Fídias (?), Friso do Partenon, c. 438-32 A.C.E.

Fídias (?), Friso do Partenon, c. 438-32 A.C.E.

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Mais aulas gratuitas em: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=KzZF1lP4Rbk
Fídias (?), Friso do Partenon, c. 438-32 A.C.E., mármore pentélico
(420 pés lineares dos 525 que completam o friso estão no Museu Britânico)


Como os antigos gregos projetaram o Partenon para impressionar - e por último

Poucos monumentos no mundo são mais reconhecíveis do que o Partenon. Situado no topo de uma colina de calcário que se eleva cerca de 150 metros acima do vale de Ilissos, em Atenas, este templo de mármore imponente construído em homenagem à deusa Atena traz a glória da Grécia antiga para o mundo moderno.

Construído com uma velocidade impressionante durante um grande projeto de construção do século V na cidadela no topo da colina conhecida como Acrópole, o Partenon não era apenas lindo & # x2014 como foi construído para durar.

Por meio de bombardeios, ocupações, abandono, vandalismo e até terremotos, o Partenon e outras estruturas da Acrópole permaneceram de pé, graças aos métodos sofisticados usados ​​em sua construção.


Repatriar obras de arte

Repatriação é a devolução de materiais culturais roubados ou saqueados aos seus países de origem. Embora a crença de que saquear patrimônio cultural seja errado e que objetos roubados devam ser devolvidos ao seu legítimo proprietário remonta à República Romana (ver Verrines de Cícero), não foi até a década de 1950, quando as duras verdades da colonização e dos crimes de guerra contra a humanidade começaram a ser exposto, que um amplo desejo de restituição emergiu e as leis e tratados para facilitar isso aumentaram em número. As reivindicações de repatriação são baseadas na lei, mas, mais importante, representam um desejo fervoroso de consertar um erro - uma espécie de justiça restaurativa - que também requer uma admissão de culpa e capitulação. É isso que torna as repatriações difíceis: nações e instituições raramente admitem que estavam erradas.

O debate e a lei

Placas de bronze do Reino de Benin no Museu Britânico, muitas removidas da cidade de Benin durante a expedição punitiva de 1897 (foto: adunt, CC BY-NC 2.0)

A repatriação de objetos de arte e culturais é um tópico popular nas notícias e há uma lista familiar de argumentos em ambos os lados do debate. Os principais argumentos para repatriação, mais frequentemente utilizados por países e povos que querem seus objetos de volta, são:

  • É moralmente correto e reflete as leis básicas de propriedade que a propriedade roubada ou saqueada seja devolvida ao seu legítimo proprietário.
  • Os objetos culturais pertencem às culturas que os criaram. Esses objetos são uma parte crucial da identidade cultural e política contemporânea.
  • Não devolver objetos roubados sob regimes colonialistas é perpetuar ideologias colonialistas que percebiam os povos colonizados como inerentemente inferiores (e muitas vezes “primitivos” de alguma forma).
  • Museus com coleções internacionais, muitas vezes chamados de museus universais ou enciclopédicos, estão localizados no Norte Global: França, Inglaterra, Alemanha, Estados Unidos, lugares que são caros para visitar e, portanto, nenhum lugar a maior parte do mundo pode ir para ver arte. É justamente um legado colonial que permitiu a tantos museus “universais” adquirirem a gama de objetos de seu acervo.
  • Mesmo se os objetos foram originalmente adquiridos legalmente, nossas atitudes sobre a propriedade de bens culturais mudaram e as coleções devem refletir essas atitudes contemporâneas.

Os argumentos contra a repatriação, mais frequentemente utilizados por museus e coleções que guardam objetos que eles não querem perder, são:

  • Se todos os museus devolvessem objetos aos seus países de origem, muitos museus estariam quase vazios.
  • Os países de origem não têm instalações ou pessoal adequado (devido à pobreza e / ou conflito armado) para receber os materiais repatriados, de modo que os objetos estão mais seguros onde estão agora.
  • Os museus universais permitem que muita arte de muitos lugares diferentes seja vista por muitas pessoas facilmente. Isso reflete nossa visão globalista ou cosmopolita moderna.
  • Os reinos antigos ou históricos dos quais muitos objetos vieram originalmente não existem mais ou estão espalhados por muitas fronteiras nacionais contemporâneas, como as do antigo Império Romano. Portanto, não está claro para onde exatamente os objetos devem ser repatriados.
  • A devolução dos objetos culturais obtidos sob os regimes coloniais aos seus países de origem não compensa a destruição do colonialismo.
  • A maioria dos objetos em museus e coleções, no momento de sua aquisição, foram obtidos legalmente e, portanto, não têm motivos para serem repatriados.

Alívio de uma divindade protetora do Palácio Noroeste, Nimrud, Iraque, Assírio, reinado de Assurnasirpal II, 883-859 AC, gesso, 221,7 x 176,3 cm (87 5/16 x 69 7/16 polegadas) escavado por Sir Henry Layard por década de 1850 (Museu de Belas Artes, Boston)

O debate sobre a repatriação envolve sentimentos poderosos e pessoais de moralidade, nacionalidade e identidade, e poucas pessoas podem falar sobre isso sem levantar a voz. Independentemente dessa paixão, no entanto, a questão, em última análise, é legal e os marcos jurídicos internacionais desenvolvidos no século 20 são o que ocasionam as repatriações. A primeira, que reconheceu os danos da guerra à propriedade, foi a Convenção de Haia de 1907, que proibia o saque de qualquer tipo durante o conflito armado, embora não tratasse especificamente dos bens culturais. A Convenção de Haia de 1954, no entanto, na esteira da destruição generalizada da arte durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, procurou proteger expressamente a propriedade cultural durante o conflito armado. A Convenção da UNESCO de 1970 permitiu que objetos roubados fossem apreendidos se houvesse prova de propriedade, seguida pela Convenção UNIDROIT de 1995 sobre objetos culturais roubados ou exportados ilegalmente, que exige a devolução de bens culturais escavados e exportados ilegalmente. Sem essas convenções e tratados, não haveria obrigação legal de devolução de nada.

Reclamações de repatriações

O Koh-i-Noor na cruz frontal do Queen Mary e da coroa # 8217s (Royal Collection Trust)

A grande maioria dos casos de repatriação derivam de subjugação colonial ou imperial. Ao longo da história, em todo o mundo, nações e impérios poderosos tomaram objetos valiosos, incluindo propriedade cultural, daqueles que conquistaram e colonizaram. Esses objetos de beleza e estima chegam a muitos milhões e a maioria provavelmente será perdida para seus antigos donos para sempre. No entanto, o roubo de alguns objetos especialmente valiosos e / ou importantes tem se mostrado inesquecível e objeto de frequentes pedidos de repatriação. Os exemplos são, por exemplo: o diamante Koh-i-noor, apreendido pela empresa britânica das Índias Orientais em 1849 e atualmente parte das joias da coroa britânica, Benin Bronzes, saqueado da capital do Benin (na Nigéria moderna) por soldados britânicos em 1897 e agora espalhada por vários museus da Europa e América a Pedra de Roseta, apreendida pelas tropas britânicas do exército francês no Egito em 1801 e hoje uma das exposições mais populares no Museu Britânico de Londres. As esculturas do Partenon são outro exemplo.

Os visitantes veem a Pedra de Roseta no Museu Britânico (foto: Dr. Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Casos de repatriação como esses têm sido abordados, em geral, caso a caso, entre as nações que buscam o retorno e as nações (e às vezes instituições específicas), que detêm esses objetos. Mais recentemente, porém, com o aumento da pressão por repatriações, algumas ex-potências coloniais estão fazendo um balanço de suas coleções e se encaminhando para repatriações em grande escala. Por exemplo, em 2017, a França encomendou um relatório que recomendava a repatriação de objetos em museus franceses adquiridos durante a ocupação colonial francesa de partes da África Ocidental.

