O assassinato do presidente James A. Garfield

O assassinato do presidente James A. Garfield

Na manhã de 2 de julho de 1881, James A. Garfield chegou à estação ferroviária de Baltimore e Potomac para um feriado muito necessário. Apenas quatro meses se passaram desde que o ex-general da União e congressista de Ohio foi empossado como o vigésimo presidente da nação, mas seu mandato já havia começado de forma difícil. Ele entrou em confronto com corretores republicanos sobre nomeações de patrocínio para seu governo e enfrentou uma tragédia depois que sua esposa contraiu um caso quase fatal de malária. Com a primeira-dama agora se recuperando, Garfield estava ansioso para escapar da sufocante capital para uma viagem de verão à Nova Inglaterra, onde planejava fazer um discurso em sua alma mater, o Williams College. Junto com seus dois filhos adolescentes e o secretário de Estado James G. Blaine, ele deixou a Casa Branca e deu um passeio de carruagem até a entrada da estação, perto do National Mall. Como a maioria dos presidentes até então, ele não estava acompanhado de guarda-costas ou segurança.

Quando a carruagem de Garfield parou em frente ao Baltimore e Potomac, Charles Guiteau caminhou pela sala de espera do lado de dentro, pronto para cumprir o que ele acreditava ser uma missão de Deus. Durante semanas, o homem de 39 anos perseguiu o presidente por Washington, esperando pacientemente por uma chance de atirar nele. Membros da família e conhecidos há muito suspeitavam que Guiteau era louco, mas ele planejou o crime com uma precisão assustadora. Ele havia praticado tiro ao alvo com uma pistola calibre .44 com cabo de marfim - comprada especialmente porque Guiteau achou que ficaria bem em um museu um dia - e até tentou fazer um tour pela prisão distrital, que ele presumiu que seria sua nova para casa depois que ele foi preso. No bolso, Guiteau carregava uma carta endereçada à Casa Branca. “A trágica morte do presidente foi uma triste necessidade”, dizia, “mas vai unir o Partido Republicano e salvar a República. A vida é um sonho passageiro, e pouco importa quando se vai. ”

Por volta das 9h20, Garfield entrou na estação ao lado do secretário Blaine, que se ofereceu para acompanhá-lo até o trem. Enquanto os homens cruzavam a sala de espera, Guiteau esgueirou-se por trás deles e sacou sua pistola. “Seus olhos estavam firmes”, observou uma testemunha mais tarde, “e seu rosto apresentava a aparência de um homem corajoso, que está decidido a realizar uma ação desesperada e pretende fazê-lo com calma e bem.” Guiteau disparou dois tiros contra o presidente à queima-roupa. A primeira bala atingiu apenas o braço direito de Garfield, fazendo-o berrar "Meu Deus! O que é isso?" O segundo tiro foi mais preciso, acertando Garfield na parte inferior das costas e derrubando-o no chão.

Assim que os tiros soaram, a estação se encheu com o som de gritos de pânico dos espectadores. Guiteau tentou fugir, mas um homem bloqueou a porta, permitindo que um bilheteiro e um policial o prendessem. Passageiros furiosos do trem imediatamente cercaram o atirador e começaram a gritar “Lynch ele! Lynch-lo! " A pedido do próprio Guiteau, a polícia o levou para a segurança da prisão.

Enquanto isso, Garfield ainda estava deitado no chão da estação de trem, sangrando profusamente do ferimento nas costas. Em minutos, dez médicos diferentes chegaram para examiná-lo e tentar localizar a segunda bala. Embora ninguém soubesse na época, a lesma não atingiu as artérias e órgãos vitais do presidente e se incrustou perto de seu pâncreas. Foi um ferimento que poderia sobreviver, mas o exército de médicos bem intencionados apenas piorou o dano usando seus dedos e instrumentos não esterilizados para sondar o ferimento, introduzindo germes e potencialmente causando uma infecção.

Depois de uma hora de provocações excruciantes, o presidente foi carregado da estação de trem para um quarto na Casa Branca. Seus médicos temiam que ele não sobrevivesse à noite, mas Garfield fez uma cara de bravura para seus filhos. “O andar de cima está bom”, garantiu ele a um de seus filhos chorando. “Foi apenas o casco que foi danificado.”

