Alexandre, o Grande [visualização do perfil]

Alexandre, o Grande [visualização do perfil]


História Judaica

A história de Alexandre, o Grande e os judeus está intimamente ligada. No entanto, seus efeitos posteriores abalaram o mundo judaico até as raízes.

O Livro de Daniel (Daniel 7: 3-7) começa com uma visão assustadora: quatro bestas, uma mais assustadora que a outra, emergem do mar. De acordo com a tradição judaica (Midrash, Levítico Rabbah 13: 5), cada besta representa um dos quatro principais impérios que exilariam os judeus: Babilônia, Pérsia, Grécia e Roma.

Temos a tendência de pensar na Grécia como uma nação de poetas e filósofos, o que eles eram. No entanto, eles também eram um império, uma besta predatória aterrorizante, e incorporavam todos os traços que os impérios incorporam: violência, opressão e terror.

Por muito tempo na história mundial, a Grécia foi um espetáculo à parte, um país pequeno e dividido no extremo oeste do mundo conhecido. Eles foram um jogador aparentemente insignificante em eventos globais que viram os babilônios e persas ascenderem e se tornarem senhores do mundo. Como a Grécia passou a ocupar o centro do palco e suplantar grandes impérios que esmagam o mundo?

Uma breve história da Grécia

A primeira coisa a saber sobre a Grécia é que, por mais romântico que pareça, é uma terra difícil de domar. Grandes rios e montanhas intransponíveis dominam sua topografia. Assim, durante séculos, as comunidades da Grécia foram díspares e antagônicas umas às outras.

Incapazes de formar com sucesso uma força ou governo unidos, as tribos gregas desenvolveram-se como cidades-estado. Os mais famosos foram: Atenas, Esparta, Tebas (não confundir com as Tebas do Antigo Egito) e Macedônia. Por 500 anos, a história grega foi caracterizada por uma série de conflitos, como as Guerras do Peloponeso, bem como muitas outras guerras sem nome entre Atenas e Esparta, e todos contra todos os demais.

Na última Guerra do Peloponeso, que aconteceu por volta de 420 aC, Esparta fez um acordo com a Pérsia para usar parte da marinha persa para engarrafar a frota ateniense. Atenas sempre teve uma grande marinha, o que muitas vezes foi o fator decisivo na vitória sobre Esparta, uma cidade sem litoral. No entanto, na última Guerra do Peloponeso, os persas reprimiram a frota ateniense e os espartanos venceram a guerra.

No entanto, a vitória teve um grande preço: os persas estavam agora na Grécia pela primeira vez.

Os persas também cometeram um grande erro, porque agora estavam em um lugar onde as pessoas começavam a se ressentir deles. O ódio resultante para com os persas criou um inimigo comum e, assim, estabeleceu as bases para um grande líder intervir e fazer o que ninguém antes dele foi capaz de fazer: unir os poderosos e industriosos povos gregos.

Filipe da Macedônia

No início do quarto século AEC, por volta do ano 370 AEC, surgiu um rei na Macedônia conhecido como Filipe da Macedônia. A Macedônia fica no canto noroeste da Grécia. É basicamente um país balcânico e os macedônios faziam parte da nação grega em geral. No entanto, eles eram desprezados e desprezados pelos atenienses e espartanos porque eram rudes e incultos.

Philip foi um grande guerreiro e organizador. Acima de tudo, ele sonhava com um império. Em sete anos, ele foi capaz de subjugar todas as cidades-estado gregas e uni-las, algo que não acontecia há quase cinco séculos. Claro, ele os uniu na ponta da espada, mas os uniu.

Ele até expulsou os persas da Grécia. No entanto, seu sonho de império incluía tirar a Pérsia dos persas! Foi um pensamento audacioso. A Pérsia governou o mundo. Ninguém ousou desafiá-los.

No entanto, Filipe levou seu exército testado em batalha para a Ásia Menor, perto do que é hoje Constantinopla, e em uma das batalhas clássicas da história derrotou o exército persa. Inacreditavelmente, o Império Persa desmoronou.

Quando ele se voltou para conquistar o resto do mundo, ele morreu, o que acontece com frequência. Justamente quando alguém pensa que tem feito, descobre-se que ele fez o ajuste de contas sem levar Deus em consideração.

Alexandre o grande

Filipe morreu, mas deixou um filho, que se tornaria uma das maiores forças da história, Alexandre, o Grande. Ele se chamava assim modestamente, mas a verdade é que ele era ótimo.

Filipe não queria que Alexandre crescesse para ser um macedônio rude e grosseiro. Então, ele lhe deu um tutor: o renomado filósofo Aristóteles. Foi Aristóteles quem implantou em Alexandre os ideais filosóficos dos gregos.

Alexandre não era pagão porque Aristóteles não era pagão. O conceito de Deus de Aristóteles era que um Criador existe. Os filósofos gregos se referiram a Deus como a "Causa Primeira". Ele apertou o botão, por assim dizer. No entanto, uma vez que Ele fez isso, Ele não fez mais nada. O que aconteceu na Terra não o interessou. Portanto, não houve interferência do Céu quanto ao que aconteceu na Terra. Era uma outra forma de se livrar da consciência - só que agora com a marca da fé em Deus.

No entanto, os gregos acreditavam que Deus existia, o que é muito importante porque ajudará a explicar uma das razões pelas quais Alexandre foi capaz de tolerar a religião judaica, enquanto muitos dos imperadores persas não. Aristóteles sabia que todas as histórias dos deuses - de Apolo a Zeus - eram inventadas. Alexandre, como aluno de Aristóteles, também acreditava nisso. Graças a Aristóteles, portanto, as idéias dos judeus eram muito mais aceitáveis ​​para Alexandre.

Encontro de Alexandre com os judeus

Alexander assumiu a posição de liderança de seu pai quando ele ainda era um adolescente. Ele estaria morto por volta dos 29 anos. Nesse curto período, ele conquistou todo o mundo civilizado.

Uma de suas campanhas o trouxe para a Terra de Israel. Ele chegou durante o reinado do grande Sumo Sacerdote, o último dos Homens da Grande Assembleia, Simão, o Justo. A maioria dos historiadores diz que ele veio por volta do ano 329 AEC. (Ele estava morto em 323 AEC.)

Os judeus estavam apavorados com os gregos, agora vitoriosos, porque eles haviam apoiado a Pérsia na guerra. Havia duas escolhas. Veremos essa história repetida inúmeras vezes na época do Segundo Templo. Uma era lutar, que foi o que os judeus fizeram mais tarde com os romanos. A segunda era chegar de alguma forma a um acordo com o inimigo.

Simão, o Justo, escolheu o segundo prato. Os judeus não estavam prestes a derrotar Alexandre em batalha, portanto, a maneira correta de lidar com o assunto era chegar a um acordo com ele.

O Talmud descreve o drama daquele primeiro encontro (Yoma 69a). Simão, o Justo, saiu com outros membros do sacerdócio, bem como os sábios do Sinédrio, para saudar Alexandre nos portões de Jerusalém quando ele entrou em seu famoso cavalo branco, que ele montou em todo o mundo em suas conquistas. De acordo com os historiadores da época, era um cavalo enormemente alto e Alexandre era uma pessoa enormemente alta. Além disso, ele sempre usava um capacete emplumado. Combinados, Alexandre ficou cerca de 13 pés de altura no cavalo. Ele era uma visão inspiradora de se ver.

Quando Alexandre viu Simão desmontou e fez uma reverência a ele. Quando foi questionado por seus conselheiros, disse-lhes que sempre que ia para a batalha sonhava com um anjo que o conduzia à vitória. O rosto do sumo sacerdote judeu, disse ele, era o rosto do anjo que ele viu em seus sonhos. Foi por isso que ele se curvou diante dele.

Alexandre o Grande e os judeus

Por causa de Aristóteles, Alexandre tinha uma disposição positiva para com os judeus. Em vez de destruí-los e subjugá-los, ele fez um acordo com eles. Enquanto eles fossem seus vassalos leais e pagassem seus impostos, eles poderiam permanecer autônomos. Essa foi uma concessão enorme porque Alexander raramente era tão complacente com alguém.