Museu Nacional das Culturas Mundiais (Tropenmuseum, Amsterdã)

Em 2019, o governo alemão aprovou uma resolução para lançar as bases para estabelecer as condições para a repatriação de restos mortais e objetos de coleções públicas alemãs derivadas do domínio colonial. Em 2019, o Museu Nacional de Culturas Mundiais da Holanda se comprometeu a devolver proativamente todos os artefatos de sua coleção identificados como roubados durante a era colonial. Esses esforços, de maneira importante, incluem o compartilhamento de catálogos de acervos, um gesto de transparência que facilitará muito as reivindicações. No entanto, como muitos apontam, as intenções declaradas de repatriações em grande escala estão se revelando muito, muito lentas em se concretizar e, além disso, vários museus importantes (muitos no Reino Unido) se destacam por sua ausência na conversa.

O desejo colonialista de colecionar objetos bonitos de fontes distantes e exóticas ainda está entre nós e, por causa disso, indivíduos e instituições ricas continuam a coletar objetos culturais, antigos e contemporâneos. Para atender a essa demanda, saqueadores modernos (pessoas que desenterram e roubam propriedade cultural ilegalmente) alimentam um mercado subterrâneo de antiguidades e objetos etnográficos. Freqüentemente, esse saque ocorre em conjunto com guerra ou conflito político armado.

O coronel iraquiano Ali Sabah, comandante do Batalhão de Emergência de Basra, exibe artefatos antigos das Forças de Segurança do Iraque descobertos em 16 de dezembro de 2008, durante dois ataques no norte de Basra (foto: Exército dos EUA pela Divisão Multinacional Sudeste PAO, domínio público)

As reclamações de repatriação de objetos envolvidos neste comércio ilegal de bens culturais são especialmente difíceis, visto que devem ser estabelecidas provas da extração ilícita dos objetos e os ladrões raramente documentam o seu trabalho, especialmente em zonas de guerra. Além disso, esses tipos de pedidos de repatriação simbolizam feridas coloniais recentes, ilustrando que as práticas de coleta dos ricos e poderosos continuam e as nações e pessoas menos poderosas ainda são vulneráveis.

A boa notícia é que ocorreram repatriações bem-sucedidas de pilhagens recentes e aqueles que compram do comércio ilícito estão cada vez mais desencorajados a fazê-lo. Por exemplo, em 2011, o Museu de Belas Artes de Boston devolveu uma escultura romana de Hércules à Turquia, da qual ela havia sido roubada. Em 2018, a Galeria Nacional da Austrália devolveu à Índia uma estátua de bronze do deus Shiva, que havia sido saqueada de um templo hindu em Tamil Nadu. Em 2020, o Museu da Bíblia em Washington, D.C. devolveu cerca de 11.500 objetos saqueados para o Iraque e Egito, incluindo aproximadamente 5.000 fragmentos de papiro e 6.500 tábuas de argila.

Outro tipo de solicitação de repatriação é a devolução de objetos culturais e restos mortais roubados de populações indígenas por invasores europeus, principalmente na América do Norte e do Sul, Austrália, Oceania e Nova Zelândia. O que distingue essas reivindicações é a memória viva e duradoura, entre as comunidades tribais contemporâneas, de objetos e locais específicos que foram saqueados e profanados e a necessidade espiritual aguda de seu retorno e restauração. Na verdade, esses fragmentos de cultura viva só podem ser totalmente compreendidos, usados ​​de maneira adequada e valorizados corretamente por seus proprietários nativos.

Em uma tentativa de atender a esses tipos de solicitações de repatriação, duas respostas legisladas, o Native American Graves and Protection Repatriation Act (nos EUA) e o Programa de Repatriação Indígena (na Austrália) foram promulgadas. Por meio desses dois programas, as estruturas jurídicas para a repatriação foram estabelecidas e centenas de milhares de objetos e restos mortais foram devolvidos às comunidades indígenas, onde novamente atuam como atores poderosos na criação de significado espiritual, comunitário e pessoal. Um exemplo famoso é o retorno do Ancião (também chamado de Homem Kennewick) depois que cinco tribos do noroeste do Pacífico argumentaram que os restos humanos eram um ancestral. Ainda assim, a repatriação bem-sucedida ocorreu apenas depois que testes genéticos feitos por cientistas dinamarqueses comprovaram a afirmação dos povos indígenas, destacando os legados colonialistas em curso que afetam a repatriação cultural.

Moai Hoa Hakananai’a, levado de Orongo, Ilha de Páscoa (Rapa Nui) em novembro de 1868 pela tripulação do navio britânico HMS Topaze e agora no Museu Britânico (foto: Markus Lütkemeyer, CC BY 2.0)

A era das repatriações finalmente chegou. O trabalho é lento e irregular e ainda há inúmeros objetos para voltar para casa, mas agora as repatriações estão ocorrendo em um ritmo nunca antes visto. O que exemplos como o Krater de Euphronios nos mostram sobre a repatriação é que os objetos voltam mudados. Não apenas fisicamente, mas também pela maneira como foram usados ​​(muitas vezes ideologicamente) em seus significados - e não podem ser alterados de volta. Mesmo que sejam exibidos de forma silenciosa e historicamente proscrita (como no caso da krater de Euphronios), sua experiência de vida os tornou maiores, mais barulhentos, emocionais e mais políticos.


Metopes

Noventa e dois metopes esculpidos (blocos quadrados colocados entre blocos tríglifos de três canais) adornam as paredes externas do Partenon. As metopos no lado oeste representam Amazonomachy, uma batalha mítica entre as amazonas e os gregos antigos, e foi pensado para ser projetado pelo escultor Kalamis.

As metopes no lado leste mostram Gigantomaquia, batalhas míticas entre deuses e gigantes. A maioria das metrópoles do lado sul mostra a Centauromaquia, a batalha dos míticos centauros com os lapitas, e as metáforas do lado norte retratam a Guerra de Tróia.


O Partenon, Atenas

Saiba mais sobre o grande templo de Atena, patrono de Atenas, e a história conturbada do edifício.

Iktinos e Kallikrates (programa escultural dirigido por Fídias), Partenon, Atenas, 447 e # 8211 432 a.C.E .. Oradores: Dra. Beth Harris e Dr. Steven Zucker.

Íris, do frontão oeste do Partenon, c. 438-432 A.C.E., mármore, 135 cm de altura, Atenas, Grécia © Curadores do Museu Britânico

Atenas e democracia

Por volta de 500 a.C. ‘Governo do povo’, ou democracia, surgiu na cidade de Atenas. Após a derrota de uma invasão persa em 480-479 a.C., a Grécia continental e Atenas em particular entraram em uma era de ouro. No drama e na filosofia, na literatura, na arte e na arquitetura, Atenas era incomparável. O império da cidade se estendia do Mediterrâneo Ocidental até o Mar Negro, criando uma enorme riqueza. Isso pagou um dos maiores projetos de construção pública já vistos na Grécia, que incluiu o Partenon.

O templo conhecido como Partenon foi construído na Acrópole de Atenas entre 447 e 438 a.C. Era parte de um vasto programa de construção planejado pelo estadista ateniense Perikles. Dentro do templo havia uma estátua colossal representando Atena, deusa padroeira da cidade. A estátua, que já não existe, foi feita em ouro e marfim e foi obra do célebre escultor Fídias.

