suas habilidades bilíngües lhe renderam um emprego como Comissário Assistente do Departamento do Sul das Índias Britânicas em Little Tallassee. Depois de 1777, a influência de sua mãe entre seu povo permitiu-lhe adquirir uma posição de liderança de bandos de guerreiros de Upper Creek em direção à fronteira da Geórgia no leste e a Pensacola para apoiar as tropas britânicas que lutavam lá. Assim que as tropas espanholas de ataque foram repelidas em Pensacola, as tropas de McGullivray foram responsáveis ​​por mudar a sorte da batalha. No século XIX, McGullivray foi descrito como um covarde, mas tal caracterização não pode ser comprovada. Em 1783, McGullivray foi escolhido Upper Creek "Guerreiro Principal" e trabalhou por dois anos para preservar a autonomia Creek jogando vários grupos uns contra os outros, incluindo facções tribais, oficiais espanhóis, diplomatas americanos, especuladores da Geórgia e seus próprios parceiros de negócios. Uma presença poderosa para os Creeks na fronteira sul, McGullivray serviu ao povo de sua mãe até o fim de sua vida, e sua morte deixou um vácuo na liderança que nunca foi preenchido adequadamente.


Alexander McGillivray

Esta ilustração do Chefe Hopothle Mico, de John Trumbull, é muitas vezes erroneamente atribuída como um retrato de Alexander McGillivray. Os dois homens foram líderes proeminentes de seu tempo e estiveram na cidade de Nova York durante o verão de 1790, quando o Tratado de Nova York de 1790 foi negociado. A assinatura de McGillivray é a primeira entre os líderes Creek que assinaram, enquanto Hopothle-mica assina apenas algumas linhas abaixo dele como "Big Tallisee: Hopothe Mico ou Tallisee King" que é a nota de Trumbull sobre este retrato que está em exibição "Da Biblioteca Pública de Nova York", https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47db-181f-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99.

Alexander McGillivray, também conhecido como Hoboi-Hili-Miko (15 de dezembro de 1750 - 17 de fevereiro de 1793), foi o chefe principal das cidades de Upper Creek (Muscogee) desde 1782. Antes disso, ele havia criado uma aliança entre os Creek e os britânicos durante a Revolução Americana. Ele trabalhou para estabelecer uma identidade nacional Creek e liderança centralizada como meio de resistir à expansão europeu-americana no território Creek.


Alexander McGillivray, imperador da nação Creek

Alexander McGillivray (1750-1793)

Muitos grandes chefes históricos são celebrados na cultura popular dos índios americanos. Os nomes mais comumente lembrados incluem Crazy Horse, Geronimo, Red Cloud, Tecumseh e Chief Joseph. Junto com eles está o chefe de Muscogee Creek do século 18, Alexander McGillivray, um grande homem de quem não se fala tão comumente, mas é tão significativo para a história dos índios americanos e dos Estados Unidos quanto os mencionados anteriormente.

Alexander McGillivray foi o principal chefe da Nação Creek perto do final do século XVIII. Ele era filho de Sehoy Marchand, uma mulher francesa Creek do poderoso Clã do Vento. Seu pai foi o proeminente comerciante escocês Lachlan McGillivray que imigrou para o país Creek em 1736 de Dunmaglass, Escócia, e passou a maior parte de seu tempo em Little Tallassee e Otciabofa, que também era chamado de Hickory Ground [1] no rio Coosa. Foi aqui que Lachlan conheceu Sehoy.

Lachlan garantiu terras entre o povo Creek perto das ruínas do forte francês de Toulouse perto de Little Tallassee. Lá, ele plantou um jardim e construiu uma casa de fazenda, batizando-a de “Bosque de Maçãs”. Com o tempo, Lachlan se tornou um comerciante rico, entrincheirado e muito respeitado entre os índios.

Quando Alexander era jovem, seu pai o enviou para Charleston, S.C. para ser educado na tradição britânica. Depois de voltar para sua casa no rio Coosa, Alexander foi homenageado como chefe do Conselho Nacional Creek e recebeu o nome de Hopue-hethlee-Mekko ou "Good-Child King". Pouco depois, ele foi comissionado coronel no exército britânico e instalado como o agente inglês para os índios. Ele vestiu o uniforme de um oficial britânico, com a touca de um chefe Creek, com as penas brancas de sua posição e liderou uma facção de guerreiros Creek na Batalha de Pensacola.

Em pouco tempo, Alexandre ganhou destaque, tornando-se o principal chefe da nação Creek. Sendo um fã da história europeia, ele preferiu usar o termo imperador, embora seu poder real na nação fosse severamente limitado e um tanto tênue. Ele era um visitante frequente e proprietário em Pensacola, Flórida, negociando tratados com os espanhóis, que eram a potência europeia dominante na região. Ele liderou ataques financiados pela Espanha contra assentamentos na fronteira americana na Geórgia. Após a Revolução Americana, McGillivray foi convidado para a Virgínia, onde recebeu um Generalato pago por George Washington no exército dos Estados Unidos.

Um capitalista ávido, Alexander McGillivray também foi um investidor e sócio silencioso em Panton, Leslie and Company, que abriu um entreposto comercial na propriedade de McGillivray, o primeiro edifício de tijolo e argamassa estabelecido em Pensacola, FL. Sua primeira esposa foi Vicey Cornells, que lhe deu duas filhas: Peggy e Lizzie. Sua segunda esposa foi Elise Moniac, irmã do chefe Choctaw Red Shoes e eles tiveram três filhos: Margaret, Alleck e Elizabeth.

Como estadista nativo, McGillivray trabalhou incansavelmente ao longo de sua carreira para criar uma nação Creek reconhecível e respeitada pelas nações europeias, mas ainda distintamente Creek, distintamente “indiana”. Muito parecido com seus vizinhos Cherokee, ele teve sucesso, pelo menos até 1830, quando a Lei de Remoção de Índios foi sancionada por Andrew Jackson, roubando o povo de suas terras.

Em janeiro de 1793, McGillivray viajou para Pensacola para uma reunião de negócios com William Panton. Na viagem, ele teve febre e nunca mais se recuperou. Em 17 de fevereiro de 1793 às onze horas da noite, na casa de William Panton, Alexander McGillivray morreu. Ele foi enterrado no jardim da casa de Panton em Pensacola, sepultado com todas as honras maçônicas [2]. Alexander McGillivray era um líder tão amado e respeitado que foi pranteado em todas as terras. Seu obituário foi publicado em Londres na Gentleman’s Magazine.

17 de fevereiro. Em Pensacola, o Sr. McGillivray, um chefe Creek, muito lamentado por aqueles que o conheciam melhor. Aconteceu que naquele tempo em Pensacola um numeroso bando de gregos, que observaram sua doença com a mais marcada ansiedade, e quando sua morte foi anunciada a eles, e enquanto o seguiam até o túmulo, é impossível que palavras descrevam o altos gritos de verdadeira dor que eles desabafaram em sua dor não afetada. Ele era, pelo lado de seu pai, um escocês, da respeitável família de Drummaglass, em Invernesshire. O vigor de sua mente superou as desvantagens de uma educação nos confins da América, e ele conhecia bem todas as ciências europeias mais úteis. Na última parte de sua vida, ele compôs, com muito cuidado, a história de várias classes dos habitantes originais da América e esta pretendia apresentar ao Professor Robertson, para publicação na próxima edição de sua História. O escritor europeu e o americano não existem mais e o MMS deste último, teme-se, pereceu, pois os índios aderem ao seu costume de destruir todos os objetos inanimados que um amigo morto mais gostasse. Só depois que o Sr. McGillivray o fez influência entre eles, que permitiram que os escravos de um senhor falecido vivessem. ”[3]

[1] Hickory Ground uma cidade muito especial e ponto de encontro dentro do Upper Creek Country. Creek Ocē vpofv, também chamado de Little Tallassee.

[2] Acredita-se que Alexander McGillivray foi o primeiro maçom no estado do Alabama. Alguns pesquisadores afirmam que os restos mortais de A.M. foram enviados para a Escócia e enterrados nas terras de seu pai Lachlan.