Por gratidão a Alexandre, os judeus fizeram algumas coisas. Primeiro, eles concordaram em nomear todas as crianças nascidas no ano seguinte como "Alexandre". É por isso que o nome Alexandre, ou remetente, tornou-se um nome judeu comum até hoje.

Ao mesmo tempo, também abriu a porta para que os judeus dessem a seus filhos outros nomes gregos, como Antigonus Tarphon, entre outros nomes de origem grega encontrados no Talmud. Ironicamente, ao mostrar a Alexandre sua gratidão ao dar o nome dele aos filhos, eles abriram, sem querer, a porta para a língua grega. E com a língua grega veio automaticamente a cultura grega.

Os judeus também concordaram em instalar um sistema de arrecadação de impostos que levaria a uma terrível corrupção. Na verdade, era tão inerentemente corrupto que o Talmud sustentava que qualquer um que fosse coletor de impostos era considerado ladrão. Esse sistema terrivelmente pernicioso destruiu o moral da comunidade judaica na época dos gregos, muito depois da partida de Alexandre.

Depois de alexandre

Alexandre não planejava morrer jovem, mas sua morte deixou o mundo um caos. O homem que o controlava de repente não estava mais lá.

Todo o seu império poderia ter desmoronado naquele momento, mas se dividido em dois. O império do norte era governado por Seleuco e ficou conhecido como Dinastia Selêucida. Ele estava sediado na cidade que hoje é Damasco. O império do sul era governado por Ptolomeu e tinha sua sede na cidade de Alexandria, que havia sido renomeada em homenagem a Alexandre.

Os dois generais concordaram com praticamente tudo & # 8212, exceto a linha que separava o império do norte do sul. Isso colocou a Terra de Israel bem no meio de seu desacordo. Os judeus foram apanhados nesta tremenda luta pelo poder. A história dos próximos 130 anos seria o ato de equilíbrio do povo judeu entre os dois gigantes. Às vezes, os judeus oscilavam para o sul e às vezes para o norte. O sul tentou ganhar o povo judeu pela persuasão e cultura. O norte tentou fazer isso pela força. Ambos falhariam.

Este também é o pano de fundo para a história de Chanucá, porque eventualmente o reino do norte se cansou do jogo e enviou seu exército. Os judeus resistiram e, assim, o cenário foi montado para os dramáticos eventos de Chanucá.


Perfis de Alexandre, o Grande e do Poeta Guerreiro # 8211

Alexandre o grande

Quando a história atribui as palavras "o Grande" após o seu nome, geralmente é por um bom motivo. E assim é para Alexandre, o Grande, o próximo na linha de meus ‘Perfis de Poeta Guerreiro’ (para verificar outros Perfis de Poeta Guerreiro, verifique minha página no YouTube).

Para o novo leitor, & # 8216 poetas guerreiros & # 8217 são aqueles que possuem uma mente calculista e bem estudada, um coração movido para defender os outros com amor e mãos hábeis na violência.

Não escolhi Alexandre porque ele era um santo. Ele não era o Poeta Guerreiro idealista que eu gostaria que fosse. Não, Alexandre era um herói e um vilão. Ele era um amigo e um inimigo. Ele era um rei e um tirano. Ele era um libertador e um escravizador.

Apesar de podermos julgar Alexandre, ele possuía certos atributos semelhantes aos do Poeta Guerreiro que podem nos inspirar hoje. Eu fui atraído por Alexandre o Grande por sua genialidade. E talvez até a palavra & # 8216gênio & # 8217 seja um eufemismo para quem poderia ter sido o maior general que o mundo já viu.

Aos 32 anos, Alexandre, o Grande, deixou de ser o novo Rei da Macedônia, na Grécia, para se tornar o Rei do mundo. Como isso foi possível? Só Alexandre sabe.

Ele foi, sem dúvida, um mentor militar. Ele era um homem que entendia a ciência da guerra e sentia sua arte. Ele era um líder carismático, adorado por seus homens. Ele era um homem de tal talento, ímpeto, paixão e vontade absoluta, que não importava quão ruins fossem as chances contra ele, Alexandre nunca perdeu uma batalha.

Alexandre o Grande estudando com seu mentor Aristóteles

Quando menino, Alexandre, o Grande, estudou diretamente com o renomado Aristóteles. Sua educação em filosofia, história, política, geografia e literatura estavam preparando-o para governar um império de sua própria autoria.

Alexandre se apaixonou pelas obras de Homero. Em Aquiles, ele encontrou um herói que ofereceu um vislumbre do que o esperava. Ele estava destinado à grandeza.

Quando o adolescente Alexandre sucedeu ao trono de seu pai Filipe da Macedônia, ele imediatamente começou a guerra.

Ele sentiu destinado a conquistar a mesma Pérsia que conquistou a Grécia antes de seu tempo. Foi esse senso de destino e autoconfiança em seus próprios dons que levou Alexandre a tentar o que ninguém mais sonharia ser possível.

Ele foi corajoso na batalha, liderando seus homens da frente como um colega soldado. Esse tipo de liderança inspiradora contrastava fortemente com os reis do Oriente, que permaneceriam na retaguarda da luta.

Por meio desse exemplo, Alexandre conseguiu obter um respeito tão inspirador que seus homens o teriam seguido em qualquer lugar (e o fizeram). Não era apenas sua ambição e impulso que impulsionavam os homens, mas era seu amor por eles que todos sentiam.

Depois das vitórias, era comum Alexandre elogiar os corajosos e derramar riquezas e terras sobre todos.

Alexandre, o Grande, era mais conhecido por seu dom insuperável como estrategista. Era comum que ele fosse superado em homens, recursos e tecnologia enquanto lutava em um campo que havia sido preparado com antecedência pelo inimigo para sua matança.

Apesar de tudo isso, Alexandre foi capaz de ver o campo de batalha como um grande mestre pode ver em um tabuleiro de xadrez.

Por exemplo, na batalha de Guagemela, ele empurraria de forma imprevisível seu principal elemento de ataque radicalmente para a direita para atrair o inimigo mais para o flanco e, ao fazê-lo, diluir seu centro. Então, com um timing perfeito, um elemento oculto se separaria e atacaria diretamente o centro do inimigo onde a linha havia se tornado tênue. Seu elemento de flanco distante continuaria o flanco largo para se fechar sobre eles de lado.

É simplesmente incrível ver como Alexandre ajustaria rapidamente as táticas para se adequar a diferentes inimigos, como os guerrilheiros no Afeganistão, os elefantes de guerra da Índia ou as carruagens persas.

Aqueles que desejam ser melhores líderes, guerreiros mais corajosos e influenciadores de pessoas, Alexandre, o Grande, ainda nos fala hoje com lições valiosas que devemos deixar passar.

3 ideias sobre & ldquoAlexander the Great & # 8211 Warrior Poet Profiles & rdquo

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Quintus Curtius, História de Alexandre, Volume I: Livros 1-5

Quintus Curtius foi aparentemente um retórico que viveu no primeiro século do Império Romano e, no início do reinado de Cláudio (41–54 EC), escreveu uma história de Alexandre o Grande em 10 livros em estilo claro e pitoresco para leitores latinos. Os dois primeiros livros não sobreviveram - nossa narrativa começa com eventos em 333 AC - e falta material nos livros V, VI e X. Uma de suas principais fontes é Cleitarchus que, por volta de 300 AC, fez da carreira de Alexandre uma questão de aventura maravilhosa.

Curtius não é um historiador crítico e em seu desejo de entreter e enfatizar a personalidade de Alexandre, ele elabora cenas eficazes, omite muito do que é importante para a história e não se preocupa com a cronologia. Mas ele não inventa coisas, exceto discursos e cartas inseridos na narrativa pelo hábito tradicional. 'Eu copio mais do que acredito', diz ele. Três características de sua história são narrativas de experiências emocionantes, desenvolvimento do personagem de um herói e uma disposição para moralizar. Sua história é uma das cinco obras existentes nas quais contamos para a carreira de Alexandre, o Grande.


Como Alexandre, o Grande, mudou o curso da história?