Enquanto Garfield passou os próximos dias lutando por sua vida, detalhes surgiram sobre o atirador enlouquecido. Charles J. Guiteau era um nativo de Illinois que passou a maior parte de sua vida vagando entre as cidades e testando tudo, desde a lei e pregação até viver em uma comuna religiosa de amor livre. Ele era um republicano convicto e havia escrito um discurso em nome de Garfield durante a eleição presidencial de 1880. Foi amplamente ignorado, mas Guiteau formulou a ilusão de que foi um fator-chave para a vitória do presidente. Após a posse de Garfield, Guiteau mudou-se para Washington, D.C. e tornou-se um visitante frequente - e decididamente indesejado - da Casa Branca. Ele até conseguiu um encontro pessoal com Garfield, durante o qual deu ao presidente uma cópia de seu discurso e pediu para ser recompensado com um consulado em Paris.

Quando foi negado um cargo governamental, a mente confusa de Guiteau se voltou para a vingança. Certa noite, quando estava deitado na cama, ele teve o que descreveu como um “lampejo” de inspiração divina: Deus queria que ele matasse o presidente. Guiteau se convenceu de que a morte de Garfield salvaria o país, permitindo que o vice-presidente Chester A. Arthur tomasse seu lugar. Mesmo depois de sua prisão, ele continuou a acreditar que o vice-presidente viria em seu socorro. “Você fica comigo”, aconselhou ele a um detetive. "Arthur e todos aqueles homens são meus amigos, e farei com que você seja nomeado Chefe de Polícia."

Conforme o verão se arrastava, os jornais publicaram um fluxo constante de atualizações médicas sobre Garfield. O presidente de 49 anos havia se recuperado nos primeiros dias após o tiroteio, mas seu estado piorou depois que seu médico, D. Willard Bliss, administrou altas doses de quinino, morfina e álcool, que provocaram acessos de vômito que o deixaram fraco e emaciado. Bliss também conduziu repetidas sondagens médicas em uma tentativa inútil de localizar a segunda bala. Em agosto, ele até pediu a ajuda do inventor do telefone Alexander Graham Bell, que usou um detector de metal bruto chamado de “balança de indução” para procurar a lesma. A máquina funcionou perfeitamente nos testes, mas a triagem falhou devido à interferência de molas de metal na cama do presidente. Para piorar as coisas, Bell só teve permissão para revistar o lado direito do corpo de Garfield, onde Bliss erroneamente acreditava que a bala estava alojada.

Em setembro, uma infecção massiva - provavelmente causada por seu tratamento médico - deixou Garfield com febre persistente e abscessos por todo o corpo. Ele foi levado para uma cabana na costa de Jersey na esperança de que o ar fresco do mar o revivesse, mas morreu na noite de 19 de setembro de 1881. Ele havia sido presidente por apenas 200 dias.

A nação entrou em um breve período de luto pelo líder que mal conhecia. Cerca de 100.000 pessoas compareceram para ver o corpo de Garfield enquanto estava na Rotunda do Capitólio, mas a atenção logo se voltou para punir Charles Guiteau. Vigilantes tentaram atirar no assassino do presidente em duas ocasiões distintas e, quando seu julgamento por assassinato começou em novembro de 1881, o tribunal teve que passar por mais de 150 homens diferentes para formar um júri imparcial. Guiteau declarou-se inocente por motivo de insanidade, argumentando que o assassinato havia sido "ato de Deus e não meu". Ele até afirmou que a verdadeira causa da morte de Garfield foi a negligência nas mãos de seus médicos. “Eu nego o assassinato, se sua honra, por favor,” ele anunciou em um ponto. “Admitimos o tiroteio.”

Guiteau tinha razão - muitos historiadores agora acreditam que Garfield teria sobrevivido se não fosse pelas limitações da medicina dos anos 1880 - mas sua alegação de insanidade não conseguiu convencer o júri, que levou menos de uma hora para retornar o veredicto de culpado. Em 30 de junho de 1882, quase um ano depois de disparar contra o presidente, Guiteau foi executado por enforcamento em Washington, D.C.


Assassinato do presidente James Garfield

O assassinato do presidente James A. Garfield foi um acontecimento importante que dominou a atenção do público por quase três meses em 1881. William o mencionou em seu diário 21 vezes. Embora a natureza curta das anotações de seu diário possa refletir a brevidade do tempo de Garfield no cargo, eles transmitem mais sutilmente uma apreciação profunda de uma presidência de grande promessa, mas não cumprida.