Esculturas do Partenon

O próprio edifício foi decorado com esculturas de mármore representando cenas do culto e mitologia atenienses. Existem três categorias de escultura arquitetônica. O friso (esculpido em baixo relevo) ficava bem alto em volta dos quatro lados do prédio dentro das colunatas. Os metopes (esculpidos em alto relevo) foram colocados no mesmo nível do friso acima da arquitrave que encima as colunas do lado de fora do templo. As esculturas de frontão (esculpidas em redondo) preenchiam as empenas triangulares de cada extremidade.

Embora o edifício devesse sofrer várias alterações, permaneceu praticamente intacto até o século XVII. Os primeiros cristãos transformaram o templo em uma igreja, acrescentando uma abside na extremidade leste. Foi provavelmente nessa época que as esculturas que representam o nascimento de Atena foram removidas do centro do frontão leste e muitas das metopos foram desfiguradas. O Partenon serviu como igreja até Atenas ser conquistada pelos turcos otomanos no século XV, quando se tornou uma mesquita. Em 1687, durante o cerco veneziano à Acrópole, os turcos defensores usavam o Partenon como depósito de pólvora, que foi incendiada pelo bombardeio veneziano. A explosão destruiu o coração do edifício, destruindo o telhado e partes das paredes e a colunata.

Os venezianos conseguiram capturar a Acrópole, mas a mantiveram por menos de um ano. Mais danos foram feitos na tentativa de remover esculturas do frontão oeste, quando o equipamento de levantamento quebrou e as esculturas caíram e foram esmagadas. Muitas das esculturas que foram destruídas em 1687, são agora conhecidas apenas por desenhos feitos em 1674, por um artista provavelmente identificado como Jacques Carrey.

Metope de mármore do Partenon

Metope de mármore do Partenon, c. 447-438 A.C.E., 172 cm de altura, Acrópole, Atenas © Curadores do Museu Britânico

A decoração esculpida do Partenon incluía noventa e dois metopos mostrando cenas de batalhas míticas. Aqueles no flanco sul do templo incluíam uma série de lápitas humanas em combate mortal com centauros. Os centauros eram parte homem e parte cavalo, tendo, portanto, um lado civil e um lado selvagem em sua natureza. Os lapitas, uma tribo grega vizinha, cometeram o erro de dar vinho aos centauros na festa de casamento de seu rei, Peirithoos. Os centauros tentaram estuprar as mulheres, com seu líder Eurytion tentando levar a noiva. Uma batalha geral se seguiu, com os lapitas finalmente vitoriosos.

Aqui, um jovem Lapith segura um centauro por trás com uma das mãos, enquanto se prepara para desferir um golpe com a outra. A composição é perfeitamente equilibrada, com os protagonistas puxando em direções opostas, em torno de um espaço central preenchido pelas dobras em cascata da capa do Lapith & # 8217s.

Fragmento do friso

Cavaleiros do friso oeste do Partenon, c. 438-432 A.C.E., 100 cm de altura, Acrópole, Atenas © Curadores do Museu Britânico

Este bloco foi colocado próximo ao canto do friso oeste do Partenon, onde virou para o norte. Os cavaleiros estão se movendo com alguma velocidade, mas agora estão puxando as rédeas para não parecer que estão saindo da borda do friso. O cavaleiro da frente se vira para olhar para seu companheiro e leva a mão (agora faltando) à cabeça. Este gesto, repetido em outra parte do friso, é talvez um sinal. Embora cavaleiros montados possam ser vistos aqui, grande parte do friso oeste apresenta cavaleiros se preparando para a cavalgada adequada, mostrada nos longos lados norte e sul do templo.

Escultura em frontão

Figuras de três deusas do frontão leste do Partenon, c. 438-432 A.C.E., 233 cm de comprimento, Acrópole, Atenas © Curadores do Museu Britânico

O frontão leste do Partenon mostrava o nascimento da deusa Atenas da cabeça de seu pai Zeus. As esculturas que representavam a cena real estão perdidas. Zeus provavelmente foi mostrado sentado, enquanto Atena se afastava dele totalmente crescido e armado.

Apenas algumas das figuras agrupadas em cada lado do grupo central perdido sobreviveram. Eles incluem essas três deusas, que estavam sentadas à direita do centro. Da esquerda para a direita, sua postura varia de forma a acomodar a inclinação do frontão que originalmente os enquadrava. Eles são notáveis ​​por sua representação naturalística da anatomia combinada com uma representação harmoniosa de cortinas complexas.

A figura à esquerda está a ponto de se levantar e enfia o pé direito para se erguer. À direita, outra figura embala um companheiro reclinado luxuosamente em seu colo. Eles são talvez, da esquerda para a direita, Héstia, deusa do lar e da casa, Dione e sua filha Afrodite. No entanto, outra sugestão é que as duas figuras à direita sejam a personificação do Mar (Thalassa) no colo da Terra (Gaia).

Leituras sugeridas:

B.F. Cook, The Elgin Marbles (Londres, The British Museum Press, 1997).


© Curadores do Museu Britânico


Figuras de três deusas do frontão leste do Partenon

O frontão leste do Partenon mostrava o nascimento da deusa Atenas da cabeça de seu pai Zeus. As esculturas que representavam a cena real estão perdidas. Zeus provavelmente foi mostrado sentado, enquanto Atena se afastava dele totalmente crescido e armado.

Apenas algumas das figuras agrupadas em cada lado do grupo central perdido sobreviveram. Eles incluem essas três deusas, que estavam sentadas à direita do centro. Da esquerda para a direita, sua postura varia para acomodar a inclinação das molduras arquitetônicas que emolduravam o frontão. Eles são notáveis ​​por sua representação naturalística da anatomia combinada com uma representação harmoniosa de cortinas complexas.

A figura à esquerda está a ponto de se levantar e enfia o pé direito para se erguer. À direita, outra figura embala um companheiro reclinado luxuosamente em seu colo. Eles são talvez, da esquerda para a direita, Héstia, deusa da lareira e do lar, Dione e sua filha Afrodite. No entanto, outra sugestão é que as duas figuras à direita sejam a personificação do Mar (Thalassa) no colo da Terra (Gaia).


Fídias (?), Friso do Partenon, c. 438-32 A.C.E. - História

Zidovi dorskog hrama su ravni i imaju jedino sokl sa stopom i završni profil. Sokl je uvek ravna ploča koja minimalno izlazi ispred ravni zidova. Stubovi nemaju stopu, stablo dorskog stuba leži neposredno na stilobatu. Razmak stubova je mali, um stope dodatkom em bi se još više suzio. Sve do 5. veka stubovi ne dostizu visinu od 5 precnika, da bi tek kasnije presli tu visinu i dostigli sve do 7 ili 8 precnika.

Stablo dorskog stuba profilisano je kanelurama i završava se kapitelom koji je jednostavan u formi i sveden u dekoraciji. Kanelure počinju od dna stabla i zavrsavaju se pod kapitelom.

Kapitel stuba se sastoji iz tri dela, abakusa, ravne ploče koja naleže na arhitrav kime koja se kružnim stablom naslanja na telo stuba i trakama koje dekorativno izražavaju posredničku ulogu između stabla i kapitela. Abakus kapitela je bio bojen, dekorisan meandrom (crtanim i bojenim).

Arhitrav je greda koja povezuje stubove i gornju konsturkciju. Uvek je sastavljen iz više delova, a prednja strana je ravna i jednostavna, ali ima izuzetaka. Završava se obično jednom ravno uskom trakom i malim ispustom. Visina mu je približno jednaka gornjem prečniku stuba, ali se u kasnijim periodima smanjuje u korist friza. Unutrašnja strana je ili sasvim ravna kao na Partenonu ili je završena uskom pločicom ili dorskom kimom.