Alexandre, o Grande, é reverenciado como um visionário, um profeta, um homem santo ou mesmo um santo até hoje, tanto no Oriente como no Ocidente. (Imagem: Biblioteca de Imagens / Domínio público)

Alexandre, o Grande, não poderia ter mudado o curso da história sem o apoio de seu exército. E muitos soldados de seu exército eram mercenários. Ao mesmo tempo, muito crédito deve ser dado a seu pai Filipe II, sua mãe Olímpia e seu tutor Aristóteles. Mesmo assim, Alexandre merece a maior parte do crédito. Aos 26 anos, ele já havia conquistado o outrora poderoso Império Persa.

Demorou quase meio século após a morte de Alexandre em 323 a.C. antes que três reinos estáveis ​​finalmente emergissem: a Grécia propriamente dita, governada pelos Antigônidas Sul da Turquia, Babilônia, Síria, Irã e Ásia Central, governada pelos selêucidas e, finalmente, o Egito, governado pelos Ptolomeus. A era desde a morte de Alexandre, o Grande até a época da conquista romana em 30 a.C. é chamada de era helenística. Esse nome é assim porque, durante essa era, a cultura, a língua e a administração helênica ou grega se espalharam por uma grande área geográfica. Isso incluiu não apenas os países mencionados acima, mas também o atual Afeganistão, Paquistão e a região da Caxemira na Índia.

Esta é uma transcrição da série de vídeos O Outro Lado da História: Vida Diária no Mundo Antigo. Assista agora, no The Great Courses Plus.

Casamento organizado em Susa por Alexandre

Alguns estudiosos idealistas certa vez favoreceram a percepção de que Alexandre, o Grande, acreditava na fraternidade universal do homem. Este é um fato extremamente exagerado. A base para tal percepção foi um evento que ficou conhecido como os casamentos Susa.

Este foi um casamento em massa que ocorreu apenas um ano antes da morte de Alexandre em 324 a.C. sob seus auspícios na cidade persa de Susa. Ele mesmo se casou com a filha mais velha do rei persa e fez acordos para casar seus oficiais com mulheres persas honradas. Seu propósito ao organizar esse casamento em massa era produzir uma raça mista de elite grega-macedônia e persa.

Ele também apoiava os casamentos entre seus soldados e mulheres nativas, independentemente de serem persas ou não - supostamente havia cerca de 10.000 casamentos ao todo. Pode-se dizer que este foi um dos experimentos sociais mais corajosos que já foram realizados. No entanto, o fato é que Alexandre, o Grande, via isso como uma atividade puramente política.

Visão de Alexandre o Grande & # 8217s

Para colocar isso em algum tipo de perspectiva, algumas descobertas da pesquisa indicaram que foi apenas na última década que a maioria dos americanos disse que não tinha nenhum problema com casamentos mistos entre americanos africanos e brancos. Alexandre, o Grande, estava pensando muito à frente de seu tempo. Mas isso não significa que a maioria dos gregos também estava pensando fora da caixa. isto está longe de ser verdade. Na verdade, a grande maioria dos gregos, que incluía Alexandre & # 8217s altos oficiais macedônios, ficou chocada. Portanto, esse experimento falhou, ainda mais por causa de sua morte no ano seguinte, ou seja, 323 a.C.

Alexandre, o Grande, tentou preencher a lacuna Leste-Oeste realizando um experimento social. (Imagem: Museu Britânico / domínio público)

Mesmo assim, deve-se dizer que Alexandre, o Grande, mostrou uma visão inclusiva extraordinariamente surpreendente. Ele estava tentando preencher a lacuna Leste-Oeste dando este pequeno passo. Embora suas intenções fossem puramente políticas, e embora seus homens tenham queimado e devastado a capital persa, Persépolis, ele ainda merece crédito por pensar o que era impensável naquela época. Então, se ele é reverenciado como um visionário, um profeta, um homem santo, ou mesmo um santo até hoje, tanto no Oriente quanto no Ocidente, não há maravilha nisso.

Durante sua jornada para destruir o Império Persa, quando Alexandre o Grande chegou ao Egito, ele foi considerado um libertador pelos egípcios. A razão para isso foi que ele expulsou os governantes anteriores, os persas que eram odiados pelos egípcios. Ele lançou a pedra fundamental para sua primeira e mais magnífica de suas cidades, Alexandria, muito provavelmente em 331 a.C.

Alexandre, o Grande e Alexandria # 8217

Alexandre, o Grande, mudou o mundo de muitas maneiras. E um deles foi ele construiu uma série de fundações em todo o seu império. Ele chamou a maioria dessas fundações de Alexandria. Alexandria estava localizada na borda oeste do delta do Nilo, de frente para o Mediterrâneo. Possui portos naturais. Isso deu acesso ao interior do Egito. Indiscutivelmente, Alexandria se tornou a maior cidade do mundo antigo muito à frente de Roma, que era fedorenta, abafada e superpovoada. Mesmo Atenas, que tinha apenas a Acrópole e a ágora para recomendá-la, não era páreo para ela.

A arquitetura de Alexandria o teria surpreendido. Ele foi projetado de acordo com um padrão de grade e alguns dos edifícios eram realmente impressionantes. Infelizmente, grande parte desta bela cidade está agora submersa. Mas devemos agradecer a arqueologia subaquática e também algumas descrições sobreviventes que nos ajudaram a reconstruir o contorno essencial de Alexandria.

Alexandre nunca viu a cidade terminada de Alexandria durante sua vida, embora se acredite que ele tenha colocado o primeiro bloco de construção. Ele voltou postumamente porque Ptolomeu I sequestrou seu cadáver enquanto ele estava a caminho da Macedônia.

Perguntas comuns sobre Alexandre, o Grande

Alexandre, o Grande, organizou casamentos em Susa para preencher a lacuna entre o Oriente e o Ocidente. Seu objetivo ao organizar esse casamento em massa era produzir uma raça mista de elite grega-macedônia e persa.

Alexandre o Grande tinha 26 anos quando conquistou o Império Persa.

Alexandre, o Grande, lançou a pedra fundamental de sua primeira e mais magnífica cidade, Alexandria, muito provavelmente em 331 a.C.

Durante sua jornada para destruir o Império Persa, quando Alexandre o Grande chegou ao Egito, ele foi considerado um libertador pelos egípcios. A razão para isso foi que ele expulsou os governantes anteriores, os persas que eram odiados pelos egípcios.


Por que você votou em Alexandre, o Grande:

Alexandre era o rei filosófico. Ele liderou militarmente, mas também entendeu como realmente construir um império que o seguiria, mesmo aqueles conquistados.
Mike

O homem derrubou o maior império que o mundo tinha visto, aparentemente sem dificuldade e em questão de apenas alguns anos, conquistou a maior parte do mundo conhecido enquanto lutava longe de casa, nunca perdeu uma batalha, liderado pela frente, foi ensinado por Aristóteles e manteve sua paixão pela filosofia ao longo de sua vida, espalhou a cultura grega por todo o mundo & # 8230 você entendeu. Ah, e ele fez tudo isso antes dos 33 anos. Talvez o argumento decisivo, no entanto, seja este: Júlio César chorou ao considerar as realizações de Alexandre & # 8217.

Ele tinha um recorde de batalha invicto. Após sua morte, Alexandre conquistou a maior parte do mundo então conhecido pelos antigos gregos.
Thomas

Ele conquistou a maior parte do mundo conhecido, freqüentemente fazendo coisas que eram amplamente consideradas impossíveis!
E eu & # 8217m com o nome dele!
Alex

Ele conquistou o mundo em seu aniversário de 18 anos
Shane

Ele conquistou todo o seu mundo conhecido e continuou em frente

Alexandre era o rei filosófico. Ele liderou militarmente, mas também entendeu como realmente construir um império que o seguiria, mesmo aqueles conquistados.

Ele tinha um recorde de batalha invicto. Após sua morte, Alexandre conquistou a maior parte do mundo então conhecido pelos antigos gregos.

Ele conquistou a maior parte do mundo conhecido, freqüentemente fazendo coisas que eram amplamente consideradas impossíveis!