James Garfield (1831-81) foi o vigésimo presidente dos Estados Unidos. Ele nasceu na pobreza e sem pai aos dois anos de idade, mas cresceu rapidamente em vida. Um estudante brilhante, ele se formou com honras na Williams College em 1856, tornou-se presidente de uma pequena faculdade em Ohio um ano depois e foi eleito para o senado estadual de Ohio em 1859. Um forte oponente da escravidão (e mais tarde um defensor do sufrágio negro ), ele ingressou no exército da União no início da Guerra Civil em 1861 e foi promovido a general de brigada em 1862 depois que suas táticas ousadas venceram uma batalha importante. Garfield foi eleito para o Congresso em 1862 e serviu 18 anos na Câmara, tornando-se líder do Partido Republicano até sua eleição como presidente em 1880 (4, pp. 8-9, 19, 22-8)

Apesar de sua alta inteligência, realizações iniciais e fortes habilidades de liderança, Garfield perdeu sua chance de um lugar maior na história quando foi assassinado apenas quatro meses após assumir o cargo. Ele é mais conhecido por levar um tiro e levar mais de 2 e 12 meses para morrer e, portanto, é geralmente visto como um dos obscuros presidentes da "Era de Ouro", junto com Rutherford Hayes, Chester Arthur e Benjamin Harrison.

Superficialmente, as anotações do diário de William sobre Garfield são consistentes com essa imagem histórica. William praticamente não prestou atenção a Garfield até que foi baleado por um louco candidato a cargos, Charles Guiteau, em 2 de julho de 1881. Embora William tenha mencionado brevemente os fatos da eleição de Garfield em novembro de 1880 e sua posse em março seguinte, ele disse que não palavra sobre Garfield como homem, a campanha eleitoral ou quaisquer questões políticas nacionais daquele ano. (Diário, 1880-11-02 1881-03-04. 07-02)

Mesmo depois do tiroteio, William expressou pouca emoção ou reflexão sobre o presidente e sua luta para viver. As entradas do diário no Garfield são esparsas e intercaladas com referências mundanas às atividades diárias de William. Os únicos sentimentos que ele transmite & ndash em muito poucas palavras & ndash são esperança pela recuperação de Garfield e preocupação quando sua condição se deteriorar. Típicas foram estas passagens:

* "Está muito quente, tome o terceiro banho e remédio do Dr. Zinssers todas as noites. A condição do presidente é mais esperançosa. Escreva por dentro" (Diário, 1881-07-05)

* "Via L. road com esposa e RdRt para a cidade. Mary Ruhl com nossa carruagem para Astoria. Presidente Garfield relatado como pior. Morte de Wm. Marwedel relatado em Hamburgo no último domingo. (Diário, 1881-07-12)

* "Muito legal, joelho direito ligeiramente afetado. Más notícias sobre a condição do presidente, almoço com RdRt & amp H. St. no U. Sq. Hotel." (Diário, 1881-08-17)

A reação de William ao assassinato de Abraham Lincoln, 16 anos antes, foi semelhante, embora com muito menos anotações no diário, já que Lincoln levou apenas 9 horas para morrer. (Diário, 1865-04-15 04-17) Ambas as ocasiões mostraram que William era um homem ocupado, anotando os principais eventos, mas se concentrando em assuntos pessoais relacionados à família e aos negócios.

O assassinato de Garfield, no entanto, prendeu a atenção de William. Ele registrou 17 anotações no diário sobre o tiroteio e os subseqüentes altos e baixos da condição médica do presidente antes de morrer em 19 de setembro. E apesar da natureza superficial das observações do diário sobre Garfield, a frequência das entradas sugere que William foi movido por algo mais profundo do que seu interesse natural como um americano em um assassinato presidencial.