Friz je srednji pojas glavnog venca koji uzdiže zgradu. Sastavljen je iz triglifa i metopa. Triglifi nariz venac i u vidu su tri stubića, um metope su četvrtaste ploče koje popunjavaju prazninu između. Metope su ispunjene plastikom, skulpturom. Triglifi su pored reljefne dekoracije bili i bojeni što Vitruvije potvrdjuje za starije dorske spomenike. Šest najpoznatijih dorskih hramova su u Selinuntu, Posejdonov hram, u Paestrumu Dimitrov hram u Paestrumu, ruševine hrama u Agrigendu, Zevsov Hram u Olimpiji, Tezejon u Ateni, Partenon na Akropoljuiji i Apolonov hram.

Pogledaj i poslušaj: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/greek-art/classical/v/parthenon

Pogledaj: Sl. 1 Šema stuba hrama dorskog reda.

: Sl. 2 Hram Apolona u Korintu.

Partenon je hram posvećen grčkoj boginji Atini, zaštitnici grada Atine, izgrađen u 5. veku p.n.e. na Akropolju.

Partenon je svakako jedan od najznačajnijih hramova klasičnog stila, koji se smatra vrhuncem razvoja dorskog stila. Njegove dekorativne skulpture ubrajaju se u najvažnija dela starogrčke umetnosti.

Nakon što je Kserks uništio arhajski hram na vrhu Akropolja u 480. godini, Atinjani su želeli ne samo da zamene stari hram već i da ovekoveče pobedu nad Persijancima ponovo izgradivši ovo sveto mesto na masivnoj steni. Njihova zaštitnica Atina dobila je spektakularni novi hram, Partenon.

Izgradnju Partenona je nadgledao vajar Fidija, koji je bio zadužen i za skulpturalnu dekoraciju.

Arhitekte Iktin i Kalikrat započeli su gradnju 447. godine p.n.e. i zgrada je završena do 432. godine. Dekoracija hrama trajala je i nakon izgradnje još godinu dana.

Unutar ovog hrama bila je statua Atine Partenos (dispositivo) koju je napravio Fidija, sigurno odgovoran i za većinu drugih skulptura i skulpturalnog ukrasa. Skulptura Atine radjena je u hrisoelefantskoj tehnici, inkarnat i otkriveni delovi tela su u slonovači, dok su ostali prekriveni delovi u zlatu.

Statua je preživela hiljade godina. Verovatno je prenesena u Carigrad, gde je nestala tokom srednjeg veka. Iktin, graditelj Partenona i njegov saradnik Kalikrat bili su povezani sa gradnjom hrama Atene Nike i dugačkim zidovima koji su povezivali Atinu sa lukom Pirej.

Temelj Partenona preostao od ranoklasičnog zdanja, proširen je na severnoj strani. Umesto tradicionalnog broja stubova 6:13 podignuto je 8:17.

Četiri strane friza metopa bile su ukrašene tematskim programom. One su podeljene na sledeće sadržajne celine, kako se navodi u narednim slajdovima.

Na istočnom frontonu prikazan je svet Olimpijaca izvanrednih razmera - ne više u borbi kao na metopama, niti na zemlji kao na frizu, već na svetom brdu Olimpu, u trenutku radjanja Atene, čiji je rodjendan slavljen slavljen. Polegla božanstva, Dionis levo i Afrodita desno, jos nisu opazili ovaj dogadjaj. U levom uglu diže se Helios, čiji se konji propinju pred čudom koje vlada čitavom prirodom. među centralnim figurama, samo se nekoliko može prepoznati. Hefest i Zevs, na prestolu, iza njega stoji Hera, Atina i najzad Nike koja krunise Atenu. Prisna grupa Demetre i Kore sede na cisti sa svetim predmetima, hierama eleusinskh misterija sa kojima se one poistovećuju. Pejto (Pietho) pocinje tacno da shvata sta se desava, ali ona ne zeli da uznemiri svoju gospoaricu, Afroditu, koja se odmara na njenim grudima. Desno od Afrodite, Noć koja joj pripada, spušta svoju zapregu u kosmički okean.

Pozornica radnje nije na Olimpu već na samom Akropolju. Atina i Posejdon lično su sišli na Akropolj sa Olimpa da bi ga preuzeli, dok su herojske porodice zahvaćene užasom. Zato figura nisu postavljene u miru već su uznemireni i povučeni u plano prednji. Fragmenti sa ovog frontona najsnažnije su svedočanstvo klasične umetnosti - kruna Fidijinog dela. Budući da je veoma malo originalne skulpture ostalo rekonstrukcija ovog.

Istoène metope

Gigantomahija otkriva svet žitelja Olimpa, u homerovskom smislu. Iznad sedam razmaka stubova nalaze se metope. Sedam levo od Atene, koja se smatra za pravog pobednika nad Gigantima i sedam desno od Herakla, bez koga ne bi bilo pobede. Između njih šest metopa je bilo sačuvano za tri nadmoćna para: u sredini Zevs i Hera, s njihove leve strane Posejdon i Amfitrita, a sa desne, takodje okrenuti ka sredistu Apolon i Artemida. U prve tri metope predstavljeni su Hermes, Dionis, Ares, a u poslednje tri Afrodita, Hefest, Helios.

Zapadne metope

Programa zapadnih metopa čini Amazonomahiju.

Južne metope

Na južnoj strani je predstava Kentauromahije. Prema starim crtežima pretpostavlja se da su na južnim metopama bile predstavljene cena vezane za ustanovljenje panatenejskih svečanosti.

Severne Metope

Predstavljaju ciklus u kojima se prikazuju borbe Grčko-Trojanskog rata.

Friz vodi ka istoku, gde bogovi, sreću povorku. Zevs koji sedi čini se nesto većim od ostalih. Primoran je da sagne glavu da bi mogao da stane u friz. Plašt mu je skliznuo sa ramena, leva ruka se odmara na naslonu, a desna sa skiptrom je na colenima. Hera skida svoj veo, uma glasnik bogova Irida najavljuje povorku. Grupa bogova pred Herom odaje jonskog majstora, Ares, njen sin obavio je rukama desno koleno, Demetra desnom rukom dodiruje bradu i “vecito salmoura za svoju kcer Persefonu” Hermosi hleb, a Dionis vino i sedi na braduje pranja pranja os redu, sa putnom kapom na kolenima, obuven u putnu obuću u desnoj ruci drži žezlo.

Atina koja sedi u poslednjem redu božanstava okrenutih severu, zauzima počasno mesto, kao i Zevs. Artemida se živo okreće ka Afroditi. Afrodita je ovde prvi put prikazana kao Erosova majka. Ona je stavila ruku na suncobran da mu zaštiti telo od toplote. Povorka se završava između dve polovine grupe sa bogovima, u unutrasnjosti hrama dve mlade devojke difrofore, doe sedišta ukrašena jastucima, prisustvo bogova izaziva molitve ljudi. Jedna sveštenica im pomaže da postave svoj teret ona je u službi Atene Polias i predstavlja središnji lik u celini friza. Iza nje, jedan blagajnik predaje slugi na čuvanje novi peplos koji je darovala povorka.