[3] Gentleman & # 8217s Magazine, Impresso sob a legenda: Marriages and Deaths of optional Persons, & # 8221 agosto de 1793, vol. LXIII, Londres, p. 767


Alexander McGillivray

Alexander McGillivray, também conhecido como Hoboi-Hili-Miko (15 de dezembro de 1750 - 17 de fevereiro de 1793), foi o principal chefe das cidades de Upper Creek (Muscogee) desde 1782. Antes disso, ele havia criado uma aliança entre o Creek e os Britânico durante a Revolução Americana. Ele trabalhou para estabelecer uma identidade nacional Creek e liderança centralizada como meio de resistir à expansão europeu-americana no território Creek.

McGillivray nasceu Hoboi-Hili-Miko (Good Child King) na vila Coushatta de Little Tallassee (também conhecida como Little Tallase, Little Talisi e Little Tulsa) no rio Coosa, perto da atual Montgomery, Alabama. A mãe de Alexander, Sehoy Marchand, era filha de Sehoy, uma mestiça Creek do prestigioso Wind Clan (& # 8220Hutalgalgi & # 8221), e de Jean Baptiste Louis DeCourtel Marchand, um oficial francês em Fort Toulouse. Alexandre e seus irmãos nasceram no Clã do Vento, pois os Muscogee tinham um sistema matrilinear e ganharam o status do clã de sua mãe. Eles se identificaram como Creek. Seu pai era Lachlan McGillivray, um comerciante escocês (da linhagem do chefe do Clã MacGillivray & # 8217s). Ele construiu entrepostos comerciais entre as Cidades Superiores da confederação Muscogee, cujos membros haviam negociado anteriormente com a Louisiana Francesa.

Quando criança, Alexandre viveu brevemente em Augusta com seu pai, que era dono de várias grandes plantações e era um delegado na assembleia colonial. Em 1773, o menino foi mandado para a escola em Charleston, Carolina do Sul, onde aprendeu latim e grego, e foi aprendiz em um escritório de contabilidade em Savannah, Geórgia. Ele voltou para Little Tallassee em 1777. Os governos revolucionários da Geórgia e da Carolina do Sul confiscaram a propriedade de seu pai legalista, que voltou para a Escócia.

Durante a Revolução Americana, Alexander McGillivray foi comissionado como coronel do exército britânico. Ele negociou uma aliança britânica-Muscogee. Diplomata habilidoso, ele era um estrategista militar inepto e raramente participava de batalhas.

Em 1783, McGillivray se tornou o chefe principal das cidades de Upper Creek. Seu predecessor, Chief Emistigo, morreu enquanto liderava um grupo de guerra para aliviar a guarnição britânica em Savannah, que foi sitiada pelo Exército Continental sob o comando do General & # 8216Mad & # 8217 Anthony Wayne. Ao mesmo tempo, McGillivray exerceu grande poder, tendo de 5.000 a 10.000 guerreiros.

McGillivray se opôs ao Tratado de Augusta de 1783, segundo o qual dois chefes de Lower Creek cederam as terras de Muscogee do Ogeechee aos rios Oconee para o novo estado da Geórgia. Em junho de 1784, ele negociou o Tratado de Pensacola com a Espanha, que reconheceu a soberania de Muscogee sobre três milhões de acres (12.000 km²) de terras reivindicadas pela Geórgia, garantiu o acesso à empresa britânica de comércio de peles Panton, Leslie & # 038 Company e fez a McGillivray um representante oficial da Espanha, com um salário mensal de $ 50. McGillivray tornou-se sócio da Panton, Leslie & # 038 Co., e usou seu controle sobre o comércio de pele de veado para expandir seu poder.

Ele procurou criar mecanismos de autoridade política centralizada para acabar com a autonomia tradicional da aldeia, por meio da qual chefes individuais assinaram tratados e cederam terras. Armados por comerciantes britânicos que operavam na Flórida Ocidental espanhola, os Muscogee invadiram colonos europeus-americanos do interior para proteger seus campos de caça. De 1785 a 1787, os grupos de guerra de Upper Creek lutaram ao lado dos Cherokee nas Guerras Chickamauga, no atual Tennessee. Em 1786, um conselho de Upper e Lower Creek em Tuckabatchee declarou guerra contra a Geórgia. As autoridades espanholas se opuseram a isso e, depois que disseram a McGillivray que reduziriam a ajuda se ele persistisse, ele entrou em negociações de paz com os EUA.

Um legalista como seu pai, McGillivray se ressentia do desenvolvimento da política indígena dos Estados Unidos, entretanto, ele não desejava deixar o território Creek. McGillivray se tornou o principal porta-voz de todas as tribos ao longo das áreas de fronteira entre a Flórida e a Geórgia.

O escândalo de terras em Yazoo, na Geórgia, convenceu o presidente George Washington de que o governo federal precisava controlar os assuntos indígenas, em vez de permitir que os estados celebrassem tratados. Em 1790, ele enviou um emissário especial ao Sudeste, que persuadiu McGillivray e outros chefes a participar de uma conferência com Henry Knox, o Secretário da Guerra, na cidade de Nova York, então capital dos Estados Unidos. A conferência resultou no Tratado de Nova York . (Durante décadas, a política indiana esteve sob a supervisão do Departamento de Guerra.)

McGillivray e 29 outros chefes assinaram o Tratado de Nova York em nome de & # 8216Upper, Middle and Lower Creek e Seminole que compõem a nação de índios Creek. & # 8217 O primeiro tratado negociado após a ratificação da Constituição dos EUA, estabeleceu a Altamaha e os rios Oconee como a fronteira entre as terras de Creek e os Estados Unidos. O governo dos EUA prometeu remover colonos brancos ilegais da área, e o Muscogee concordou em devolver escravos negros fugitivos que buscaram refúgio com a tribo. Esta disposição irritou o Seminole da Flórida, que forneceu refúgio a vários escravos fugitivos e se casou com alguns. Os Seminoles Negros nessa época tinham comunidades aliadas aos Seminoles.

Segundo o tratado, McGillivray foi comissionado como general de brigada dos EUA, com um salário anual de US $ 1.200. Com esse dinheiro, ele adquiriu três plantações e 60 escravos afro-americanos. O tratado pacificou temporariamente a fronteira sul, mas os EUA falharam em honrar suas obrigações e não obrigou a expulsão de colonos brancos que estavam ilegalmente em terras Creek.

Em 1792, McGillivray repudiou o tratado com os EUA. Ele negociou outra com autoridades espanholas, que então governaram o Território da Louisiana desocupado pelos franceses. Eles prometeram respeitar a soberania de Muscogee. McGillivray era um homem de notável habilidade, como fica evidente por seu controle e influência sobre o povo Creek, e por seu sucesso em manter os Estados Unidos e a Espanha pagando por sua influência ao mesmo tempo. Em 1792 ele era o superintendente geral da nação Creek em nome da Espanha, o agente indiano dos Estados Unidos, o parceiro mercantil de Panton e & # 8220emperador & # 8221 das nações Creek e Seminole.

McGillivray mudou-se para Pensacola, onde se tornou membro da Ordem Maçônica. Ele morreu em 17 de fevereiro de 1793 em Pensacola e foi enterrado lá no cemitério Garden of Panton. Mais tarde, sua irmã teve seu corpo reenterrado em Choctaw Bluff, onde antes ele tinha sua plantação em Clarke County, Alabama, acima do rio Alabama.

Dois de seus sobrinhos maternos, William Weatherford e William McIntosh, que também nasceram no poderoso Creek Wind Clan (& # 8220Hutalgalgi & # 8221), tornaram-se os líderes Muscogee mais importantes no início do século XIX. Eles lutaram em lados opostos da Guerra Creek, um conflito que surgiu entre tradicionalistas, como Weatherford, e os de Lower Creek, como McIntosh, que acreditavam ser necessário se adaptar e assumir costumes europeus-americanos úteis. Em parte, o conflito surgiu por causa das posições geográficas dos povos, aqueles mais próximos da colonização europeu-americana tiveram mais interação com os americanos, bem como os benefícios.


Família McGillivray

O mais antigo ancestral McGillivray comprovado encontrado até hoje é Alexander McGilvray, nascido em 1741 na Escócia e falecido em 1811 em Kintessack, Dyke, Moray, Escócia.

Alexander se casou com Janet Nicol em 14 de dezembro de 1775 em Dyke. Janet Nicol nasceu em 1752 e morreu em 1813 na Escócia. Seus pais eram James Nicol (filho de Thomas e __ McKenzie) e Jean Lamb.