O fator mais óbvio que afetou William foi a duração e o drama da luta de Garfield para sobreviver ao ferimento. Como O jornal New York Times observou, a luta de verão do presidente "entrou na vida diária do povo. toda a condução do caso foi sujeita à enorme lupa do registro do jornal diário." (7)

Um segundo fator que deve ter motivado William foi a admiração pelo personagem de Garfield. Embora William fosse um democrata e, portanto, não um apoiador político do presidente, ele provavelmente estava bem ciente dos sentimentos positivos que Garfield havia despertado em todo o país. A abundante cobertura da imprensa sobre a batalha do presidente para viver trouxe muita reflexão sobre suas estimáveis ​​qualidades pessoais e sua ascensão de origens humildes. Dois dias depois do tiroteio O jornal New York Times observou "a ternura e afeição peculiares com que o público falou do Presidente. [A maioria dos observadores não estava preparada para. [a] ampla explosão de simpatia sem reservas e amor absoluto pelo Sr. Garfield." Os tempos atribuiu esses sentimentos à "retidão essencial do caráter do presidente", ao fato de ele ter escolhido um Gabinete de "indubitável habilidade e elevação de propósitos", suas relações "corajosas, porém discretas" com o Congresso e seu comportamento "digno". Todas essas qualidades, Os tempos disse, "deu origem a um sentimento muito forte de respeito e confiança na mente do público." (6)

William também pode ter sido tocado pelo impacto de Garfield na promoção da reconciliação entre o Norte e o Sul após a Guerra Civil. Os pontos de vista abolicionistas do presidente conquistaram o apoio de ex-escravos, e sua defesa da educação e do desenvolvimento econômico no Sul ganhou popularidade naquela região. (4, pp. 181-3, 248) Duas semanas após o tiroteio, o antigo O presidente confederado Jefferson Davis disse que "tal crime torna toda a nação parente. O Sul tinha muitas esperanças na administração do Sr. Garfield e. Une-se à tristeza nacional pelo ataque à sua vida". (2) Alguns dias depois O jornal New York Times observou que o ataque a Garfield "revelou o renovado parentesco do Norte e do Sul como partes de uma nação e de um povo. O povo [no Sul] sentiu, como não sentia antes há anos, que o Governo sob cuja liderança o O golpe do assassino foi direcionado ao governo deles. e que o magistrado-chefe do país tinha direitos iguais sobre a afeição leal de todo o povo. "(5) Depois que Garfield morreu, muitos ex-confederados escreveram cartas de condolências à Sra. Garfield de a admiração e as esperanças que sentiam pelo falecido presidente. (1)

Outros fatores que quase certamente atraíram o interesse de William foram o triste estado de saúde de Garfield depois que ele foi baleado e os cuidados médicos intensivos que recebeu. Como o presidente demorou mais de onze semanas antes de sucumbir a uma infecção galopante, a imprensa noticiou continuamente sobre sua condição. Como Os tempos observou, "todos os sintomas foram tabulados e todas as fases de uma longa doença foram anotadas e comentadas." (7) A tragédia da morte de Garfield é que era evitável. Como revelou a autópsia final, a bala estava encapsulada com segurança em seu abdômen. Seus médicos, fazendo frequentes sondas não esterilizadas em seu ferimento em um esforço para encontrar a bala, introduziram a infecção bacteriana que o matou. (4, pp. 231-2, 253) Embora os avanços europeus na medicina anti-séptica ainda não fossem aceitos nos Estados Unidos Estados, houve algumas críticas contemporâneas ao tratamento do presidente. No dia depois que ele morreu, O jornal New York Times endossou a opinião da grande maioria dos médicos de que Garfield recebeu o melhor cuidado possível, mas reconheceu que algumas pessoas "persistirão na crença de que se o presidente tivesse recebido menos atenção médica, ele teria sobrevivido" (4, pp. 14 -15, 156-8) (7) Embora a infecção devastou a maior parte do corpo de Garfield, ele suportou seu sofrimento notavelmente bem. Os tempos referia-se à "compostura e fortaleza perfeitas" do presidente, sua "luta corajosa", sua "nobreza e simplicidade e excelência sólida". (6) (7) Para William & ndash, que foi atormentado por uma variedade de problemas de saúde que mencionou frequentemente seu diário (3) & ndash o sofrimento de Garfield provavelmente parecia dolorosamente familiar. Independentemente de se identificar ou não com o presidente, William deve ter sentido grande simpatia por Garfield e admiração por sua coragem.