Ele conquistou o mundo em seu aniversário de 18 anos

Ele conquistou todo o seu mundo conhecido e continuou em frente

Certamente é Alexandre, ele viveu em tempos antes de Jesus, mas eles ainda ensinam suas táticas nas academias militares hoje

Alexandre III da Macedônia, comumente conhecido como Alexandre, o Grande. As realizações e o legado de Alexandre, o Grande & # 8217 foram preservados e retratados de várias maneiras. Alexandre figurou em obras da cultura erudita e popular, desde sua época até os dias modernos. Títulos: Rei da Macedônia, Hegemon da Liga Helênica, Shahanshah da Pérsia, Faraó do Egito e Senhor da Ásia

Para a época em que viveram, foram de longe a civilização tecnológica e militar mais avançada do mundo, usando muitas invenções e técnicas que ainda hoje prevalecem. Tudo isso mantido sob um sistema que em medidas iguais era democrático, mas extremamente implacável.

Impacto tremendo e duradouro nas esferas militar e cultural & # 8211 suas táticas ainda são estudadas 2.300 anos depois.

Todos os governantes do mundo estavam maravilhados com Alexandre. Sua história, baseada em grande parte nas lendas de sua personalidade, é tudo o que um líder militar desejou ser na vida (bonito, ousado, destemido, um artista e um guerreiro arrojado).

Na realidade, Alexandre, mais do que um líder experiente, foi um herdeiro do trono extremamente sortudo e capaz. Alexandre é hoje reverenciado e separado de outros líderes por causa do eurocentrismo que permanece até hoje.

Alexandre o Grande foi um dos maiores conquistadores e mentes táticas de todos os tempos, como evidenciado por seu grande império adquirido com recursos relativamente pequenos. Ele era inspirador e carismático, seus homens o seguiriam (e o seguiam) em qualquer lugar. Além do conquistador, no entanto, ele levou a cultura helenística a um nível totalmente diferente, em vez das ideias de liberdade, igualdade, filosofia, drama e categorização científica e estudo que permaneceram na Grécia e se espalharam lentamente pelo comércio básico e outros modicums de osmose de ideias, ele espalhou-o como um incêndio na Ásia Menor e no Oriente Médio até o subcontinente indiano. Muito semelhante a Napoleão, exceto que Napoleão espalhou o nacionalismo, a burocracia eficiente e um vigor renovado para as repúblicas. Ambos são ótimos, mas Alexander tem que vencer no meu livro.

Seu histórico atordoante e rápido fala por si, comandante brilhante e destemido.

Conquistou a maior parte do mundo conhecido, governou o Afeganistão, criou um dos maiores impérios da história, tudo antes dos 33 anos. Se ele não tivesse caído morto, poderia ter conquistado o mundo.

Ele lutou à frente de seu exército. Suas condições eram as mesmas de seus soldados, seu ponto de partida era um pequeno estado terrível com um inimigo enorme e aparentemente invencível

Das escolhas dadas, acredito que Alexandre é o maior líder. Pensei em grandes nomes como Bismarck, Washington, Napoleão e Augusto, mas Alexandre conseguiu ser um líder militar e político de muito sucesso. Os outros eram grandes comandantes ou líderes políticos, não ambos.

Com Alexandre, ele foi capaz de conquistar terras com táticas militares em todo o mundo então conhecido. Os outros candidatos não foram capazes de espalhar suas campanhas militares tão longe quanto ele, bem como de & # 8220liberar & # 8221 territórios como o Egito.

No campo de batalha, Alexandre, como Napoleão, deu aos soldados um aumento dramático no moral. No entanto, ao contrário de Napoleão, Alexandre também entendia as diferentes religiões, culturas e economias dos territórios que capturou. É verdade que, como Napoleão, eles podem ter sido líderes militares agressivos, mas Alexandre foi capaz de ganhar muito respeito em todo o mundo não apenas conquistando, mas mantendo muitas das áreas conquistadas intactas.

Como Alexandre foi capaz de conquistar muito território do mundo então conhecido, permitindo manter seus costumes, inspirando seus soldados e reconhecendo o impacto econômico ao estabelecer Alexandria, acredito que isso mostra que Alexandre foi um grande comandante militar e líder político. O que é o que o torna o maior líder entre as escolhas.

Ele comandou um exército de elite herdado de seu pai, mas mesmo assim, é preciso algum talento para esmagar o maior império do mundo. Além disso, ele conseguiu evitar que seus macedônios discutissem e conspirassem muito uns contra os outros & # 8211 nada mal ao liderar um povo entre o qual assassinatos políticos eram praticamente um procedimento padrão e cada ascensão ao trono era seguida pela morte de todos os oponentes e todos os requerentes rivais.

Um general inovador, Alexandre liderou um exército soberbamente treinado, contra muitos inimigos e em todo o mundo antigo conhecido. No entanto, sua força era pequena em comparação com aqueles que ele lutou, (persas, índios) e ele nunca perdeu uma batalha. Quando ele morreu aos 33 anos, ele conquistou todo o mundo conhecido, e nunca saberemos se ele era um governador capaz, porque ele morreu muito jovem antes de poder governar verdadeiramente seu império, mas como líder militar ele é certamente sem igual

Ele é responsável por espalhar a cultura helênica até a Índia, moldando a Idade Clássica sozinho. Julius Ceaser é conhecido por ter chorado ao ver uma estátua de Alexandre porque ele nunca poderia ser um grande líder como Alexandre. Além disso, uma simples declaração de táticas militares que é atribuída a Alexander & # 8220Hammer e Anvil & # 8221.

Ele libertou mais do que conquistou e lutou nas guerras que travou.

Alexandre III da Macedônia (Alexandre o Grande) é o maior líder de toda a história porque liderou um dos maiores exércitos do mundo e estabeleceu um dos maiores exércitos da antiguidade. Dezenas das cidades que ele fundou ainda existem hoje, e a cultura que ele espalhou e assimilou é muito evidente nas terras em que existiu seu império. Verdadeiramente, as façanhas de Alexander & # 8217s resistiram ao teste do tempo e provavelmente permanecerão de pé até que algum outro grande líder as sepultem sob o sangue e os ossos.

Feitos incomparavelmente vastos em um espaço de tempo significativamente curto que serão para sempre lembrados e comparados.

Fez o inimaginável ao conquistar o império mais poderoso de seu tempo e, em seguida, empurrar seu exército para o leste, rumo ao desconhecido, espalhando o helenismo e seu nome por todo o país. Alexandre era um tático brilhante e rápido, integrando unidades de terras e culturas díspares, ao mesmo tempo em que utilizava o terreno e as tendências de seus oponentes em sua vantagem.

Ele criou um dos maiores impérios em pouco tempo

Ele era um guerreiro destemido e participou das batalhas da linha de frente. Portanto, ao contrário de muitos outros líderes, ele inspirou seu povo melhor do que um rei & # 8220regular & # 8221 teria feito. Ele também foi um gênio tático e estratégico. Suas façanhas falam por si.

Christopher

Ele saiu de um pequeno reino para conquistar o mundo conhecido & # 8211 e sua reputação era tão terrível que décadas após sua morte as pessoas ainda se recusavam a se revoltar com medo de que ele pudesse realmente ainda estar vivo e voltar para puni-los.

É uma pena que Ghengis Khan não esteja na lista, no entanto.

Um enorme império em sua vida com algumas vitórias militares esplêndidas.

Ele ajudou a unificar a maior parte do mundo antigo. E ele era um gênio militar certificado. Algumas das realizações de combate foram bastante surpreendentes.

Alexandre era tão jovem quando conquistou o mundo de então que envergonhou todos esses outros velhos fogeys & # 8211 uma verdadeira criança prodígio. Ele era um governante gentil e justo com seus cidadãos, que se mantinham unidos apesar da vasta mistura de culturas. Foi só depois que ele morreu que seu império desmoronou, sinalizando que era realmente ele a peça-chave que mantinha o império unido. Ele também derrotou Dario III, outro líder nesta enquete, algo que não se aplica a nenhum dos outros líderes, eu acho. Vai Alexandre, o Grande!

Alex venceu todas as batalhas que lutou. Eu acredito que ninguém mais fez isso. Ceaser, Augustus, Gendis Khan, todos perderam batalhas ao mesmo tempo.