Sl. 1 - Partenon, 2 - frontoni, 3 - skulpturalna dekoracija, 4 - metope, 5 - friz, 6 - Fidija


Conteúdo

A origem do nome do Partenon é da palavra grega παρθενών (partenon), que se referia aos "aposentos de mulheres solteiras" em uma casa e, no caso do Partenon, parece ter sido usado inicialmente apenas para uma determinada sala do templo [17], é debatido que quarto é este e como o quarto adquiriu seu nome. O Liddell – Scott – Jones Léxico grego-inglês afirma que esta sala era a cela ocidental do Partenon, assim como J.B. Bury. [11] Jamauri D. Green afirma que o Partenon era a sala em que os peplos apresentados a Atenas no Festival Panatenaico foram tecidos pelos arrephoroi, um grupo de quatro meninas escolhidas para servir a Atenas todos os anos. [18] Christopher Pelling afirma que Atenas Partenos pode ter constituído um culto discreto de Atenas, intimamente conectado, mas não idêntico ao de Atenas Polias. [19] De acordo com esta teoria, o nome do Partenon significa o "templo da deusa virgem" e se refere ao culto de Atena Partenos que estava associado ao templo. [20] O epíteto parthénos (παρθένος) significava "donzela, menina", bem como "mulher virgem e solteira". [21] O termo foi usado especialmente para Ártemis, a deusa dos animais selvagens, da vegetação e da caça e para Atenas, a deusa da estratégia, tática, artesanato e razão prática. [22] Também foi sugerido que o nome do templo alude às donzelas (parthénoi), cujo sacrifício supremo garantiu a segurança da cidade. [23] Parthénos também foi aplicado à Virgem Maria (Parthénos Maria) e o Partenon foi convertido em uma igreja cristã dedicada à Virgem Maria na década final do século VI. [24]

A primeira instância em que Partenon definitivamente se refere a todo o edifício é encontrado nos escritos do orador Demóstenes do século 4 aC. Em relatos de edifícios do século 5, a estrutura é simplesmente chamada de ὁ νᾱός (ho naos aceso. "o templo"). Diz-se que os arquitetos Iktinos e Callicrates chamaram o edifício de Ἑκατόμπεδος (Hekatómpedos aceso. "cem rodapés") em seu tratado perdido sobre a arquitetura ateniense. [25] Harpocration escreve que o Partenon costumava ser chamado de Hekatompedos por alguns, não devido ao seu tamanho, mas por causa de sua beleza e proporções finas [25] e, no século 4 e mais tarde, o edifício foi referido como o Hekatompedos ou o Hekatompedon assim como o Partenon Plutarco, escritor do século 1 DC, referiu-se ao edifício como o Hekatompedos Parthenon. [26]

Because the Parthenon was dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena it has sometimes been referred to as the Temple of Minerva, the Roman name for Athena, particularly during the 19th century. [27]

Although the Parthenon is architecturally a temple and is usually called so, some scholars have argued that it is not really a "temple" in the conventional sense of the word. [28] A small shrine has been excavated within the building, on the site of an older sanctuary probably dedicated to Athena as a way to get closer to the goddess, [28] but the Parthenon apparently never hosted the official cult of Athena Polias, patron of Athens: the cult image of Athena Polias, which was bathed in the sea and to which was presented the peplos, was an olive-wood xoanon, located in another temple on the northern side of the Acropolis, more closely associated with the Great Altar of Athena. [29]

The colossal statue of Athena by Phidias was not specifically related to any cult attested by ancient authors [30] and is not known to have inspired any religious fervor. [29] Preserved ancient sources do not associate it with any priestess, altar or cult name. [31] According to Thucydides, during the Peloponnesian War when Sparta's forces were first preparing to invade Attica, Pericles, in an address to the Athenian people, said that the statue could be used as a gold reserve if that was necessary to preserve Athens, stressing that it "contained forty talents of pure gold and it was all removable", but adding that the gold would afterward have to be restored. [32] The Athenian statesman thus implies that the metal, obtained from contemporary coinage, [33] could be used again if absolutely necessary without any impiety. [31] Some scholars, therefore, argue that the Parthenon should be viewed as a grand setting for a monumental votive statue rather than as a cult site. [34] It is said [ by whom? ] in many writings of the Greeks that there were many treasures stored inside the temple, such as Persian swords and small statue figures made of precious metals.

Archaeologist Joan Breton Connelly has recently argued for the coherency of the Parthenon's sculptural program in presenting a succession of genealogical narratives that track Athenian identity back through the ages: from the birth of Athena, through cosmic and epic battles, to the final great event of the Athenian Bronze Age, the war of Erechtheus and Eumolpos. [35] [36] She argues a pedagogical function for the Parthenon's sculptured decoration, one that establishes and perpetuates Athenian foundation myth, memory, values and identity. [37] [38] While some classicists, including Mary Beard, Peter Green, and Garry Wills [39] [40] have doubted or rejected Connelly's thesis, an increasing number of historians, archaeologists, and classical scholars support her work. They include: J.J. Pollitt, [41] Brunilde Ridgway, [42] Nigel Spivey, [43] Caroline Alexander, [44] and A. E. Stallings. [45]

Older Parthenon Edit

The first endeavor to build a sanctuary for Athena Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon was begun shortly after the Battle of Marathon (c. 490–488 BC) upon a solid limestone foundation that extended and leveled the southern part of the Acropolis summit. This building replaced a Hekatompedon temple ("hundred-footer") and would have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to Athena Polias ("of the city"). The Older or Pre-Parthenon, as it is frequently referred to, was still under construction when the Persians sacked the city in 480 BC razing the Acropolis. [46] [47]

The existence of both the proto-Parthenon and its destruction were known from Herodotus, [48] and the drums of its columns were plainly visible built into the curtain wall north of the Erechtheion. Further physical evidence of this structure was revealed with the excavations of Panagiotis Kavvadias of 1885–90. The findings of this dig allowed Wilhelm Dörpfeld, then director of the German Archaeological Institute, to assert that there existed a distinct substructure to the original Parthenon, called Parthenon I by Dörpfeld, not immediately below the present edifice as had been previously assumed. [49] Dörpfeld's observation was that the three steps of the first Parthenon consisted of two steps of Poros limestone, the same as the foundations, and a top step of Karrha limestone that was covered by the lowest step of the Periclean Parthenon. This platform was smaller and slightly to the north of the final Parthenon, indicating that it was built for a wholly different building, now completely covered over. This picture was somewhat complicated by the publication of the final report on the 1885–90 excavations, indicating that the substructure was contemporary with the Kimonian walls, and implying a later date for the first temple. [50]

If the original Parthenon was indeed destroyed in 480, it invites the question of why the site was left as a ruin for thirty-three years. One argument involves the oath sworn by the Greek allies before the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC [51] declaring that the sanctuaries destroyed by the Persians would not be rebuilt, an oath from which the Athenians were only absolved with the Peace of Callias in 450. [52] The mundane fact of the cost of reconstructing Athens after the Persian sack is at least as likely a cause. However, the excavations of Bert Hodge Hill led him to propose the existence of a second Parthenon, begun in the period of Kimon after 468 BC. [53] Hill claimed that the Karrha limestone step Dörpfeld thought was the highest of Parthenon I was in fact the lowest of the three steps of Parthenon II, whose stylobate dimensions Hill calculated at 23.51 by 66.888 metres (77.13 ft × 219.45 ft).

One difficulty in dating the proto-Parthenon is that at the time of the 1885 excavation the archaeological method of seriation was not fully developed the careless digging and refilling of the site led to a loss of much valuable information. An attempt to discuss and make sense of the potsherds found on the Acropolis came with the two-volume study by Graef and Langlotz published in 1925–33. [54] This inspired American archaeologist William Bell Dinsmoor to attempt to supply limiting dates for the temple platform and the five walls hidden under the re-terracing of the Acropolis. Dinsmoor concluded that the latest possible date for Parthenon I was no earlier than 495 BC, contradicting the early date given by Dörpfeld. [55] Further, Dinsmoor denied that there were two proto-Parthenons, and held that the only pre-Periclean temple was what Dörpfeld referred to as Parthenon II. Dinsmoor and Dörpfeld exchanged views in the American Journal of Archaeology in 1935. [56]

Present building Edit

In the mid-5th century BC, when the Athenian Acropolis became the seat of the Delian League and Athens was the greatest cultural center of its time, Pericles initiated an ambitious building project that lasted the entire second half of the century. The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis today – the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike – were erected during this period. The Parthenon was built under the general supervision of the artist Phidias, who also had charge of the sculptural decoration. The architects Ictinos and Callicrates began their work in 447 BC, and the building was substantially completed by 432. However, work on the decorations continued until at least 431.