Alexander e Janet tiveram os seguintes filhos:

  • James McGillivray nasceu em 24 de novembro de 1776 em Dyke, morreu em 1859.
  • Alexander McGillivray batizado em 19 de julho de 1778 em Dyke
  • Margaret McGilvray nascida em 17 de setembro de 1780 em Dyke, morreu por volta de 1806
  • Isabel McGilvray nascida em 10 de março de 1783 em Dyke
  • Janet McGilvray nasceu em 4 de agosto de 1785 em Dyke, morreu em 15 de junho de 1834, casou-se com John Ross

James MacGillivray, nascido em 1776, casou-se com sua primeira esposa, Margaret Allan, em 1797. Seu segundo casamento foi em 8 de junho de 1808 em Rafford, Moray, Escócia, com Anne Barron. Seus filhos:

Anne McGillivray nasceu em 10 de março de 1809 em Upper Phorp, Rafford, Moray, Escócia e morreu em 18 de junho de 1888 em Lachute, Quebec, Canadá. Ela era gêmea de Isabel. Ann casou-se com William Barron, em 25 de julho de 1826 em Rafford, Moray, Escócia. William nasceu em 1797 em Moray e morreu em 30 de dezembro de 1873 em Quebec, Canadá. Eles tiveram os seguintes filhos:

  • John Barron nasceu em 1827 na Escócia, morreu em 21 de outubro de 1894 em Lachute, Quebec, Canadá, e se casou com Murray McFarlane.
  • Jane Barron nasceu em 3 de janeiro de 1831 em Rafford, Moray, Escócia, morreu em 4 de junho de 1880 em Chatham, Quebec, Canadá, casou-se em 1857 em Lachute, Quebec, Canadá com Thomas Todd.
  • Mary Ann Barron nasceu em 30 de março de 1845 em Lachute, Quebec, Canadá, morreu em 17 de janeiro de 1910 no Canadá, casou-se em 11 de maio de 1869 em Lachute com Robert Morrison.

Isabel / Isabella nasceu em 10 de março de 1809 em Moray, Escócia. Alguns registros anteriores do Canadá tinham Isabella nascida em 1811. Ela se casou com Thomas Stornach.

John McGillivray nasceu em 9 de abril de 1811 em Moray, Escócia.

William McGillivray nasceu em 4 de setembro de 1814 em Moray, Escócia, e morreu entre 1842 e 1847. William se casou com Mary Loggie em 17 de março de 1840 em Dalesville, Quebec, Canadá, na Igreja Batista de Dalesville. Ele era um fazendeiro de Lachute (5 milhas de Dalesville) e o pai de Mary Loggie & # 8217s tinha uma fazenda de 200 acres a cerca de 3 milhas a oeste de Dalesville na faixa 9, lote 14. Mary nasceu e morreu em 15 de abril de 1847 em Lachute, Quebec , Canadá. Veja abaixo mais informações sobre os descendentes de William McGillivray e # 8217s.

William (nascido em 1814) e Mary (Loggie) McGillivray tiveram três filhos:

John nasceu em 15 de março de 1841 em Dalesville, Quebec e morreu em 13 de fevereiro de 1893 em Staples, Minnesota. Ele se casou com Mary Jane Hudson. Mais informações sobre a família John McGillivray & gt & gt & gt

James nasceu em 7 de dezembro de 1842 (provavelmente em Quebec, Canadá)

William nasceu em 15 de dezembro de 1844 (provavelmente em Quebec, Canadá) e morreu em 23 de agosto de 1844 em Jerusalém, Quebec, Canadá.

Existe a possibilidade de mais um filho, Donald McGillivray, que nasceu em 1816, filho de James MacGillivray e Annie Barren e teria sido irmão de William, Sr. acima. A lápide de Donald mostra que ele era natural de Morayshire, na Escócia, igual a Annie Barren. Esta parece ter sido a única outra família McGillivray em Lachute. Donald foi para o Canadá em 1835, mesmo ano que William. Ele se casou com Flora Loynachen, nasceu em Argylshire, Escócia em 1813 e morreu em 10 de julho de 1877. Donald morreu em 28 de janeiro de 1892 e ele e Flora estão enterrados no cemitério de Lachute. Donald é mostrado no censo de 1842 na mesma página que William.

A família James McGillivray migrou para Lachute, Quebec, Canadá em 1835. Não é certo que James veio com sua família. Os registros da igreja em Lachute mostram que Anne Barren morreu em 1859 e indicam que James já havia falecido. O censo de 1842 mostra uma mulher mais velha morando com seu filho, William, então é possível que se tratasse de Anne Barren McGillivray e que James tivesse morrido antes do censo ser realizado.

Registros do condado de Todd, Long Prairie, Minnesota

A History of Lachute, Canadá G. R. Rigby

Old Parish Registers of Rafford, Escócia

Lachute, Registros da Igreja Presbiteriana do Canadá

Registro genealógico elaborado para William Henry McGillivray em 1º de maio de 1941

Agradecimentos especiais a Gary McGillivray e June Leafblad por suas extensas contribuições para a história da família McGillivray.

Este site fala sobre as sete pontes construídas ao longo da antiga McGilvray Bottoms Road, no condado de Northwest La Crosse, Wisconsin. Uma balsa foi construída em 1861 no Rio Negro por um Alex McGilvray. Se alguém souber de alguma coisa sobre esse Alex McGilvray, me avise.

A história oral familiar dizia que John McGillivray era parente da família McGillivray associada à Northwest Fur Trading Company (William McGillivray-Fort William) e que a família de Mary Jane Hudson pertencia à família Hudson Fur Trading Company. Quando Mary Jane se apaixonou por John e decidiu se casar com ele, sua família a deserdou. No entanto, ouvi dizer que ela realmente herdou dinheiro de seus pais e foi capaz de repassá-lo aos filhos e netos. Após a morte do marido, Mary Jane deixou Minnesota com alguns de seus filhos e mudou-se para o estado de Washington.

Famílias Aliadas

Existe um livro, & # 8220A History of Lachute & # 8221 de G.R. Rigby que menciona extensivamente a família Barron. Thomas Barren foi o primeiro colono escocês em 1809 e era de Morayshire. Ele provavelmente era parente de Anne. Thomas rapidamente começou a comprar todas as terras onde agora fica o centro de Lachute. Ele e sua família dominaram a área de Lachute por muitos anos.

Algumas fotos foram encontradas em um álbum da família Barron e estão na posse de Don e Joyce Jones. Eles gentilmente me permitiram exibi-los na esperança de que alguém pudesse reconhecer as pessoas nas fotos. Acredita-se que sejam McGillivrays.

John Loggie / Logie Sr. nasceu em Ayrshire Escócia em 1790 em Fife, Escócia e residiu em Wemyss, Fife em 1841 de acordo com o Censo de 1841 da Escócia. John morreu em 13 de julho de 1860 em Lachute, Quebec, Canadá e está enterrado ao lado de seu filho Alexander no cemitério de Lachute, cerca de 6,4 km a leste de Dalesville. Ele se casou em 20 de janeiro de 1813 em Kirkcolm, Ayrshire, Escócia, com Mary McFadyen *, que nasceu na Escócia em 1787 em Kirkcowan, Wigtownshire, Escócia, com John e Mary McFadyen e morreu em 1888. De acordo com o Censo do Canadá de 1861, há um John Logie em Chatham, Argenteuil, Canadá Leste, Canadá e como John Sr. morreu em 1860, presumo que seja seu filho. John e Mary se estabeleceram finalmente em Dalesville, Lachute, Argenteuil, Quebec. Lá ele cultivou 200 acres em uma área de nove, quatorze lote, cerca de 3 milhas a oeste de Dalesville. Os filhos de John Loggie e Mary McFadyen são os seguintes:

Jane Loggie nasceu em 1814 na Escócia e morreu em 24 de março de 1847 e sepultado em Lachute, Quebec, Canadá. Ela era casada com Thomas Lockie, Jr.

Mary Jane Loggie nascido em 11 de julho de 1815 em McGounston, Kirkoswald, Ayrshire, Canadá e falecido em 15 de abril de 1847 em Lachute. Ela se casou com William McGillivray em 17 de março de 1840 na Igreja Pequena Batista em Dalesville, Quebec.