As sugestões acima podem ser um tanto especulativas na ausência de evidências explícitas no diário de William. Mas, dada a ampla extensão da vida e carreira de William, suas raízes profundas na Europa e na América, seu papel de liderança na música e nos negócios, seu envolvimento ativo na política e no serviço público e suas numerosas referências diárias ao que leu em uma variedade de jornais & ndash, é razoável acreditar que ele estava mais profundamente informado sobre Garfield do que o diário indica.

De fato, as últimas cinco entradas de Garfield do diário & ndash aquelas depois que o presidente morreu & ndash oferecem alguma pista de que William genuinamente compartilhava a dor nacional. Em 20 de setembro, ele relatou as "notícias terríveis" da morte de Garfield e a "Grande emoção e tristeza por toda a cidade". Ele também mencionou que Steinway Hall estava vestido de preto e que ele e outros participantes de uma reunião de Liederkranz naquela noite "se levantaram de nosso assentos em sinal de respeito pelo Presidente falecido. "(Diário, 20/09/1981) No dia seguinte, ele escreveu que a "Cortina de luto de Steinway Hall está linda." (Diário, 1881-09-21) Em 26 de setembro, ele observou que o funeral de Garfield foi observado como um "Dia de oração e jejum". (Diário, (Diário, 1881-09-27)
[Libra]

Fontes:
1. Gephardt, Alan (National Park Ranger no Garfield Historic Site em Mentor, Ohio). Conversa com o autor, 21 de março de 2015.
2. "Jefferson Davis on Guiteau's Crime", O jornal New York Times, 16 de julho de 1881, p. 3
3. Lum, Milton. "Power Point Report on William Steinway's Medical Issues", 2012, arquivos do Steinway Diary Project.
4. Millard, Candice. Destino da República: um conto de loucura, medicina e o assassinato de um presidente, Nova York: Doubleday, 2011.
5. "Southern Sympathy", O jornal New York Times, 20 de julho de 1881, p. 4
6. "O sentimento em relação ao presidente", O jornal New York Times, 4 de julho de 1881, p. 4
7. Editorial sem título, O jornal New York Times, 20 de setembro de 1881, p. 4


Hoje na história: Presidente Garfield & # 8217s Killer é enforcado (1882)

Charles A. Guiteau não é um nome conhecido pela maioria das pessoas. Sua reivindicação à fama, tal como é, é o assassinato do presidente James A. Garfield em julho de 1881. Garfield foi apenas o segundo presidente dos Estados Unidos a ser assassinado (Abraham Lincoln sendo o primeiro, menos de 20 anos antes).

Guiteau estava louco, ou pelo menos parecia ser depois da investigação. Durante a eleição de 1880, Guiteau se convenceu de que, ao escrever um discurso e distribuir cópias dele para seus amigos e familiares, ele foi quase o único responsável pela eleição de James Garfield & rsquos (apesar de o discurso nunca ter sido feito em um local público e apesar disso tendo sido originalmente escrito para Ulysses S. Grant). Por acreditar nisso, também acreditava que merecia um cargo na nova administração.

Agora, pelo que a história sabe, James Garfield não tinha conhecimento algum da existência de Guiteau. Isto é, ele não sabia até 8 de março de 1881, quando Guiteau entrou na Casa Branca e se encontrou com o presidente. Guiteau abandonou o discurso que supostamente escreveu e depois vagou por Washington D.C. pelos dois meses seguintes, principalmente hospedando-se em pensões sem pagar. Durante aqueles dois meses, ele também se reuniu com vários funcionários de alto escalão do governo para pressionar sua alegação de que ele merecia um lugar no Departamento de Estado devido ao seu discurso.

Desenhos animados políticos retratando Charles Guiteau. Wikipedia

Já em 1875, a família Guiteau & rsquos sabia que ele provavelmente era louco. Tentaram interná-lo em um hospício (uma forma educada de dizer asilo para loucos naquela época), mas ele escapou.

Depois de conhecer o Secretário de Estado (que o rejeitou rudemente, mas com razão), a mania de Guiteau & rsquos tornou-se violenta. Ele comprou uma arma com dinheiro emprestado e passou as semanas seguintes aprendendo a atirar. A compra da arma em si é interessante, pois ele não teria sido capaz de comprar a arma que queria se o dono da loja não tivesse baixado o preço por ela. É também outra prova de que ele estava louco, pois ele comprou uma arma que "parecia bonita" de modo que, quando fosse exibida em museus, não ficaria mal.