The Parthenon was built primarily by men who knew how to work marble. These quarrymen had exceptional skills and were able to cut the blocks of marble to very specific measurements. The quarrymen also knew how to avoid the faults, which were numerous in the Pentelic marble. If the marble blocks were not up to standard, the architects would reject them. The marble was worked with iron tools -- picks, points, punches, chisels, and drills. The quarrymen would hold their tools against the marble block and firmly tap the surface of the rock. [57]

A big project like the Parthenon attracted stonemasons from far and wide who traveled to Athens to assist in the project. Slaves and foreigners worked together with the Athenian citizens in the building of the Parthenon, doing the same jobs for the same pay. Temple building was a very specialized craft, and there were not many men in Greece qualified to build temples like the Parthenon, so these men would travel around and work where they were needed. [58]

Other craftsmen also were necessary for the building of the Parthenon, specifically carpenters and metalworkers. Unskilled laborers also had key roles in the building of the Parthenon. These laborers loaded and unloaded the marble blocks and moved the blocks from place to place. In order to complete a project like the Parthenon, a number of different laborers were needed, and each played a critical role in constructing the final building. [59]

The Parthenon is a peripteral octastyle Doric temple with Ionic architectural features. It stands on a platform or stylobate of three steps. In common with other Greek temples, it is of post and lintel construction and is surrounded by columns ('peripteral') carrying an entablature. There are eight columns at either end ('octastyle') and seventeen on the sides. There is a double row of columns at either end. The colonnade surrounds an inner masonry structure, the cella, which is divided into two compartments. At either end of the building, the gable is finished with a triangular pediment originally occupied by sculpted figures. The columns are of the Doric order, with simple capitals, fluted shafts, and no bases. Above the architrave of the entablature is a frieze of carved pictorial panels (metopes), separated by formal architectural triglyphs, typical of the Doric order. Around the cella and across the lintels of the inner columns runs a continuous sculptured frieze in low relief. This element of the architecture is Ionic in style rather than Doric. [60]

Measured at the stylobate, the dimensions of the base of the Parthenon are 69.5 by 30.9 metres (228 by 101 ft). The cella was 29.8 meters long by 19.2 meters wide (97.8 × 63.0 ft). On the exterior, the Doric columns measure 1.9 metres (6.2 ft) in diameter and are 10.4 metres (34 ft) high. The corner columns are slightly larger in diameter. The Parthenon had 46 outer columns and 23 inner columns in total, each column having 20 flutes. (A flute is the concave shaft carved into the column form.) The roof was covered with large overlapping marble tiles known as imbrices and tegulae. [61] [62]

The Parthenon is regarded as the finest example of Greek architecture. The temple wrote John Julius Cooper, "Enjoys the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built. Even in antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle correspondence between the curvature of the stylobate, the taper of the naos walls, and the entasis of the columns." [63] Entasis refers to the slight swelling, of 4 centimetres (1.6 in), in the center of the columns to counteract the appearance of columns having a waist, as the swelling makes them look straight from a distance. The stylobate is the platform on which the columns stand. As in many other classical Greek temples, [64] it has a slight parabolic upward curvature intended to shed rainwater and reinforce the building against earthquakes. The columns might therefore be supposed to lean outward, but they actually lean slightly inward so that if they carried on, they would meet almost exactly 2,400 metres (1.5 mi) above the center of the Parthenon. [65] Since they are all the same height, the curvature of the outer stylobate edge is transmitted to the architrave and roof above: "All follow the rule of being built to delicate curves", Gorham Stevens observed when pointing out that, in addition, the west front was built at a slightly higher level than that of the east front. [66]

It is not universally agreed what the intended effect of these "optical refinements" was. They may serve as a sort of "reverse optical illusion." [67] As the Greeks may have been aware, two parallel lines appear to bow, or curve outward, when intersected by converging lines. In this case, the ceiling and floor of the temple may seem to bow in the presence of the surrounding angles of the building. Striving for perfection, the designers may have added these curves, compensating for the illusion by creating their own curves, thus negating this effect and allowing the temple to be seen as they intended. It is also suggested that it was to enliven what might have appeared an inert mass in the case of a building without curves. But the comparison ought to be, according to Smithsonian historian Evan Hadingham, with the Parthenon's more obviously curved predecessors than with a notional rectilinear temple. [68]

Some studies of the Acropolis, including of the Parthenon and its façade, have conjectured that many of its proportions approximate the golden ratio. [69] However, such theories have been discredited by more recent studies, which have shown that the proportions of the Parthenon do not match the golden proportion. [70] [71]

The cella of the Parthenon housed the chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos sculpted by Phidias and dedicated in 439 or 438 BC. The appearance of this is known from other images. The decorative stonework was originally highly colored. [72] The temple was dedicated to Athena at that time, though construction continued until almost the beginning of the Peloponnesian War in 432. By the year 438, the sculptural decoration of the Doric metopes on the frieze above the exterior colonnade, and of the Ionic frieze around the upper portion of the walls of the cella, had been completed. No opisthodomos (the back room of the cella) were stored the monetary contributions of the Delian League, of which Athens was the leading member.

Only a very small number of the sculptures remain no local most of the surviving sculptures are today (controversially) in the British Museum in London (as with the Parthenon Marbles) and the Acropolis Museum in Athens, with a few pieces in the Louvre, National Museum of Denmark, and museums in Rome, Vienna, and Palermo. [73]

Metopes Edit

The frieze of the Parthenon's entablature contained 92 metopes, 14 each on the east and west sides, 32 each on the north and south sides. They were carved in high relief, a practice employed until then only in treasuries (buildings used to keep votive gifts to the gods). [74] According to the building records, the metope sculptures date to the years 446–440 BC. The metopes of the east side of the Parthenon, above the main entrance, depict the Gigantomachy (the mythical battle between the Olympian gods and the Giants). The metopes of the west end show the Amazonomachy (the mythical battle of the Athenians against the Amazons). The metopes of the south side show the Thessalian Centauromachy (battle of the Lapiths aided by Theseus against the half-man, half-horse Centaurs). Metopes 13–21 are missing, but drawings from 1674 attributed to Jaques Carrey indicate a series of humans these have been variously interpreted as scenes from the Lapith wedding, scenes from the early history of Athens, and various myths. [75] On the north side of the Parthenon, the metopes are poorly preserved, but the subject seems to be the sack of Troy.

The mythological figures of the metopes of the East, North, and West sides of the Parthenon had been deliberately mutilated by Christian iconoclasts in late antiquity. [76]

The metopes present examples of the Severe Style in the anatomy of the figures' heads, in the limitation of the corporal movements to the contours and not to the muscles, and in the presence of pronounced veins in the figures of the Centauromachy. Several of the metopes still remain on the building, but, with the exception of those on the northern side, they are severely damaged. Some of them are located at the Acropolis Museum, others are in the British Museum, and one is at the Louvre museum. [77]

In March 2011, archaeologists announced that they had discovered five metopes of the Parthenon in the south wall of the Acropolis, which had been extended when the Acropolis was used as a fortress. De acordo com Eleftherotypia daily, the archaeologists claimed the metopes had been placed there in the 18th century when the Acropolis wall was being repaired. The experts discovered the metopes while processing 2,250 photos with modern photographic methods, as the white Pentelic marble they are made of differed from the other stone of the wall. It was previously presumed that the missing metopes were destroyed during the Morosini explosion of the Parthenon in 1687. [78]

Frieze Edit

The most characteristic feature in the architecture and decoration of the temple is the Ionic frieze running around the exterior of the cella walls. The bas-relief frieze was carved in situ and is dated to 442 BC-438 BC.