Janet nascido por volta de 1816 ** na Escócia

John Logie Jr. nasceu em 1821 na Escócia e morreu em 1887 em Green Valley, Ontário. Ele era casado com Catherine McArthur, que nasceu em 1828. Seus filhos:

  • Anne Loggie, que morreu em 1887 em Duluth, St. Louis, Minnesota e está enterrada em Green Valley, Ontário, casou-se com J.K. McLemmon de Duluth.
  • Mary Jane Loggie nascida em 1848
  • Maggy Loggie nascida em 1850
  • John Loggie III nasceu em 1852 e morreu em 1887 foi enterrado em Green Valley, Ontário.
  • Agnes Loggie nascida em 1853.
  • Archibald Loggie nascido em 1858
  • James Loggie nascido em 1858
  • Eliza Loggie nascida em 1860
  • Jessie Loggie (F)

William Loggie nasceu em 1824, morreu em 28 de abril de 1856 e está enterrado no cemitério protestante de Lachute

Alexander Loggie nascido em 1824 e falecido em 28 de abril de 1856 e está enterrado em Lachute, Quebec, Canadá.

Agnes nasceu por volta de 1821** Na Escócia

Martha nasceu por volta de 1831** Na Escócia

** De acordo com o censo de 1841 da Escócia, essas crianças ainda estavam na casa.

* O censo de 1861 do Canadá mostra Mary McFadzen viúva e morando em Chatham, Argenteuil, Canadá Leste. A grafia de seu sobrenome também é mostrada como McFadyean, McPhadden e McFadden


Biografia do General Alexander McGillivray

General Alexander McGillivray este homem notável era filho de Lachlan McGillivray, um nativo da Escócia, que veio para a Carolina do Sul no ano de 1735 e se dedicou ao comércio indiano, na época um negócio muito lucrativo.

No decorrer de alguns anos, por seu endereço e setor, ele acumulou uma grande propriedade.

Durante a Guerra Revolucionária, ele se associou aos monarquistas, e quando Savannah foi evacuada pelo inimigo, ele deixou a Geórgia, com a esperança de que seu filho pudesse tomar posse de sua valiosa propriedade, mas com isso ele ficou desapontado, com com exceção de alguns negros, foi confiscado pelo Estado da Geórgia.

A mãe de Alexander McGillivray era filha de uma mulher Creek puro-sangue, de alta posição em seu país. Seu pai, o capitão Marchand, era um cavalheiro francês que foi morto por seus próprios soldados no Forte Toulouse, em agosto de 1722. Seu nome era Sehoy. Ela é representada como tendo sido, na época em que Lachlan McGillivray a conheceu, & # 8220 uma donzela de dezesseis anos, alegre no semblante, encantadora na aparência e graciosa na forma. & # 8221

Da tenra idade de Alexandre, pouco se sabe. Quando ele tinha dez anos, seu pai o mandou para a cidade de Nova York, e o colocou sob os cuidados de um parente. Aqui fui para a escola com o Sr. George Sheed, um eminente professor de inglês, e depois com o Sr. Henderson, para aprender a língua latina. Quando ele tinha dezessete anos de idade, ele veio para Savannah e entrou na casa de contabilidade de Samuel Elbert e depois disso, ele permaneceu por um curto período de tempo & # 8217 no estabelecimento da Alexander Ingliss & amp Company. Seu pai, descobrindo que ele não gostava de atividades comerciais, orientou-o a retornar à nação Creek. Os britânicos haviam estacionado em Hickory Ground, o local dos subúrbios mais baixos do atual Wetumpka, no Alabama, o coronel Tait, com o objetivo de induzir os gregos a tomarem partido do rei da Inglaterra. Aqui McGillivray conheceu o coronel Tait e, operado por seu conselho, ele se apegou à causa dos monarquistas. Sobre os gregos, ele adquiriu uma ascendência poderosa e, com cerca de trinta anos de idade, presidiu um Grande Conselho Nacional na cidade de Coweta, no Chattahoochee. Os britânicos conferiram-lhe a patente e o pagamento de coronel. Durante a guerra da Revolução, ele usou todos os seus esforços para exasperar os gregos contra os whigs e liderou várias expedições contra eles. Com o notório coronel Daniel McGirth e seus adeptos, McGillivray freqüentemente cooperava, e causou muitos problemas aos cidadãos que residiam nas partes do sul da Geórgia por seus movimentos bem dirigidos.

Após o término das hostilidades entre a Grã-Bretanha e os Estados Unidos, McGillivray ainda nutria ressentimentos contra estes últimos, e particularmente contra a Geórgia. Em 1784, como representante das nações Creek e Seminole, ele formou um tratado de aliança com a Espanha, no qual, entre outras coisas, foi acordado que os gregos e os Seminoles deveriam defender a causa do Gelo da Espanha de que nenhum branco deve ser admitido em seu país sem uma licença espanhola, & ampc. Ao assinar o tratado, foi nomeado comissário espanhol, com patente e pagamento de coronel. Os espanhóis, sabendo que existia muita insatisfação entre os índios, por conta do tratado de Augusta e da ocupação de seu território, empregaram os mais incansáveis ​​esforços para fomentar discórdias entre eles e os georgianos, e McGillivray uniu-se a eles, esforçando-se por impedir qualquer espécie de negociação.

Os comissários sim. foi nomeado para tratar com os índios do Sul, um dos quais, Andrew Pickens, esq., dirigiu uma carta a McGillivray, solicitando que ele os encontrasse em um local conveniente para firmar um tratado.

A este convite enviou uma resposta, na qual afirmava estar surpreso que a proposição de um tratado não tivesse sido feita antes que os índios esperassem, quando a independência americana fosse confirmada pela paz, medidas seriam tomadas para resolver as diferenças. entre eles e os índios que os georgianos haviam seguido um curso contrário ao que eles haviam buscado e obtido a amizade e proteção da Espanha de que os índios não queriam nada além de justiça, seus campos de caça a serem preservados de invasões, & ampc. A carta se encerra com a promessa de se encontrar com os comissários sempre que os índios receberem notificação.

Encorajados por esta resposta, os Comissários foram a Galphinton, mas para sua surpresa, McGillivray não apareceu. Chefes de apenas duas cidades, junto com sessenta guerreiros, encontraram-se com os Comissários, com os quais um pequeno número se recusou a fazer um tratado explicando, entretanto, a política pretendida pelos Estados Unidos. Depois que os Comissários partiram, os Comissários da Geórgia fizeram um tratado com os poucos indianos presentes e apresentaram à Assembleia Geral uma cópia dos artigos que deveriam ter sido propostos pelos Comissários dos Estados Unidos, que aquele órgão declarou ser uma violação dos direitos da Geórgia.

Em dezembro de 1787, o Dr. James White foi nomeado pelo Congresso superintendente dos Creeks, que, após sua chegada a Cusseta, dirigiu uma carta a McGillivray, à qual ele respondeu que estava satisfeito em saber da nomeação do médico & # 8217s com o propósito de investigar e resolver as diferenças então existentes entre sua nação e os georgianos. As causas dessas diferenças e os descontentamentos dos gregos, ele afirma nas seguintes palavras: -

& # 8220Há chefes de duas cidades desta nação que, durante o final da guerra, foram amistosos com o Estado da Geórgia, e se deslocaram em épocas diferentes entre aquele povo, e uma vez, após a paz geral, a Augusta.

& # 8220Lhes exigiram a concessão de terras pertencentes e usufruídas como campos de caça pelos índios desta nação em comum, a leste do rio Oconee. Os chefes rejeitaram a demanda, sob a alegação de que essas terras eram os campos de caça da nação, e não poderiam ser concedidas por dois indivíduos, mas em poucos dias, uma promessa foi extorquida deles, de que em seu retorno ao seu país, eles usariam sua influência para obter uma concessão confirmada.

& # 8220Após seu retorno, uma convenção geral foi realizada em Tookabatcha, quando esses dois chefes foram severamente censurados, e os chefes de noventa e oito, as cidades concordaram em enviar um discurso a Savannah, desaprovando, da maneira mais veemente, a demanda feito sobre sua nação, e negando o direito de quaisquer dois de seus compatriotas de fazerem a cessão de terras, que só poderia ser válida pela voz unânime do todo, como co-proprietários em comum. No entanto, esses dois chefes, independentemente da voz da nação, continuaram a ir para Augusta e outros lugares dentro do Estado da Geórgia.