Alexandre, o Grande, nunca perdeu uma batalha em toda a sua campanha militar até a Índia. Had he not died he could have made the Grecian Empire as great or greater than the Roman Empire that was formed years later.

Alexander took the unity forged by his father in the Agean and with it conquered the colossus of Persia in 10 years and enabled Greek thought and language to permiate the entire near east and through the conquests of the Romans, extend throughout Western Europe, influencing all of modern history.

He was the greatest and brightsest leader. He didn’t only conquered all the known world (for the greeks until that time) but he also focused on unifying them.

He also used a lot of scientist during his quest including doctors engineers and many more. All together united under the commands of Alexander made the greatest empire the world has ever known in such a sort time (if we take into account the huge distances and the difficulty of transportation during that period) and by one ruler..

Smart cunning and ruthless he was the greatest because he thought for himself and knew what he wanted how he would get it

Run close by Napoleon, by to achieve so much in such a short period of time is something that is very hard to match, especially as the whole logistical side of what he did would have been far harder than Napoleon, plus he never lost.

He was the first real icon for unity amongst all people, he had his flaws though but his idea & vision is something that would inspire many, and what he achieved being so young in short span of time was amazing aswell. Also one of his quotes or something that he showed. Nothing is Impossible,everything is possible, you just have to have the willpower to do it.

To me, a leader is one who provides a strong example of how followers should live and believe, not necessarily how they must. I think Alexander fits this bill very well.

Not only did he utilize the military advances his father developed to defeat the most imposing army and empire of the time, often leading assaults himself (much to the worry of his officers and troops), but he then tried to join the cultures of Greece and Persia into a greater whole. To advance this idea, he even married a woman of that eastern empire and encouraged his followers to do so as well.

When he led his soldiers to the Indus River and they decided that they would go no further, he let them have their way. Unfortunately, many woes befell them during their return to Babylon, and later, Alexander failed to consolidate his dream for a combined east-west empire, but his conquests did help Greek culture thrive and survive through the middle ages, the crusades and on to inspire the Renaissance.

Alexander was the greatest military strategist of all time. He redefined warfare for ages to come and his death brought a civil war fought between the Seleucids and Ptolemaics that would last until Roman conquest hundreds of years later. Alexander was able to destroy a Persian army that massively outnumbered his and still have enough men to march through Persia and conquer the empire. Alexander may not have had the best of everything, but he made it work

He conquered most of the known world at the time with ease, all before he died young. He was known mainly for his military skills.

It may be true that without his father, Phillipous the second of Macedonia, Alexander the Great would not have been that great. However the reported historical fact depict him as an intelligent and charismatic personality, understanding complexities that go beyond simple strategy and tactics. He used the conquered lands, sent back to Europe a great variety of plants and animals that did not existed and bringing them a lot of the advantages that the Greek city-states had developed. He build cities all around the then known world in strategic locations, many of which continue to prosper. He allowed the conquered nations to continue their existences without forcing a religion upon them. And above all he did all this with minimal resources, always involving himself in all the aspects of his military, economic and cultural campaign. He brought forth an age of contact between nations that ignored each others existence and is rightfully remembered as Alexander the Great. If that is not a sign of greatness, I do not know what is.

He conquered all Greece, then Egypt, Persia, India… that makes a huge empire with so much victories during a so hard period of the History. Desire of territories was his main objective as an explorer and he will stay in the History by Alexander the great who makes Macedonia has one of the most extensive territories of all time.

None other in this list have realy had the same long time effect og his rule, making sure that greek culture became so dominant and making sure Rome herited it. Also he’s seen as a great figure not only in the “western” world, but in the middle east and India as well, and few have had as brilliant military careers as he have.

Because of introducing the psychology of the God/Man King, and using it to his advantage in warfare and conquest, while at the same time inspiring the world with advances in the sciences and mathematics.

No other man in history has conquered so vast an area with so little an Army I will be the first to point out that the classical Macedonians were Greek through and through, and only the snobbery of the Southern Greek states -who viewed anyone who didn’t both speak Greek, and organize themselves in city states as various shades of barbaric- but at the end of it, even if more or less controlled by Macedonia b the time of Alexander, it was the Macedonian army and some mercenary ‘auxiliaries’ that toppled what had been the greatest empire the world had ever seen, spread Greek culture to the Indus (where it would influence Indian culture, and have faint reverberations even in China and Japan- usually seen as culturally impregnable entities, even they felt the result of Alexanders mighty thrust East.)

As a single man, none have accomplished a greater feat the only man who might offer a challenge in terms of pure military conquest, Ghengis Khan falls flat on his face when one considers the cultural effect as a legacy of conquest, and between the two, i think its fairly certain that through modern eyes, it is far more easy to see Alexander, the Philosopher-King as perhaps the greatest ruler our little species has so far produced- had he lived longer, what else might he have done to make his legend yet greater then it already was?

Took over most of Europe and much of Asia and Africa. Was loved by his people. Ahead of his era and forward thinking in the fields of art, religion, architecture, city planning, and many other cultural and technological fields.

A military genius and a man that was wise enough to know when to consult others in areas where he did not know himself.

The battles he won, the enemies he defeated and the subjects he gained. In a few short years he forever became the benchmark for being called great.

Just with the sheer scale of the empire that Alexander created at an early time, he has to be the greatest

Surely its Alexander, he lived in times before Jesus yet they still teach his tactics at military academies today
Ian

Alexander III of Macedon , commonly known as Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great’s accomplishments and legacy have been preserved and depicted in many ways. Alexander has figured in works of both high and popular culture from his own era to the modern day. Titles: King of Macedon, Hegemon of the Hellenic League, Shahanshah of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt and Lord of Asia
Alexandre

For the age in which they lived they were by far the most advanced technological and militarial civilization in the world using many inventions and techniques that still hold sway today. All of this held under a system that in equal measures was democratic but extremely ruthless.
Gary

The man brought down the greatest empire the world had seen, seemingly without difficulty and within a matter of just a couple of years, conquered most of the known world while fighting far from home, never lost a battle, led from the front, was tutored by Aristotle and maintained his passion for philosophy throughout his life, spread Greek culture across the globe … you get the idea. Oh, and he did all of this before the age of 33. Perhaps the clincher, however, is this: Julius Caesar weeped when he considered Alexander’s accomplishments.
Darryl

Tremendous lasting impact in both military and cultural spheres – his tactics are still studied 2300 years later.
Jennifer

All would be rulers of the world were in awe of Alexander. His story, based largely on legends of his persona, is everything a military leader wished to be in life (handsome, bold, fearless, an artist and a dashing warrior).

In reality Alexander more than an experienced leader was an extremely lucky and able heir to the throne. Alexander is today revered and set apart from other leaders because of eurocentrism that still remains to this day.
Rodrigo

Alexander the Great was one of the greatest conquerors and tactical minds of all time, as evidenced by his large empire acquired with relatively small resources. He was inspiring and charismatic, his men would (and did) follow him anywhere. Beyond the conqueror, however, he took Hellenistic culture to an entirely different level instead of the ideas of liberty, equality, philosophy, drama, and scientific categorization and study remaining in Greece and slowly spreading by basic trade and other modicums of idea osmosis, he spread it like wildfire across Asia Minor and the Middle East all the way to the Indian subcontinent. Very similar to Napoleon, except that Napoleon spread Nationalism, efficient bureaucracy, and a renewed vigor for republics. Both are great, but Alexander has to win in my book.
Maxwell

His stunning and rapid record speaks for itself, brilliant commander and fearless.
Alex

Conquered most of the known world, ruled Afghanistan, created one of the largest empires in history, all before he was 33. If he hadn’t dropped dead, he might have conquered the world.
Julian

He fought in the head of his army. His conditions were the same as of his soldiers his starting point was terrible small state with a huge an seemingly undefeatable enemy
Ronen

Out of the choices given I believe Alexander is the greatest leader. I thought of such greats as Bismarck, Washington, Napoleon, and Augustus, however Alexander was able to be a very successful military leader and politician. The others were either great commanders or political leaders, not both.

With Alexander he was able to conquer lands with military tactics across the then-known world. The other candidates weren’t able to spread their military campaigns as far as he did as well as “liberate” territories such as Egypt.