One interpretation is that it depicts an idealized version of the Panathenaic procession from the Dipylon Gate in the Kerameikos to the Acropolis. In this procession held every year, with a special procession taking place every four years, Athenians and foreigners participated in honoring the goddess Athena by offering her sacrifices and a new peplos dress, woven by selected noble Athenian girls called ergastines. The procession is more crowded (appearing to slow in pace) as it nears the gods on the eastern side of the temple. [79]

Joan Breton Connelly offers a mythological interpretation for the frieze, one that is in harmony with the rest of the temple's sculptural program which shows Athenian genealogy through a series of succession myths set in the remote past. She identifies the central panel above the door of the Parthenon as the pre-battle sacrifice of the daughter of the king Erechtheus, a sacrifice that ensured Athenian victory over Eumolpos and his Thracian army. The great procession marching toward the east end of the Parthenon shows the post-battle thanksgiving sacrifice of cattle and sheep, honey and water, followed by the triumphant army of Erechtheus returning from their victory. This represents the first Panathenaia set in mythical times, the model on which historic Panathenaic processions were based. [80] [81]

Pediments Edit

The traveller Pausanias, when he visited the Acropolis at the end of the 2nd century AD, only mentioned briefly the sculptures of the pediments (gable ends) of the temple, reserving the majority of his description for the gold and ivory statue of the goddess inside. [82]

East pediment Edit

The figures on the corners of the pediment depict the passage of time over the course of a full day. Tethrippa of Helios and Selene are located on the left and right corners of the pediment respectively. The horses of Helios's chariot are shown with livid expressions as they ascend into the sky at the start of the day whereas Selene's horses struggle to stay on the pediment scene as the day comes to an end. [83] [84]

West pediment Edit

The supporters of Athena are extensively illustrated at the back of the left chariot, while the defenders of Poseidon are shown trailing behind the right chariot. It is believed that the corners of the pediment are filled by Athenian water deities, such as the Kephisos river, the Ilissos river, and nymph Kallirhoe. This belief emerges from the fluid character of the sculptures' body position which represents the effort of the artist to give the impression of a flowing river. [85] [86] Next to the left river god, there are the sculptures of the mythical king of Athens (Cecrops or Kekrops) with his daughters ( Aglaurus, Pandrosos, Herse). The statue of Poseidon was the largest sculpture in the pediment until it broke into pieces during Francesco Morosini's effort to remove it in 1688. The posterior piece of the torso was found by Lusieri in the groundwork of a Turkish house in 1801 and is currently held in British Museum. The anterior portion was revealed by Ross in 1835 and is now held in the Acropolis Museum of Athens. [87]

Every statue on the west pediment has a fully completed back, which would have been impossible to see when the sculpture was on the temple this indicates that the sculptors put great effort into accurately portraying the human body. [86]

Athena Parthenos Edit

The only piece of sculpture from the Parthenon known to be from the hand of Phidias [88] was the statue of Athena housed in the naos. This massive chryselephantine sculpture is now lost and known only from copies, vase painting, gems, literary descriptions and coins. [89]

Late antiquity Edit

A major fire broke out in the Parthenon shortly after the middle of the third century AD [90] [91] which destroyed the Parthenon's roof and much of the sanctuary's interior. [92] Heruli pirates are also credited with sacking Athens in 276, and destroying most of the public buildings there, including the Parthenon. [93] Repairs were made in the fourth century AD, possibly during the reign of Julian the Apostate. [94] A new wooden roof overlaid with clay tiles was installed to cover the sanctuary. It sloped at a greater incline than the original roof and left the building's wings exposed. [92]

The Parthenon survived as a temple dedicated to Athena for nearly 1,000 years until Theodosius II, during the Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, decreed in 435 AD that all pagan temples in the Eastern Roman Empire be closed. [95] However, it is debated exactly when during the 5th-century that the closure of the Parthenon as a temple was actually put into practice. It is suggested to have occurred in c. 481–484, in the instructions against the remaining temples by order of Emperor Zeno, because the temple had been the focus of Pagan Hellenic opposition against Zeno in Athens in support of Illus, who had promised to restore Hellenic rites to the temples that were still standing. [96]

At some point in the Fifth Century, Athena's great cult image was looted by one of the emperors and taken to Constantinople, where it was later destroyed, possibly during the siege and sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204 AD. [97]

Christian church Edit

The Parthenon was converted into a Christian church in the final decade of the sixth century AD [24] to become the Church of the Parthenos Maria (Virgin Mary) or the Church of the Theotokos (Mother of God). The orientation of the building was changed to face towards the east the main entrance was placed at the building's western end, and the Christian altar and iconostasis were situated towards the building's eastern side adjacent to an apse built where the temple's pronaos was formerly located. [98] [99] [100] A large central portal with surrounding side-doors was made in the wall dividing the cella, which became the church's nave, from the rear chamber, the church's narthex. [98] The spaces between the columns of the opisthodomos and the peristyle were walled up, though a number of doorways still permitted access. [98] Icons were painted on the walls and many Christian inscriptions were carved into the Parthenon's columns. [94] These renovations inevitably led to the removal and dispersal of some of the sculptures.

The Parthenon became the fourth most important Christian pilgrimage destination in the Eastern Roman Empire after Constantinople, Ephesos, and Thessaloniki. [101] In 1018, the emperor Basil II went on a pilgrimage to Athens directly after his final victory over the Bulgarians for the sole purpose of worshipping at the Parthenon. [101] In medieval Greek accounts it is called the Temple of Theotokos Atheniotissa and often indirectly referred to as famous without explaining exactly which temple they were referring to, thus establishing that it was indeed well known. [101]

At the time of the Latin occupation, it became for about 250 years a Roman Catholic church of Our Lady. During this period a tower, used either as a watchtower or bell tower and containing a spiral staircase, was constructed at the southwest corner of the cella, and vaulted tombs were built beneath the Parthenon's floor. [102]

Islamic mosque Edit

In 1456, Ottoman Turkish forces invaded Athens and laid siege to a Florentine army defending the Acropolis until June 1458, when it surrendered to the Turks. [103] The Turks may have briefly restored the Parthenon to the Greek Orthodox Christians for continued use as a church. [104] Some time before the close of the fifteenth century, the Parthenon became a mosque. [105] [106]

The precise circumstances under which the Turks appropriated it for use as a mosque are unclear one account states that Mehmed II ordered its conversion as punishment for an Athenian plot against Ottoman rule. [107] The apse became a mihrab, [108] the tower previously constructed during the Roman Catholic occupation of the Parthenon was extended upwards to become a minaret, [109] a minbar was installed, [98] the Christian altar and iconostasis were removed, and the walls were whitewashed to cover icons of Christian saints and other Christian imagery. [110]

Despite the alterations accompanying the Parthenon's conversion into a church and subsequently a mosque, its structure had remained basically intact. [111] In 1667 the Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi expressed marvel at the Parthenon's sculptures and figuratively described the building as "like some impregnable fortress not made by human agency". [112] He composed a poetic supplication stating that, as "a work less of human hands than of Heaven itself, should remain standing for all time". [113] The French artist Jacques Carrey in 1674 visited the Acropolis and sketched the Parthenon's sculptural decorations. [114] Early in 1687, an engineer named Plantier sketched the Parthenon for the Frenchman Graviers d’Ortières. [92] These depictions, particularly those made by Carrey, provide important, and sometimes the only, evidence of the condition of the Parthenon and its various sculptures prior to the devastation it suffered in late 1687 and the subsequent looting of its art objects. [114]