& # 8221 Eles receberam presentes e fizeram promessas, mas nossos costumes não nos permitiam puni-los pelo crime.

& # 8221 Advertimos os georgianos sobre as perigosas consequências que certamente acompanhariam a colonização das terras em questão. Nossos justos protestos & # 8217s foram tratados com desprezo, e essas terras logo se encheram de colonos. The nation, justly alarmed at the encroachments, resolved to use force to maintain their rights yet, being averse to tile shedding of the blood of a people whom we would rather consider as friends, we made another effort to awaken in them a sense of justice and equity. But we found, from experience, that entreaty could not prevail, and parties of warriors were sent to drive off the intruders, but were instructed to shed blood only where self-preservation made it necessary.

“This was in May, 1786. In October following, we were invited by Commissioners of the State of Georgia to meet them in conference at the Oconee, professing a sincere desire for an amicable adjustment of our disputes, and pledging their sacred honors for the safety and good treatment of all those that should attend and meet them. It not being convenient for many of us to go to the proposed conference, a few, from motives of curiosity, attended. They were surprised to find an armed body of men, prepared for and professing hostile intentions. Apprehensions for personal safety induced those chiefs to subscribe to every demand that was asked by the army and the Commissioners. Lands were again demanded, and the lives of some of our chiefs were required, as well as those of some innocent traders, as a sacrifice, to appease their anger. Assassins have been employed to effect some part of their atrocious purposes. If I fall by the hand of such. I shall fall the victim of the noblest of causes, that of maintaining the just rights of my country. I aspire to the honest ambition of meriting the appellation of the preserver of my country, equally with the chiefs among you, whom, from acting on such principles, you have exalted to the highest pitch of glory. And if, after every peaceable mode of obtaining a redress of grievances proved fruitless, a recourse to arms to obtain it be a mark of the savage, and not of the soldier, what savages must the Americans be, and how much undeserved applause have your Cincinnatus, your Fabius, obtained ! If a war name had been necessary to distinguish that chief, in such a case, the Man-Killer, the Great Destroyer, would have been the proper appellation.

“I had appointed the Cussetas for all the chiefs of the Lower Creeks to meet in convention. I shall be down in a few days, when, from your timely arrival, you will meet the chiefs, and learn their sentiments, and I sincerely hope that the propositions which you shall offer us will be such as we can safely accede to. The talks of the former commissioners, at Galphinton, were much approved of, and your coming from the White Town (seat of Congress) has raised great expectations that you will remove the principal and almost only cause of our dispute, that is, by securing to us our bunting-grounds and possessions, free from all encroachments. When we meet, we shall talk these matters over.

Meantime, I remain, “With regard, your obedient servant,

“ALEXANDER McGILLIVRAY.”

Dr. White met McGillivray at Cusseta, with a large number of Lower Creeks, when he desired them to ratify the treaties of Augusta, Galphinton, and Shoulder Bone. The chiefs answered ” that their lands were their life and breath, and if they parted. with them, they parted with their blood.”

The two chiefs who granted these lands declared that the Georgians compelled them to do so by threats and the flourish of long knives. A new proposition was made to the superintendent by McGillivray, the substance of which was, “that if Congress could form a government south of Alatamaha, he would be the first to take the oath of allegiance, and in return to Georgia for giving up that claim, he would obtain a grant of the lands on the Oconee. Here the conference ended.

It is due to Georgia to state that she always denied that the delegation of Indians was insufficient to make the grants, and insisted that they had been obtained without threats or violence. The Georgians, however, acknowledged that they had troops present at the treaty of Shoulder Bone, but only to suppress any apparent hostilities and that they had carried hostages to Augusta for enforcing a compliance with the treaty, a custom sanctioned in all former negotiations with Indians.

The Creeks continued to make incursions upon the frontiers of Georgia. Congress, in 1788, appointed Commissioners to renew negotiations with McGillivray, but he refused to have an interview with them unless the settlers upon the Oconee lands were first removed. About this time Governor Thomas Pinckney, of South Carolina, opened a correspondence with McGillivray, but it resulted as all former efforts. In 1789, the Government of the United States embraced every opportunity to gain the friendship of McGillivray. Commissioners requested hint to meet them with a delegation from the whole of the Creek Nation, at Rock Landing, to settle all difficulties. He agreed to go, and just before the time appointed to meet them, he addressed a letter to William Panton, an extensive Indian merchant, then in high favor with the Spanish Government.

This letter is too long to be inserted in this sketch, but some extracts from it will enable the reader to form an idea of the character and talents of the writer.

“Galphin, whom I sent to the Rock Landing with a talk, declining the treaty of June last, returned about a fortnight since, and I find that they are resolved upon making a treaty. In order to accommodate us, the Commissioners are complaisant enough to postpone it till the 15th of next month, and one of them, the late Chief-Justice Osborne, remains all the time at Rock Landing. Pickens returned for the Cherokee treaty but in this I took measures to disappoint him, for those chiefs would not meet. In this do you not see my cause of triumph, in bringing these conquerors of the Old, and masters of the New World, as they call themselves, to bend and supplicate for peace, at the feet of a people whom, shortly before, they despised and marked out for destruction”

“Thy people being all at home, and the grand ceremony of kindling the new fire being just over, I deem it the fittest time to meet these Commissioners, and have accordingly made the broken days, of which nine are left, to set out in. In conducting the business of the treaty, I will, as you observe, confine it to the fixing our limits and the acknowledgment of the independence of my nation. This I deem very necessary, as the Americans pretend to a territorial claim and sovereignty over us, in virtue of the late peace made with England. This being settled, will, in a great measure, be doing away with any cause of future quarrel between us. You well know how customary it is in all treaties with the- Indians to agree to a commercial one also it being absolutely necessary, as it more firmly attaches them to friendships formed. * * * * However, in this instance I will agree to none, as you have a prospect of being able, by the favor of the Spanish Government, to supply this trade on as moderate terms as the Georgians can do. * * If I find that the Commissioners insist upon stipulations that will clash with those of Spain, I shall not hesitate to cut short the negotiation. * * * But at the same time I must insist upon an equal resolution in our friends, the Spaniards, to afford to us their decided support.

” Now let me talk a little upon my private affairs. I wish I could lay my band on that last letter, to send you, and a very curious, and, to you, not an uninteresting Carolina newspaper, just received but they are both swallowed up in a multitude of papers. You know how it is with me in the paper way. The Commissioners of the United States say, it would give them great pleasure to have a private conversation previous to our entering into the business of the treaty as it would tend to make it go on agreeably, and with more ease. I need not interpret this paragraph to you, when you already know that I have, for some time past, been endeavoring to recover my house and lands, with my family estate, which, to your knowledge, is more than £30,000 sterling, the offer of which is now, I expect, to be pressed upon me. And there has, since I saw you last, arisen considerable conflict in my mind, in revolving these matters over. Here am I, an absolute heavy tax upon you, for years, and, in fact, not only for my private support, but for all the extra expenses of this department and although, my dear sir, I know that I can still depend upon your generosity and in your friendship, that you overlook the heavy expense that I put you to, yet you well know how hurtful it is to the feeling heart to be beholden to subsist on the bounty of private friendship. Thus situated, I ask-I wish you to give me your opinion. On the one hand, I am offered the restoration of my property, of more than one hundred thousand dollars, at the least valuation and on the other, not wherewithal to pay an interpreter. And I find that letters are still addressed to me, as agent for his Catholic Majesty, when I have some time ago renounced the pittance that was allowed, as being a consideration disgraceful to my station. If they want my services, why is not a regular establishment made, as was done by the English, with a competent salary affixed, and allowance for two interpreters, one among the Upper and one among the Lower towns, for hitherto, I have had to maintain them myself. Or shall I have recourse to my American estate to maintain them and myself? I wish you to advise me what I had best do.

“Although I have no solid ground to hope for a complete adjustment of our dispute with the Americans, I am resolved to go, if it is only to wipe off the suggestion made to me by our friends, that I am actuated by unjust motives and an unreasonable prejudice against the Americans, as the ground of hostility against them. But if they, on the other hand, should find a body of people approaching their mines, would not they say, What business have you here? Do you know that there are grounds from which we draw the chief source of our conveniences and happiness, and we cannot suffer you to participate in, or deprive us of them? And should these encroachers refuse to withdraw, would they not commence and support an inveterate hostility, until they should expel them?