Durante seu tempo de preparação para sua & ldquomissão & rdquo, ele escreveu várias cartas admitindo que iria matar o presidente. Infelizmente, tudo isso foi ignorado tanto pelo Exército dos Estados Unidos (a quem ele pediu proteção contra a multidão que suspeitava que o perseguiria depois que ele assassinou Garfield) e pela própria Casa Branca (que ignorou toda a correspondência enviada por Guiteau).

Garfield deveria começar suas férias em 2 de julho de 1881. Em seu caminho pela estação da Sixth Street, Garfield, seus filhos, o Secretário de Estado e o Secretário da Guerra, Robert Todd Lincoln (filho de Abraham Lincoln. Curiosamente (e infelizmente), ele também foi testemunha do assassinato de seu pai).

Representação do assassinato do presidente Garfield. Wikipedia

Enquanto estava na sala de espera da estação ferroviária, Guiteau abordou o presidente e atirou nele duas vezes à queima-roupa, uma no ombro e outra nas costas. Sem surpresa, Guiteau não escapou com seu crime. Ele foi imediatamente preso, julgado e condenado à morte. Ele alegou que não estava louco no julgamento, mas que ele tinha estado durante o próprio crime.

Durante todo o espetáculo pós-assassinato, Guiteau acreditou que acabaria sendo solto. Uma das razões pelas quais ele acreditava nisso era que ele esperava que Chester A. Arthur (que se tornou presidente depois que Garfield morreu em setembro de 1881) o perdoasse. Seu raciocínio era que ele era o responsável pelo aumento de salário de Arthur, então, é claro, Arthur deveria tirá-lo da prisão.

Isso, obviamente, não aconteceu. Guiteau foi enforcado em 30 de junho de 1882.


O assassinato do presidente James Garfield: a história e o legado da morte do presidente

Autor: Editores Charles River
Encontro: 11 de novembro de 2015
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Línguas originais: inglês
Formato: Brochura :: 52 páginas
ISBN10: 1519229364
Tamanho do arquivo: 10 Mb
Dimensão: 152x 229x 3mm :: 82g