Destruction Edit

In 1687, the Parthenon was extensively damaged in the greatest catastrophe to befall it in its long history. [94] As part of the Morean War (1684–1699), the Venetians sent an expedition led by Francesco Morosini to attack Athens and capture the Acropolis. The Ottoman Turks fortified the Acropolis and used the Parthenon as a gunpowder magazine – despite having been forewarned of the dangers of this use by the 1656 explosion that severely damaged the Propylaea – and as a shelter for members of the local Turkish community. [115]

On 26 September a Venetian mortar round, fired from the Hill of Philopappos, blew up the magazine, and the building was partly destroyed. [116] The explosion blew out the building's central portion and caused the cella's walls to crumble into rubble. [111] Greek architect and archaeologist Kornilia Chatziaslani writes that ". three of the sanctuary’s four walls nearly collapsed and three-fifths of the sculptures from the frieze fell. Nothing of the roof apparently remained in place. Six columns from the south side fell, eight from the north, as well as whatever remained from the eastern porch, except for one column. The columns brought down with them the enormous marble architraves, triglyphs, and metopes." [92] About three hundred people were killed in the explosion, which showered marble fragments over nearby Turkish defenders [115] and caused large fires that burned until the following day and consumed many homes. [92]

Accounts written at the time conflict over whether this destruction was deliberate or accidental one such account, written by the German officer Sobievolski, states that a Turkish deserter revealed to Morosini the use to which the Turks had put the Parthenon expecting that the Venetians would not target a building of such historic importance. Morosini was said to have responded by directing his artillery to aim at the Parthenon. [92] [115] Subsequently, Morosini sought to loot sculptures from the ruin and caused further damage in the process. Sculptures of Poseidon and Athena's horses fell to the ground and smashed as his soldiers tried to detach them from the building's west pediment. [99] [117]

The following year, the Venetians abandoned Athens to avoid a confrontation with a large force the Turks had assembled at Chalcis at that time, the Venetians had considered blowing up what remained of the Parthenon along with the rest of the Acropolis to deny its further use as a fortification to the Turks, but that idea was not pursued. [115]

Once the Turks had recaptured the Acropolis, they used some of the rubble produced by this explosion to erect a smaller mosque within the shell of the ruined Parthenon. [118] For the next century and a half, parts of the remaining structure were looted for building material and especially valuable objects. [119]

The 18th century was a period of Ottoman stagnation—so that many more Europeans found access to Athens, and the picturesque ruins of the Parthenon were much drawn and painted, spurring a rise in philhellenism and helping to arouse sympathy in Britain and France for Greek independence. Amongst those early travelers and archaeologists were James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who were commissioned by the Society of Dilettanti to survey the ruins of classical Athens. What they produced was the first measured drawings of the Parthenon, published in 1787 in the second volume of Antiquities of Athens Measured and Delineated. In 1801, the British Ambassador at Constantinople, the Earl of Elgin, obtained a questionable firman (edict) from the Sultan, whose existence or legitimacy has not been proved to this day, to make casts and drawings of the antiquities on the Acropolis, to demolish recent buildings if this was necessary to view the antiquities, and to remove sculptures from them. [ citação necessária ]

Independent Greece Edit

When independent Greece gained control of Athens in 1832, the visible section of the minaret was demolished only its base and spiral staircase up to the level of the architrave remain intact. [120] Soon all the medieval and Ottoman buildings on the Acropolis were destroyed. However, the image of the small mosque within the Parthenon's cella has been preserved in Joly de Lotbinière's photograph, published in Lerebours's Excursions Daguerriennes in 1842: the first photograph of the Acropolis. [121] The area became a historical precinct controlled by the Greek government. In the later 19th century, the Parthenon was widely considered by Americans and Europeans to be the pinnacle of human architectural achievement, and became a popular destination and subject of artists, including Frederic Edwin Church and Sanford Robinson Gifford. [122] [123] Today it attracts millions of tourists every year, who travel up the path at the western end of the Acropolis, through the restored Propylaea, and up the Panathenaic Way to the Parthenon, which is surrounded by a low fence to prevent damage. [ citação necessária ]

Dispute over the marbles Edit

The dispute centers around the Parthenon Marbles removed by Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, from 1801 to 1803, which are in the British Museum. A few sculptures from the Parthenon are also in the Louvre in Paris, in Copenhagen, and elsewhere, but more than half are in the Acropolis Museum in Athens. [20] [124] A few can still be seen on the building itself. The Greek government has campaigned since 1983 for the British Museum to return the sculptures to Greece. [124] The British Museum has steadfastly refused to return the sculptures, [125] and successive British governments have been unwilling to force the Museum to do so (which would require legislation). Nevertheless, talks between senior representatives from Greek and British cultural ministries and their legal advisors took place in London on 4 May 2007. These were the first serious negotiations for several years, and there were hopes that the two sides might move a step closer to a resolution. [126]

In 1975, the Greek government began a concerted effort to restore the Parthenon and other Acropolis structures. After some delay, a Committee for the Conservation of the Acropolis Monuments was established in 1983. [127] The project later attracted funding and technical assistance from the European Union. An archaeological committee thoroughly documented every artifact remaining on the site, and architects assisted with computer models to determine their original locations. Particularly important and fragile sculptures were transferred to the Acropolis Museum. A crane was installed for moving marble blocks the crane was designed to fold away beneath the roofline when not in use. [ citação necessária ] In some cases, prior re-constructions were found to be incorrect. These were dismantled, and a careful process of restoration began. [128] Originally, various blocks were held together by elongated iron H pins that were completely coated in lead, which protected the iron from corrosion. Stabilizing pins added in the 19th century were not so coated, and corroded. Since the corrosion product (rust) is expansive, the expansion caused further damage by cracking the marble. [129]


Phidias(?), Parthenon Frieze, c. 438-32 B.C.E. - História


General Parthenon Info:
  • Iktinos and Kallikrates are credited with the architectural design of the Parthenon
    • artists begin to sign their names to their work for the first time in Ancient Greece
      • move from artisans to artists
      • civic purpose rather than religious, ritual purpose
      • written inventory discovered
        • kept record of valuables
        • symbol of ritual power and political power
        • columns carved exactly the same
          • entasis: slight bulge in the taper of the columns
          • allusion of perfection
          • only in the modern era that it became a ruin

          Basic Information:
          Phidias (?), "Plaque of the Ergastines," 445 - 438 B.C.E., Pentelic marble (Attica), 0.96 x 2.07 m, fragment from the frieze on the east side of the Parthenon (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

          Sources Consulted:
          "Western sculpture". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
          Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2016. Web. 18 Oct. 2016
          < https://www.britannica.com/art/Western-sculpture/Ancient-Greek >.

          (Detail)


          Pediment Sculpture

          Figures of three goddesses from the east pediment of the Parthenon, c. 438-432 B.C.E., 233 cm long, Acropolis, Athens © Trustees of the British Museum

          The east pediment of the Parthenon showed the birth of goddess Athena from the head of her father Zeus. The sculptures that represented the actual scene are lost. Zeus was probably shown seated, while Athena was striding away from him fully grown and armed.

          Only some of the figures ranged on either side of the lost central group survive. They include these three goddesses, who were seated to the right of centre. From left to right, their posture varies in order to accommodate the slope of the pediment that originally framed them. They are remarkable for their naturalistic rendering of anatomy blended with a harmonious representation of complex draperies.

          The figure on the left is on the point of rising and tucks her right foot in to lever herself up. To the right another figure cradles a companion reclining luxuriously in her lap. They are perhaps, from left to right, Hestia, goddess of the hearth and home, Dione, and her daughter Aphrodite. However, another suggestion is that the two figures on the right are the personification of the Sea (Thalassa) in the lap of the Earth (Gaia).


          Assista o vídeo: Parthenon-Acropolis GRECIA 2011