“The fellow, Remain, whom Madame Villar writes of, was a great liar. He came here from the Choctaws with a quantity of silver ware and a few goods, and wanted Nick White to join him in purchasing negroes, to carry and sell in New-Orleans. After roving about for some time, he had a difference with Milfort, 1 who threatened to send him in irons to New-Orleans, which terrified him, apparently, and he went off to the Creek Town, Chehaw, and from thence either to Detroit or to the States.

“A copy of this letter you can send to the ***** Miro, as I intended the former one.

“I expect our treaty will be over by the middle of September. If we return safe, expect a visit early in October from,

“Dear sir, yours most truly, “ALEXANDER McGILLIVRAY.
“To WILLIAM PANTON, Pensacola.”

On the 20th of Sept., 1789, Gen. Benjamin Lincoln, David Humphreys, Cyrus Griffin, Commissioners associated with Gen. Pickens, arrived at the Rock Landing on the Oconee, on the western bank of which McGillivray, with 2,000 warriors, had been encamped for more than a week. The arrival of the Commissioners was communicated to McGillivray, and at the time appointed, they attended to the ceremony of the black drink, and were conducted to the great square of the encampment by all the kings, chiefs, and warriors.

After a talk by the Commissioners, a copy of the draft of a treaty was presented to them, after which McGillivray and his chiefs had a private council, and the next day the Commissioners were informed by him that the treaty proposed was not satisfactory, and that the Indians were resolved to return home. Efforts were made to induce him to remain but he refused to do so, broke up his encampment, and retired to the Ocmulgee, from whence he addressed the Commissioners a letter, in which he stated “that his retreat was entirely owing to the want of food for the horses of the Indians that, finding that a restitution of territory and hunting-grounds was not the basis of a treaty, he resolved to return to his nation, deferring the matter in full peace until next spring.”

When Washington heard of this result, at first he felt a disposition to wage war against the Creeks but upon ascertaining that such a war would cost an immense sum, he abandoned this idea, and determined, if possible, to induce McGillivray to visit him, believing that a negotiation in this way might be effected.

Accordingly, he dispatched Col. Marinus Willett as a secret agent to the Creeks, and to return, if possible, with McGillivray to the Seat of Government. Col. Willett left New York, arrived in Charleston, and after a few days, set out for the residence of Gen. Pickens. Obtaining from this gentleman an Indian guide, he started upon his mission, and, after a fatiguing journey, he met McGillivray, to whom he delivered the letters of Washington. He spent several days with him, and then met the chiefs, to whom he announced his mission, and requested McGillivray, and such chiefs as might be selected, to accompany him to New York, where Washington would make a treaty with them “as strong as the hills, and lasting as the rivers.” In an hour after this council, Col. Willett was informed that the Indians had agreed that McGillivray and other chiefs should accompany him to New York.

On the 1st of June, 1790, Col. McGillivray, with his nephew and two servants, with Col. Willett, departed for the seat of the Federal Government. Afterwards they were joined by the Tallase King, Chinnobe, and twenty-six warriors.

When the company arrived at Guilford Court House, in North Carolina, Mrs. Brown, whose husband had a few years before been killed by the Creeks, and herself and children carried to their nation, and whose ransom had been effected by McGillivray, and to whose support he had contributed for more than a year, learning his arrival, rushed through the crowd assembled to see the Great Chief, and with tears expressed to him her gratitude for the preservation of her life and that of her children. In the different places through which they passed, the cavalcade was treated with much attention. When they reached New York, the Tammany Society received them, and escorted them to the house of Washington, by whom they were entertained with much pomp and ceremony.

Learning that McGillivray was willing to make a treaty, Hon. Henry Knox was appointed to negotiate with him, and the treaty was concluded.

There was, however, a secret treaty between McGillivray and Washington, which has recently come to light. It provided that, after two years from date, the commerce of the Creek Nation should be carried on through the ports of the United States, and, in the meantime, through the present channels that the chiefs of the Ocfuskees, Tookabatchas, Tallases, Cowetas, Cussetas, and the Seminole Nation, should be paid annually by the United States one hundred dollars each, and be furnished with handsome medals that Alexander McGillivray should be constituted agent of the United States, with the rank of brigadier general, and the pay of twelve hundred dollars per annum, that the United States should feed, clothe, and educate Creek youth at the North, not exceeding four at one time. 2

In 1791, McGillivray began to lose his popularity among the Creeks. William Augustus Bowles denounced McGillivray as a traitor. Aided by his emissaries, Bowles persuaded many of the Creeks to believe that he had sold them first to the Spanish Government, and afterwards to the Federal Government. His situation became embarrassing. The Spanish Government was displeased with him, the Indians were dissatisfied with the treaty at New York, and the Federal Government called upon him to observe the articles of the treaty.

In November, he made frequent visits to New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola, and, before he returned to the nation, he succeeded in having Bowles captured, and sent to Madrid.

At this time, the Government of the United States began to lose confidence in him. Many believed that he was acting secretly against the American interest. It was proved that the King of Spain had made him Superintendent-General of the Creeks, with a salary of two thousand dollars per annum, and that this amount was afterwards increased with fifteen hundred dollars. He was at this time, with a salary of thirty-five hundred dollars, the agent of the United States the agent of Spain, with a salary of twelve hundred dollars the co-partner of Panton, and the emperor of the Creek and Seminole Nations.

During the summer and fall of 1792, General McGillivray secretly caused large meetings to be held over the Creek and Cherokee Nations, at which he appeared to be only a visitor, while Panton and Captain Oliver, in speeches, forbid the running of the line between them and the Georgians, in the name of the King of Spain, and decreed that no American trader should enter the nation. Governor Carondelet was also active in endeavoring to defeat the provisions of the New York treaty. He sent to the Creek Nation a large body of bloody Shawnees, armed and equipped, who took up their abode at Souvanoga, upon the Tallapoosa. McGillivray moved his negroes to Little River, gave up his house to Captain Oliver, whom he had so well established in the affections of his people. The Spaniards not only had in view the prevention of the advancement of the Americans on the east, but determined to oppose the settlements upon the Mississippi to effect all of which, they attempted to unite the four nations of Indians on their side. They strengthened all their forts, and authorized Captain John Linder, of Tensaw, and other active partisans, to raise volunteers. Carondelet gave Richard Finnelsol and Joseph Durque passports, to go through the Spanish posts, to the Cherokee Nation, as emissaries, to incite those Indians to make war upon the Cumberland people. There was, suddenly, great excitement produced over the whole Indian country. One chief declared, at Willstown, that he had taken the lives of three hundred Americans, but that now he intended to drink his fill of blood. During all this time, McGillivray, and the federal authorities at Rock Landing, were engaged in fruitless correspondence, and everything conspired to defeat the hopes of Washington.

McGillivray’s career was, however, drawing to a close. He had been in bad health for several years, and on the 17th , of February, 1793, he departed this life, leaving considerable property. He was interred with Masonic honors, in the city of Pensacola. His death produced deep sorrow and regret among the Indians. The great chieftain, who had so long been their pride, and who had elevated their nation, and sustained it in its trials, now lay buried in the sands of the Seminoles.

General McGillivray was six feet high, spare made, and remarkably erect in person and carriage. His eyes were large, dark, and piercing. His forehead was so peculiarly shaped, that the old Indian countrymen often spoke of it: it commenced expanding at his eyes, and widened considerably at the top of his head. It was a bold and lofty forehead. His fingers were long and tapering, and he wielded a pen with the greatest rapidity. His face was handsome, and indicative of quick thought and much sagacity. Unless interested in conversation, he was disposed to be taciturn, but, even then, was polite and respectful. When a British colonel, he dressed in the British uniform and when in the Spanish service, he wore the military dress of that country. When Washington appointed him a brigadier-general, he sometimes wore the uniform of the American army, but never when in the presence of the Spaniards. His usual dress was a mixture of the Indian and American garb. He always traveled with two servants, David Francis, a half-breed, and Paro, a negro, who saved the lives of over a hundred royalists, in 1781. He had good houses at the Hickory Ground, and at Little Tallase, where he entertained, free of charge, distinguished government agents, and persons traveling through his extensive dominions.