On the battlefield, Alexander, like Napoleon, gave the soldiers a dramatic surge in morale. However, unlike Napoleon, Alexander also understood the different religions, cultures, and economies of the territories he captured. Granted, like Napoleon they may have both been aggressive military leaders, but Alexander was able to gain a lot of respect worldwide by not just conquering but keeping a lot of the conquered areas in-tact.

Because Alexander was able to conquer a lot of territory of the then-known world, allowing to keep their customs, inspiring his soldiers, and acknowledging economics impact by establishing Alexandria, I believe this shows that Alexander was a great military commander and political leader. Which is what makes him the greatest leader out of the choices.
Jaron

He commanded an elite army inherited from his father, but even so, it takes some talent to crush the greatest empire in the world. Furthermore, he managed to keep his Macedonians from bickering and plotting too much against each other – not bad when leading a people among whom political assassinations was practically a standard procedure and every ascension on the throne was followed by the killing of all those opposed and all rival claimants.
Öjevind

An innovative general, Alexander led a superbly trained army, against many foes and throughout the known ancient world. Yet his force was small compared to those he fought, (Persians, Indians) and he never lost a battle. When he died at 33, he had conquered the entire known world, and we will never know if he was a capable governor because he died so young before he could truly rule his empire, yet as a military leader he is certainly without equal
Ben

He’s responsible for spreading Hellenic culture all the way to India shaping the Classical Age single handedly. Julius Ceaser is noted to have cried at the sight of a statue of Alexander because he could never be a great a leader as Alexander. Also, a simple statement of military tactics that is attributed to Alexander “Hammer and Anvil”.
Brett

He liberated more than conquered, and fought in the wars he waged.
Mike

Alexander III of Macedon (Alexander the Great) is the single greatest leader in all of history because he lead one of the grandest armies in the world and established one of the largest armies of antiquity. Dozens of the cities which he established still exist today, and the culture he spread and assimilated is very evident in the lands in which his empire existed. Truly, Alexander’s exploits have stood the test of time, and likely will remain standing until some other great leader buries them under blood and bone.
Vai

Uncomparably vast feats in significantly short space of time that will forever be remembered and compared.
Richard

Did the unimaginable by conquering the most powerful empire of its time, then pushing his army east into the unknown, spreading Hellenism and his name throughout theland. Alexander was a brilliant on-the-fly tactician, integrating units from disparate lands and cultures while also utilizing the terrain and his opponents tendencies to his advantage.

He created one of the largest empires in a short time
George

He was a fearless warrior and took part of front line battles. Therefore, unlike many other leaders, he inspired his people better than a “regular” king of sorts would have done. He was also a tactical and stratetical mastermind. His exploits speak for themselves.
Christopher

He rose from a small kingdom to conquer the known world – and his reputation was so fearsome that decades after his death people still refused to revolt out of fear that he might really still be alive and come back to punish them.
It’s a real shame that Ghengis Khan is not on the list, though.
David

A huge empire in his lifetime with some splendid military victories.
Chris

He helped unify most of the ancient world. And he was a certified military genius. Some of the combat accomplishments were quite amazing.
Jonathan

Alexander was so young when he conquered the then-world that it puts all these other old fogeys to shame – a true child prodigy. He was a kind and fair ruler to his citizens, which held together despite the vast mix of cultures. It was only after he died that his empire crumbled, signalling that it was really him that was the key piece that held the empire together. He also defeated Darius III, another leader in this poll, something that doesn’t apply to any of the other leaders I think. Go Alexander the Great!

He dared
Philippe

Alex won every battle he fought. I believe no one else did that. Ceaser, Augustus, Gendis Khan all lost battles at one time.
Stephen

Alexander the Great never lost a battle ever in his entire military campaign all the way to India. Had he not died he could have made the Grecian Empire as great or greater than the Roman Empire that was formed years later.
Ryan

Alexander took the unity forged by his father in the Agean and with it conquered the colossus of Persia in 10 years and enabled Greek thought and language to permiate the entire near east and through the conquests of the Romans, extend throughout Western Europe, influencing all of modern history.
João

He was the greatest and brightsest leader. He didn’t only conquered all the known world (for the greeks until that time) but he also focused on unifying them.
He also used a lot of scientist during his quest including doctors engineers and many more. All together united under the commands of Alexander made the greatest empire the world has ever known in such a sort time (if we take into account the huge distances and the difficulty of transportation during that period) and by one ruler..
Dimitris

Smart cunning and ruthless he was the greatest because he thought for himself and knew what he wanted how he would get it
Trevor

Run close by Napoleon, by to achieve so much in such a short period of time is something that is very hard to match, especially as the whole logistical side of what he did would have been far harder than Napoleon, plus he never lost.
Kevin

He was the first real icon for unity amongst all people, he had his flaws though but his idea & vision is something that would inspire many, and what he achieved being so young in short span of time was amazing aswell. Also one of his quotes or something that he showed. Nothing is Impossible,everything is possible, you just have to have the willpower to do it.
Mohammed

To me, a leader is one who provides a strong example of how followers should live and believe, not necessarily how they must. I think Alexander fits this bill very well.

Not only did he utilize the military advances his father developed to defeat the most imposing army and empire of the time, often leading assaults himself (much to the worry of his officers and troops), but he then tried to join the cultures of Greece and Persia into a greater whole. To advance this idea, he even married a woman of that eastern empire and encouraged his followers to do so as well.

When he led his soldiers to the Indus River and they decided that they would go no further, he let them have their way. Unfortunately, many woes befell them during their return to Babylon, and later, Alexander failed to consolidate his dream for a combined east-west empire, but his conquests did help Greek culture thrive and survive through the middle ages, the crusades and on to inspire the Renaissance.
Jonathon

Alexander was the greatest military strategist of all time. He redefined warfare for ages to come and his death brought a civil war fought between the Seleucids and Ptolemaics that would last until Roman conquest hundreds of years later. Alexander was able to destroy a Persian army that massively outnumbered his and still have enough men to march through Persia and conquer the empire. Alexander may not have had the best of everything, but he made it work
Darren

He conquered most of the known world at the time with ease, all before he died young. He was known mainly for his military skills.
Matthew

It may be true that without his father, Phillipous the second of Macedonia, Alexander the Great would not have been that great. However the reported historical fact depict him as an intelligent and charismatic personality, understanding complexities that go beyond simple strategy and tactics. He used the conquered lands, sent back to Europe a great variety of plants and animals that did not existed and bringing them a lot of the advantages that the Greek city-states had developed. He build cities all around the then known world in strategic locations, many of which continue to prosper. He allowed the conquered nations to continue their existences without forcing a religion upon them. And above all he did all this with minimal resources, always involving himself in all the aspects of his military, economic and cultural campaign. He brought forth an age of contact between nations that ignored each others existence and is rightfully remembered as Alexander the Great. If that is not a sign of greatness, I do not know what is.
Anastase

He conquered all Greece, then Egypt, Persia, India… that makes a huge empire with so much victories during a so hard period of the History. Desire of territories was his main objective as an explorer and he will stay in the History by Alexander the great who makes Macedonia has one of the most extensive territories of all time.
Nicolas

None other in this list have realy had the same long time effect og his rule, making sure that greek culture became so dominant and making sure Rome herited it. Also he’s seen as a great figure not only in the “western” world, but in the middle east and India as well, and few have had as brilliant military careers as he have.
Jimmy

Because of introducing the psychology of the God/Man King, and using it to his advantage in warfare and conquest, while at the same time inspiring the world with advances in the sciences and mathematics.
Steve

No other man in history has conquered so vast an area with so little an Army I will be the first to point out that the classical Macedonians were Greek through and through, and only the snobbery of the Southern Greek states -who viewed anyone who didn’t both speak Greek, and organize themselves in city states as various shades of barbaric- but at the end of it, even if more or less controlled by Macedonia b the time of Alexander, it was the Macedonian army and some mercenary ‘auxiliaries’ that toppled what had been the greatest empire the world had ever seen, spread Greek culture to the Indus (where it would influence Indian culture, and have faint reverberations even in China and Japan- usually seen as culturally impregnable entities, even they felt the result of Alexanders mighty thrust East.)