McGillivray, Alexander - History

Prince Charles Edward Stuart Monument, Glenfinnan

On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart fought loyalist troops commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland near Inverness in the Scottish Highlands. The victory of the forces loyal to the House of Hanover (monarchs of the United Kingdome from 1714 to 1901) at Culloden decisively halted the Jacobites [followers of James II] intent to overthrow the House of Hanover and restore theHouse of Stuart to the British throne.

Charles Stuart's Jacobite army consisted largely of Scottish Highlanders, as well as a number of Lowland Scots and a small detachment of Englishmen from the Manchester Regiment. The Jacobites were supported and supplied by the Kingdom of France from Irish and Scots units in the French service. A composite battalion of infantry ("Irish Picquets") comprising detachments from each of the regiments of the Irish Brigade plus one squadron of Irish cavalry in the French army served at the battle alongside the regiment of Royal Scots (Royal Ecossais) raised the previous year to support the Stuart claim. The British Government (Hanoverian loyalist) forces were mostly English, along with a significant number of Scottish Lowlanders and Highlanders, a battalion of Ulstermen and some Hessians from Germany and Austrians. The battle on Culloden Moor was both quick and bloody, taking place within an hour. Following an unsuccessful Highland charge against the government lines, the Jacobites were routed and driven from the field.

Between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded in the brief battle, while government losses were lighter with 50 dead and 259 wounded. Efforts were subsequently taken to further integrate the comparatively wild Highlands into the Kingdom of Great Britain civil penalties were introduced to weaken Gaelic culture and attack the Scottish clan system.

Clan MacGillivray may have contributed upwards of 150 men to the battle, and 6 of the officers.

Colonel Alexander MacGillivray, Alistair of Dunmaglass

Clan Chattan Regiment was in the first line, in the center position, consisting of 350 men, led by Alexander MacGillivray of Dunmaglass, Chief of Clan MacGillivray, for Lady Anne Farquharson MacIntosh, "Colonel Anne," wife of the Chief of Clan MacIntosh and Captain of the Clan Chattan Confederation. The red haired MacGillivray of Dunmaglass was the first to pass through the infantry, leaping over the bodies of the men, when he was struck down. He was able to crawl to a spring of water in the rear where he died. His body, after lying for some weeks in a pit where it had been thrown with others Highland dead by the English soldiers, was taken up by his friends and buried across the threshold of the church of Petty. His marker on the battlefield is by the Well of the Dead.

Major John Mor MacGillivray (Iain Mor nan Margaidhean) - Big John of the Muskets of Gask, Straithnairn

Clan Chattan was the first to charge the English cannons and infantry, charging up the hill into the cannon grapeshot and blazing musket fire. Most of the Clan Chattan men died before even reaching the English infantry, but Big John of the Muskets was one who broke through the English line, killing twelve soldiers and was running on a solitary battalion in the rear when he took a pistol shot and was killed.

Captain Farquhar MacGillivray younger of Dalcrombie

One of the three officers of the Chattan battalion who escaped from Culloden was a kinsman of these two brothers – Farquhar of Dalcrombie. He was only 16 at the time of Culloden. It is said that he lead the tattered remnants of Clan Chattan off of the battlefield.

Captain Alexander MacGillivray in Lonie of Petty

Alexander MacGillivray of Petty was a taxman, younger brother of Dalcrombie and died on the battlefield.

Lieutenant Robert MacGillivray in the Dalziel of Petty

Robert MacGillivray of Petty was a farmer, an officer and died on the battlefield.

Lieutenant Archibald MacGillivray of Petty

Archibald MacGillivray of Petty was Robert's brother, volunteered having just returned from South Carolina. He survived and went on to lead the Daviot family.​

William MacGillivray of Dunmaglass

William of Dunmaglass, brother of Alexander and Major John Mor MacGillivray, was also a warrior, and gained the rank of captain in the old 89th regiment, raised about 1758.

Other MacGillivrays

Alexander MacGillivray, of Eastern Straithnairn surrendered 1746.
Archibald MacGillivray, of Dunmaglass surrendered 1746

Donald MacGillivray,of Aberchalder, served with the Frasers of Lovat, surrendered 17 May 1746.

Donald McGilevray, of Cluny, served with MacPhersons of Cluny, surrendered 17 May 1746.
Donald MacGillivray, of Colbran surrendered 1746.
Donald Og MacGillivray, of Colbran surrendered 1746.
Donald MacGillivray, of Cognashee surrendered 1746.
Donald MacGillivray, of Croadeg, Daviot surrendered 1746.
Donald MacGillivray, of Dalnagary surrendered 1746.
Donald MacGillivray, a smith, of Ivermazran surrendered 1746.
Farquahar MacGillivray, of Cog-na-Schlan surrendered 1746.
Farquahar MacGillivray, a farmer and 50 years old, of Doghtsveire died in battle.
Farquahar MacGillivray, of Elrig surrendered 7 Jun 1746.
Farquahar MacGillivray, of Petty surrendered 1746.
Farquahar MacGillivray, of Torndoul surrendered 17 May 1746.
Finlay MacGillivray, of Dalnagary surrendered 1746.
John MacGillivray, of Aberarder surrendered 17 May 1746.
John MacGillivray, of Cog-na-Sclan surrendered 1746.
John MacGillivray, of Dunmaglass surrendered 7 Jun 1746.
William MacGillivray, of Corriebrough surrendered 7 Jun 1746.

The Battle of Culloden Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Chùil Lodair

The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the 1745 Jacobite Rising. Charles Edward Stuart, the son of James Francis Edward Stuart, himself the son of James II of England and Ireland (James VII of Scotland) who was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Prince Charles initially landed from France on Eriskay in the Western Isles. He then travelled to the mainland in a small rowing boat, coming ashore at Loch nan Uamh just west of Glenfinnan. On arrival on the Scottish mainland, he was met by a small number of MacDonalds. Stuart waited at Glenfinnan for a number of days as more MacDonalds, Caermones, McPhees, and McDonnells arrived.

On Monday 19 August 1745, after Prince Charles judged he had enough military support, he climbed the hill near Glenfinnan as MacMaster of Glenaladale raised his royal standard. He then announced to all the mustered clans he claimed the Scottish and the English thrones in the name of his father James Stuart.. A MacPhee was one of two pipers with Bonnie Prince Charlie when he raised his banner above Glenfinnan. Afterwards brandy was distributed to the assembled highlanders to celebrate the occasion.​


Events of 1791, Alexander McGillivray

During the year 1791 there was but little hostility on the part of the Indians, a calm before the coming storm.

Toward the whites they showed even some degree of friendliness, bringing occasionally to the settlement venison and furs, which they gave in exchange for powder and lead, blankets, calico, tomahawks and beads.

In explanation of this it may be said that for some time past an especial effort had been put forth by President Washington, Governor Blount, General Robertson and others in authority to bring all Indian wars to a close.

Alexander McGillivray, Chief of the Creeks, and a queer combination of Indian craftiness and Spanish treachery, had been invited to New York, then the seat of government, for the purpose of negotiating a treaty of peace.

On this mission he was accompanied by twenty-eight of his head chiefs and principal warriors. All "arrived, painted and plumed, with silver bands on their arms and rings in their noses, with blankets and breech-clouts, moccasins and leggins, and tinkling ornaments." It is said by the writers of that time that they were indeed the cynosure of every eye.

During a stay of several weeks they were wined, dined and otherwise feted by the Knickerbockers, all of which they received with a characteristic grunt, which might have meant much or little of appreciation.

The result of this festivity was a treaty with the Creek nation which restored to them a large tract of wilderness land previously held by them, but subsequently claimed by the whites. By a private article of the treaty, the terms of which were kept secret from the other warriors, McGillivray received from the Government the sum of a hundred thousand dollars. This amount had been demanded by the chief in return for an alleged destruction of personal property by the colonial militia.

Following the return of McGillivray and his band from New York, Governor Blount had made a visit to all parts of the territory, including the Cumberland settlement, holding talks with the members of the various tribes, assuring them of friendship and urging upon them a proposal of peace.

The Chickasaws on the west, with Piomingo the mountain leader at their head, had long been the friends of the whites. By reason of the recently ratified treaty of New York it was hoped that the Creeks would henceforth bear them the same relation. But there remained yet something to be done in order that they might bring to terms the Cherokees, the warlike mountaineers on the south and east.

Early in the year, through the medium of friendly members of the tribe, Governor Blount made known to the Cherokee chiefs, Hanging Maw and Little Turkey, his desire for a peace talk. These chiefs were the leaders respectively of the northern and southern factions of their tribe. The place of meeting proposed by Governor Blount was White's Fort, the location of which was the present site of Knoxville. Straightway certain Indian traders and other opponents of peace, those who profited by the arts of war, set going a movement to defeat this conference. They secretly hinted to the credulous savages that it was a scheme on the part of the whites to assemble the warriors of the nation on the banks of the Tennessee, that the latter might be treacherously fallen upon and slain.

Governor Blount, believing the traders to be responsible for this wilfully false report, revoked their license and ordered them from the nation. This action only aided the cause of the opposition party, who now asserted that the traders were being driven out because of their friendship for the Indians. To overcome the evil influence of these mischief makers it was deemed necessary to send an official representative of the Territory to the Cherokee nation.

General James Robertson, because of his well-known tact and long experience in dealing with the Indians, was the only person considered for this important but delicate mission.

On receipt of his commission from Governor Blount he began at once a journey on horseback from Nashville to Chota, the capital and beloved city of the Cherokees. This village was beautifully nestled among the foothills of the Chilhowee Mountains in Monroe County, east of Madisonville. Near this spot, according to popular belief, DeSoto and his army had camped many years before. Among the Cherokees Chota was a city of refuge, probably the only one of its kind upon the continent. When once within its sacred precincts the offender, regardless of the magnitude of the crime, was free from all punishment or personal vengeance, so long as he remained therein. It is related that here an English trader, in more modern times, took refuge and found safety after having slain in cold blood a Cherokee warrior. Remaining in the village for some time he desired to return to his post nearby, but was warned that he would certainly perish if he attempted to escape.

General Robertson was heartily received by Hanging Maw, Little Turkey and their respective warriors, many of whom he had met on former occasions. After spending some days with them he succeeded in allaying their suspicions and in arranging for the council at White's Fort, as previously planned. This meeting resulted in the "Treaty of Holston," otherwise known as Blount's Treaty. It was signed July 2 and ratified by the Senate of the United States November 9 following. By its terms the Cherokees, in consideration of the delivery of certain valuable goods and an annual payment of $1,000, released to the whites a large section of the central portion of East Tennessee, to which tract the Indians had previously laid claim. There was also a tacit understanding that there should be no further attacks by the Cherokees on the Cumberland settlement. However, as we shall later see, this part of the agreement was soon broken. Because of peaceful conditions existent at the beginning of this year there was a general expansion of the bounds of the settlement. A number of new stations were established in Sumner County.

In the early spring Maj. James White built a fort three miles northeast of Gallatin on a trace which is now the Scottsville turnpike. The traditional site of this fort is near a big spring in the front lot of the property formerly owned by the late John T. Carter, but now owned by Erskine Turner.

Colonel Saunders built a fort on the west side of Desha's Creek two and a half miles east of White's Station. It was located in the northeast corner of the farm now owned by Robert Green, and near the residence of Alex. Simmons. Capt. Joseph Wilson located three miles southeast of Gallatin on a tract of land formerly owned by the heirs of Darnell, but now by Thomas Reed. This was called the Walnutfield Station.

During this year also Jacob Zigler built a fort a mile and a half north of Cairo on the western branch of Bledsoe Creek, in what is now the Second Civil District of Sumner County. The site of this station was formerly the property of James Charlton. It is now owned by the heirs of William McKamie.

Scarcely had Colonel Saunders completed his fort on Desha's Creek and moved his family thereto when the Indians appeared and lying in wait, shot and killed his two young sons, who had ventured upon the outside.

Soon thereafter James Dickinson was killed while passing from Saunders to Whites' Station. In the month of June John Thompson was surprised and shot while hoeing in his cornfield a few miles south of Nashville. Later in the summer a band of Creeks killed a Mr. Miller, his wife and four or five children over on Rolling Fork of the Cumberland.

A census of Mero District taken this year shows a population of seven thousand and forty-two. One thousand of these were males capable of bearing arms. The population of the Indian tribes surrounding the Territory at that time is variously estimated at from twenty-five to fifty thousand.

Early History of Middle Tennessee, BY Edward Albright, Copyright, 1908, Brandon Printing Company, Nashville, Tennessee, 1909

Copyright August @2011 - 2021 AHGP - Judy White
For the exclusive use and benefit of The American History and Genealogy Project. Todos os direitos reservados.


McGillivray of the Creeks

First published in 1939, McGillivray of the Creeks is a unique mix of primary and secondary sources for the study of American Indian history in the Southeast. The historian John Walton Caughey's brief but definitive biography of Creek leader Alexander McGillivray (1750-1793) is coupled with 214 letters between McGillivray and Spanish and American political officials. The volume offers distinctive firsthand insights into Creek and Euroamerican diplomacy in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi in the aftermath of the American Revolution as well as a glimpse into how historians have viewed the controversial Creek leader.

McGillivray, the son of a famous Scottish Indian trader and a Muskogee Creek woman, was educated in Charleston, South Carolina, and, with his father's guidance, took up the mantle of negotiator for the Creek people during and after the Revolution. While much of eighteenth-century American Indian history relies on accounts written by non-Indians, the letters reprinted in this volume provide a valuable Indian perspective into Creek diplomatic negotiations with the Americans and the Spanish in the American South. Crafty and literate, McGillivray's letters reveal his willingness to play American and Spanish interests against one another. Whether he was motivated solely by a devotion to his native people or by the advancement of his own ambitions is the subject of much historical debate.

In the new introduction to this Southern Classic edition, William J. Bauer, Jr., places Caughey's life into its historiographical context and surveys the various interpretations of the enigmatic McGillivray that historians have drawn from this material.

A former president of the Organization of American Historians, John Walton Caughey (1902–1995) was a professor of history at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the author of eighteen works on American and American Indian history.

William J. Bauer, Jr., is an assistant professor of history at the University of Wyoming. His research interests include American Indian ethnohistory, labor, and California Indians.

"In this new edition, William J. Bauer Jr. updates Caughey's biography by contextualizing McGillivray's life in the current historiography of the eighteenth-century Creek Indians. The book contains mostly McGillivray's correspondence that concerns his negotiations between the United States, Britain, and Spain in regard to Creek political and economic affairs. Although McGillivray figures in virtually every book written about the Creeks and has been the subject of numerous articles, Caughey's biography is still the only one written about him to date."—H-Net Reviews


1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/McGillivray, Alexander

McGILLIVRAY, ALEXANDER (c. 1730–1793), American Indian chief, was born near the site of the present Wetumpka, in Alabama. His father was a Scotch merchant and his mother the daughter of a French officer and an Indian “princess.” Through his father’s relatives in South Carolina, McGillivray received a good education, but at the age of seventeen, after a short experience as a merchant in Savannah and Pensacola, he returned to the Muscogee Indians, who elected him chief. He retained his connexion with business life as a member of the British firm of Panton, Forbes & Leslie of Pensacola. During the War of Independence, as a colonel in the British army, he incited his followers to attack the western frontiers of Georgia and the Carolinas. Georgia confiscated some of his property, and after the peace of 1783 McGillivray remained hostile. Though still retaining his British commission, he accepted one from Spain, and during the remainder of his life used his influence to prevent American settlement in the south-west. So important was he considered that in 1790 President Washington sent an agent who induced him to visit New York. Here he was persuaded to make peace in consideration of a brigadier-general’s commission and payment for the property confiscated by Georgia and with the warriors who accompanied him he signed a formal treaty of peace and friendship on the 7th of August. He then went back to the Indian country, and remained hostile to the Americans until his death. He was one of the ablest Indian leaders of America and at one time wielded great power—having 5000 to 10,000 armed followers. In order to serve Indian interests he played off British, Spanish and American interests against one another, but before he died he saw that he was fighting in a losing cause, and, changing his policy, endeavoured to provide for the training of the Muscogees in the white man’s civilization. McGillivray was polished in manners, of cultivated intellect, was a shrewd merchant, and a successful speculator but he had many savage traits, being noted for his treachery, craftiness and love of barbaric display. ( W. L. F. )


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