As a single man, none have accomplished a greater feat the only man who might offer a challenge in terms of pure military conquest, Ghengis Khan falls flat on his face when one considers the cultural effect as a legacy of conquest, and between the two, i think its fairly certain that through modern eyes, it is far more easy to see Alexander, the Philosopher-King as perhaps the greatest ruler our little species has so far produced- had he lived longer, what else might he have done to make his legend yet greater then it already was?
Harrison

Took over most of Europe and much of Asia and Africa. Was loved by his people. Ahead of his era and forward thinking in the fields of art, religion, architecture, city planning, and many other cultural and technological fields.

A military genius and a man that was wise enough to know when to consult others in areas where he did not know himself.
Chris

The battles he won, the enemies he defeated and the subjects he gained. In a few short years he forever became the benchmark for being called great.

Just with the sheer scale of the empire that Alexander created at an early time, he has to be the greatest


10 Comments

Though much of what you say is true, it is also quite short sighted in perspective. Arrian, writing largely from Ptolemy who was evidently, ever the sycophant and self-aggrandizer, related quite clearly that the battle plan of Guagamela was created and devised by Alexander…not Parmenion. And though Parmenion, as the left-side lynch pin of the Epaminondas Maneuver, was absolutely critical in the success at both Issus and Gaugamela, Alexander was the driving force which drove the Persians from the field in both cases. The 4th and final epic pitched battle was Alexander’s toure de force at the Hydaspes and Parmenion was long gone. The excursion to Siwa was perhaps, as you say, just a waste of time, but the total subjugation of Asia Minor from the Hellespont through Tyre was critical to prevent the possibility of Memnon of Rhodes, the Greek Mercenary General leading the Persian resistance, from taking the battle back to Greece proper. Gaza and then Egypt were also critical to bring to heel, as they could have been used to base Persian troops, already in Egypt, for a hail Mary into Greece as well. And it wasn’t Parmenion that led the army from Europe to India…it was Alexander. For sure, Parmenion’s staid advice was rich with experience and his tactical, strategic, and logistical capabilities were critical to the early part of the campaign. It is just as certain that his presence and familial entrenchment formed roadblocks to Alexander’s further success as the campaigns wore on.

The above comment sums up much of the relevant critical response to this shallow and dismissive overview of Alexander’s status as a battlefield commander. I would however add that Corby’s criticism of Alexander is about what one should expect from establishment western military ‘scholars’ . . . condescending, patronizing, and utterly ignorant of attitudes and philosophies different from their own. It would have been remarkable had Alexander not led from the front, oftentimes at imminent risk of his life, it’s what the leaders of the day did, what they were expected to do. And Corby’s statement that Alexander bounced off on Bucephalus for a jolly lark with the opposing cavalry leaving the real fighting for real men would be embarrassing were it not that it contradicts his belief that the Persians’ only capable arm was their cavalry. Well, maybe it is embarrassing. Corby doesn’t appear to possess so much as the foggiest regarding Alexander’s motives in removing this threat to his army. Such a wanker, that Alexander, for not charging headlong into the enemy’s front . . . Put down the bag of crisps Mark, turn off the History Channel and “Private Ryan” and read a few books . . . Cheers!

Mr. Corby, I agree that you are REAL, short sighted! Alexander still was able to conquer the entire Persian Empire, Northern India, wanted to march to China, and was thinking about marching on Rome when he died at 32! A general at age 18, a king at 20, created the Hellenistic culture! His victories include those against the Persians, the siege of Tyre(thought to be impregnable), defeating the Indians! In none of these did he outnumber his opponents! In all of these he not only improvised and adapted but gained total victory. I agree with Mr. Cloud become more like Thucydides and less like Herodotus!And like Mr. Cloud said lead from the front, experience injury, face death, and then stop being the armchair QB/Critic.

Let’s be honest no leader is with out advisories and strategists. It seems to me that Alexander knew very well how to value and use them, that makes him a great leader.

Had Alexander marched on China, he would have been buried there. At the time, China was going through the Warring States Era (476-221 BC). Seven great kingdoms fought constantly, each of the seven had 300,000 men armies and the most powerful Ch’in and the Chu kingdoms could field million men armies. They were armed with repeating crossbows that fired ten poisoned bolts in 15 seconds. The crossbow did not appear in the west until 1500 year later. The Chinese generals were at least equal if not superior to Alexander. Bai Chi, a general of the Ch’in kingdom, was known to have killed a million to 1.5 million enemy soldiers. In his 40 years career he fought over 70 major campaigns and never lost a battle. The name China originated from the Ch’in kingdom, which defeated the other six kingdoms and created China. Suggest you read “The Book of War” by Long Tang, Algora Publishing.

Well, you cannot be too sure because the Chinese despite superior military might at the time failed to subjugate the central asian tribes. Additionally, they lost to Genghis Khan despite outnumbering and having better technology. The Chinese have a record of losing to inferior forces e.g. Mongolians and the Jurchens. Furthermore, ancient records have a reputation, as attested by serious historians, of exaggerating their enemy casualty figure. If you believe that 1.5 million enemy soldiers are killed by your said general, then it is plausible to believe that Genghis Khan and his descendant soldiers killed millions of Song and Jin soldiers. Their generals were not incompetent, but yet lost to the “barbarians”. If you want to imagine Alexander prevailing, you can imagine behaving like the Mongolian generals. Like the Mongolians he could have adopted superior Chinese technology to prevail. The Chinese create many excellent military doctrines, but they also have a history of being subjugated by people who have no record of creating brilliant military doctrines.

alexander lost in India- it has been proven by western and eastern scholars. PORUS took taxla, who sided with Alexander. You have been brainwashed by television, go see the actual proof. China and India were in their golden ages. All your sources are Zero or not proven, this lie is unfolding in the information age. Alexander was full of garbage.

I would tend to agree, Gaugamela and Issus (where he was also initially outgeneraled by Darius) were not much more than repetitions of the battle of Leuctra, which Philip probably learned about during his stay in Thebes and taught Alexander how to employ at Chaeronea (where Alexander commanded the cavalry wing). Hydaspes (when Parmenio was gone) was actually Alexander’s most closely fought battle, and the army revolted not long after. Alexander also demonstrated his lack of understanding of logistics (as the author points out) in the Gedrosian desert. However Jaxartes against the Scythians is actually where Alexander seems to have demonstrated new tactics, and he also proved himself more versatile than Hannibal at the relatively difficult siege of Tyre (though how much of the credit should go to the siege corps that Philip established is debatable).

The man pillaged, murdered, and raped his way across Asia minor. Período.

The only reason Alexander was able to do anything was because of his father’s army and the fact that the two greatest powers of the time had weakened each other. Alexander took Greece with little to no problems due to Greece being in a state of civil war. Persia was also greatly weakened to the point that it was mostly being controlled by Zoroastrianistm. Of course both of these countries had fought each other for hundreds of years making both of them equally weak. The battles that Alexander fought in Persia were narrated by him and those around him. In truth he masked his savagery by making people believe his goal was to unite people. This is evident within two facts. The first of which being that he would massacre anyone that did join his army after attempting to force them (by this I’m referring to his killings when his army was growing through recruiting cities and villages). The second of which being that he burnt great proportions of Persia as well as Greece. He burnt entire cities and desecrated important places such as the greatest library at the time or the tombs of kings. I forget the exact place but I remember reading that he burnt one of the Persian cities just because a girlfriend of his told him to do so. He was a horrible person overall and a barbarian.


Alexander The Great: Powerful and Influential

When I think of someone who had power, and influence upon others, I think of Alexander The Great. People use the words “power” and “influence” interchangeably, but there is a difference between the two. Power is described as “the capacity to produce effects on others, or the potential to influence others” (PSU, Lesson 7: Power and Influence, 2020, p. 1). From 336 to 323 B.C, Alexander The Great united the Greek city states and led the Corinthian League.
Alexander the Great had a lot of power, since his father was King Phillip ll and his mother was Queen Olympias. When Alexander was only 16 years old, his father put him in charge and Alexander defeated the Thracian people and named the city after himself. Not long after, Alexander’s father was killed. Rumors arose that Alexander had his father killed to continue to be in charge. Alexander The Great was set on a mission to dominate the world, and killed everyone that got in the way of that mission. Was Alexander The Great powerful because he came from a powerful family, or was it because people feared him?
“Personalized power: individuals with a high need for personalized power are selfish, impulsive, uninhibited, and lacking in self-control. These people exercise power for their own needs, not for the good of the organization” (PSU, Lesson 7:Power and Influence, 2020, p.1). Alexander from a young age was designed for greatness. His mother always told him he was meant to be a God, even went as far as telling him he was the son of Zeus.
We can see Alexander The Great had the potential to influence others, by his family life, and his killings. Influence tactics are actual behaviors that are used by an individual to change opinions, attitudes, and behaviors. Alexander had his army behind him, but he had to get his followers to follow him. So how did he do that?
As the story goes, when Alexander was only 20 years old, he went all around the world and killed all his rivals. Alexander was a great military man, and showed his military worth on the battlefield. “Alexander put his vigor and bravery on display, and his cavalry decimated the Sacred Band of Thebes” (Alexander The Great, 2020, p. 1). After multiple wins on the battlefield, Alexander headed to the Gordian Knot. The Gordian Knot is a group of tightly-entwined knots yoked to an ancient wagon. Legend had it whoever unwound the knot would conquer all of Asia. Alexander took this as a challenge and sliced through the knot, making it known to his followers that he would conquer the world.
There are different types of influential tactics. “Inspirational Appeals: agents make a request or proposal designed to arouse enthusiasm or emotions in targets” (PSU, Lesson 7: Power and Influence, 2020, p. 1). This is what Alexander did with the Gordian Knot. No one in this time could unravel this knot, and Alexander saying he would undo this knot, and coming in and doing it showed how serious of a leader he was. Another one is Legitimizing Tactics where agents make requests based on their position or authority. Alexander had this power, and was killing everyone that was in his way. He was even killing his own followers. His followers were sure to make sure everything Alexander wanted was complete because they did not want to upset him, and possibly be killed.
Alexander The Great can be listed as someone who was powerful and had influence on those around him. Some people feared him, while others respected him. He was a good leader, and a good military man. He led his followers to win every single battle.

Alexander The Great. História. February, 2020. RETRIEVED AT https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/alexander-the-great

Pennsylvania State University World Campus. (2020). Psych 485 Lesson 7: Power and Influence. Retrieved June 9, 2020, from https://courses.worldcampus.psu.edu/canvas/su20/2205min-5439/content/08_lesson/printlesson.html

Comentários

Alexander the Great was always a fascinating figure of leadership, in my opinion. His ability to conquer and unite people was both frightening and impressive.
When you asked “Was Alexander The Great powerful because he came from a powerful family, or was it because people feared him?”, it reminded me of the beginning of our lesson plan that asked us where power comes from. Whether power is given because of the position one is in or if it comes from the followers.

It’s a tough question to answer because there are so many factors that influence a person’s power, but I do believe it comes from the followers. A leader can influence followers to fear and obey through influence techniques, like you mentioned. His position as member of the royal family likely made it easier for him to influence people as well. Many different factors allowed him to be seen as “Great”, but it was ultimately his followers that truly gave him power. If his followers didn’t believe in him or fear him, they wouldn’t have followed his orders and he wouldn’t have accomplished his military goals.

Your example of the Gordian Knot as an “inspirational appeals” tactic made sense, along with the example of “legitimizing tactics”. Alexander definitely utilized his position as King to influence his followers, which is the definition of a legitimizing tactic. He also used the pressure tactic, which was what you mentioned as the threat of death to those who didn’t obey him. The reason I believe this falls closer to the definition of pressure tactic rather than legitimizing tactic, is because pressure tactic is use of threats and persistent reminders to influence people (PSU WC, 2016, L.7). His slaying of disobedient followers and enemies was likely not only a means to prevent revolt within his group of followers, but also to serve as a persistent reminder to the others that there are consequences to not following his lead.

Alexander the Great is also a good example of French and Raven’s Taxonomy of Social Power. He easily demonstrates coercive power through his ability to control others through fear of punishment. His position in the royal family also provided him with “legitimate power”, and people likely accepted him as a powerful person due to his position in society (PSU WC, 2016, L.7).

All in all, Alexander the Great was a great subject to analyze regarding the various power and influence theories. Great post!


5g. Alexandre o grande


Alexander the Great was so impressed by the Indian use of elephants in battle, that he immediately enlisted them into his army. Elephants were particularly effective against horses, which would often bolt away in fear at the presence of the enormous beasts.

Was Alexander the Great really great?

A great conqueror, in 13 short years he amassed the largest empire in the entire ancient world &mdash an empire that covered 3,000 miles. And he did this without the benefit of modern technology and weaponry. In his day, troop movements were primarily on foot, and communications were face to face. Not bad for a kid who became the King of Macedon at the age of 20.

Many of Alexander's accomplishments were made possible by his father, Philip of Macedon. Macedon, which existed roughly where the modern country of Macedonia lies today, was a kingdom located that lay geographically north of the Greek city-states.

In 338 B.C.E., King Philip of Macedon invaded and conquered the Greek city-states. Philip took advantage of the fact that the Greek city-states were divided by years of squabbling and infighting. Philip succeeded in doing what years of fighting between city-states had not done. He united Greece.

Conquering the World

Philip's next goal was to defeat Greece's age-old enemy to the east: Persia. For years, the massive Persian Empire threatened the very existence of the Greek way of life. But before he was able to pursue his second goal, Philip was assassinated.


This map shows Alexander the Great's massive empire and the route he took to conquer it.

When his son, Alexander, took the throne in 336 B.C.E., he vowed to complete the plans of his father. In 334 B.C.E., Alexander invaded Persia, which lay across the Aegean Sea in Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).

After three grueling years of warfare and three decisive battles, Alexander smashed the Persian armies at the Tigris River and conquered the mighty Persian Empire, including the legendary city of Babylon. For many Greeks, this victory marked a moment of sweet revenge against a bitter foe.

At this point, at the age of 25, Alexander ruled an expansive empire. Nevertheless, his ambitions were not satisfied. While fighting the Persians, Alexander conquered Egypt and founded a city at the mouth of the Nile River. This city, which he named Alexandria after himself, became a cosmopolitan, diverse, bustling center of trade, the arts, and ideas.

But Alexander was not done. He continued his campaign, driving farther east, until he reached India and the Indus River in 326 B.C.E. At this point, his exhausted troops refused to fight further. They told Alexander that a truly great leader knows when it is time to stop fighting.

Without the support of his army, Alexander had no choice but to turn back and begin consolidating and organizing his far-flung empire. On his way home, Alexander died from disease in 323 B.C.E.


Though he was an unquestionably skilled and highly respected military leader, Alexander the Great was feared by those around him for his paranoia and dangerous temper.

Alexander in Hindsight

Alexander the Great's legacy is both far reaching and profound. First, his father was able to unite the Greek city-states, and Alexander destroyed the Persian Empire forever. More importantly, Alexander's conquests spread Greek culture, also known as Hellenism, across his empire.

In fact, Alexander's reign marked the beginning of a new era known as the Hellenistic Age because of the powerful influence that Greek culture had on other people. Without Alexander's ambition, Greek ideas and culture might well have remained confined to Greece.

Many historians see Alexander the Great in a different light. Although Alexander was both intelligent and handsome, he also had a darker side. He possessed a ferocious temper and from time to time would arbitrarily murder close advisors and even friends. Also, toward the end of his many campaigns, he senselessly slaughtered thousands whose only crime was being in his way.


Quotes from Alexander the Great

“A tomb now suffices him for whom the whole world was not sufficient.”

“I had rather excel others in the knowledge of what is excellent, than in the extent of my power and dominion.”

“Remember upon the conduct of each depends the fate of all.”

“I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well.”

“There is nothing impossible to him who will try.”

“Heaven cannot brook two suns, nor earth two masters.”

“I am not afraid of an army of lions led by a sheep I am afraid of an army of sheep led by a lion.”

“How great are the dangers I face to win a good name in Athens.”

“I am dying with the help of too many physicians.”


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