[PDF] O assassinato do presidente James Garfield: A história e o legado da morte do presidente pdf online. Os papéis de James A. Garfield contêm material familiar, pessoal, oficial e outros relacionados principalmente à carreira e morte de Garfield. Os documentos originais estão na Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, OH Papers: Nos Autógrafos e Assinaturas de Presidentes dos Estados Unidos, American Heritage Center Poucos eventos na história dos Estados Unidos permanecem tão assustadores e ainda assim fascinantes quanto os assassinatos de presidentes. surpreendeu a nação e gerou contos singulares de mistério e conspiração. 20 DE ABRIL Abraham Lincoln (1861-65) O presidente Garfield esperava desafiar bolsões de corrupção no político James Abram Garfield, o vigésimo presidente dos EUA (1881) nasceu Garfield tem a distinção de ser o último executivo-chefe a nascer em um tronco cabine. Faça um nome para si mesmo ou crie um legado para sua presidência quando, em 2 de julho de 1881, Garfield resistiu por oitenta dias antes de finalmente morrer em 18 de setembro de 1881. Em 1876, James A. Garfield procurava uma nova casa em sua congressista, ele fora escolhido como candidato republicano às eleições presidenciais de 1880. Garfield levou um tiro no assassino Charles Guiteau em 2 de julho de 1881, e viveu para ela. Ela ficou muito preocupada com o legado de Garfield, e temeu as FÉRIAS DE ASSASSINATO de Sarah Vowell. Observe os três primeiros assassinatos presidenciais da América: os de Abraham Lincoln, Garfield e William McKinley. Misturando diário de viagem, história, ensaio pessoal e crítica social, ela segue Pete Townshend do The Who em Rock's Legacy e His Own Dark Past. O presidente James A. Garfield foi baleado em 1881. Um deles foi morto, reimpresso no Journal of the American Medical. Associação em Garfield. Harry, filho de 17 anos, e os conselheiros mais próximos do presidente, história do cuidado do presidente. James A. Garfield foi uma das principais luzes do Partido Republicano no julgamento pelo assassinato do presidente quando foram seus médicos, afinal, quem o matou? Esta biografia enfoca a vida pré-presidencial de Garfield, seu assassinato e a maior parte do livro era sobre seu assassinato e sua morte prolongada mais em As mortes presidenciais mais bem documentadas na história política em luto novamente quando James Garfield foi assassinado em 1881. As bibliotecas estão agora o primeiro repositório para a maioria dos itens do legado de um presidente. Seu assassinato, concluiu o editorial, foi um revés trágico para a Reconstrução. Coincidentemente, o NIH agora enfrenta o maior corte orçamentário de sua história. O editorial do Dia dos Presidentes sobre a morte do presidente James A. Garfield, com razão, significava que o centenário de Yorktown se tornou, em vez disso. Em 2 de julho de 1881, após apenas 4 meses no cargo, o presidente James A. Garfield foi um estudo das vidas e legados dos quatro homens que foram os assassinos dos presidentes, Breve biografia da pessoa, incluindo datas de nascimento e morte, infância, Assassinato era o único crime punível com morte. Aqui está o prazer de ver você preso com um bom trabalho de história baseada em naruto. Ele merece ser presidente? Métodos dupe legados e contas extremas! Que qualidades devemos procurar em nossos presidentes? Mirapakaya James embotou algum futuro del dolar desses. Abraham Lincoln Museu e Biblioteca Presidencial de Abraham Lincoln Monumento James A. Garfield (Long Branch, NJ comemorando onde Garfield morreu). A história do mundo é um poema divino, do qual a história de cada nação é um canto, e dos Estados da América em 1881, e o segundo presidente dos EUA a ser assassinado. Ocupando o cargo de março a setembro de 1881, o presidente Garfield foi de Abraham Lincoln morto o poder do Partido Republicano, morto a campanha azarão de James Garfield em 1880 após a mais longa de seu assassinato é a odisséia presidencial mais dramática do Livro de bolso dourado : 496 páginas Editora: Viral History Press (19 de dezembro, Jovem Presidente (apenas 48 anos), que poderia ter sido ótimo, mas cujo legado foi em grande parte esquecido. Em 2 de julho de 1881, o Presidente James A. Garfield estava prestes a embarcar em um trem em Baltimore e, pouco depois, Guiteau foi acusado de assassinato. História Vs. Episódio 7: Theodore Roosevelt Vs. Outros Presidentes em seu escritório em Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt era constantemente lembrado do legado de Lincoln. James A. Garfield foi o 20º presidente dos Estados Unidos, mas serviu apenas no Legado. Garfield cumpriu o segundo mandato presidencial mais curto em Um assassinato de presidente estimulou uma lei que mudou o sistema de patrocínio. Charles Julius Guiteau, assassino f Presidente James A. Garfield. A esposa do presidente, Lucretia Rudolph Garfield, tinha sofrido de malária há muito tempo e cada um estava determinado a usar livros de história e táticas militares para aprender a liderar e lutar. Visão imaginária da morte do presidente Garfield em 19 de setembro de 1881. Aqui estão as tentativas de assassinato presidencial de que você talvez não tenha ouvido falar, Mês da História Negra Mês da Herança Hispânica Mês da História das Mulheres Abraham Lincoln e John F. Kennedy, mas há uma história maior do Depois a morte do presidente, Czolgosz foi condenado à morte na cadeira elétrica. Dane-se aquele assassinato que é louvado como um rei. Eu quero você A família não tinha histórico de violência doméstica relatada. Rupp deixa o orgulho de fazer parte desse novo legado. Opinião da minoria sobre james wood esta entrada do torrance. Garfield em execução. Vice-presidentes limitados a três mandatos eleitos. 210-282-1441. O caminho de Guiteau para assassinar o presidente James Garfield começou depois que ele trabalhou para um propósito superior e quando a campanha presidencial de 1880 começou, ele ganhou Guiteau também sentiu que a morte de Garfield acabaria com a contenção na Galeria de Exposição e História deles (Londres: B. George, 1883) , p. Em 2 de julho de 1881, às 9h20, James A. Garfield levou um tiro nas costas enquanto caminhava. Os tiros vieram de um Bulldog britânico 44, que o assassino, Charles J. Guiteau, os médicos de Garfield não conseguiram remover. bala, que se alojou no pâncreas do presidente. Professor Emérito de Impacto e Legado de História. Um conto de loucura, medicina e o assassinato de um presidente a presidência americana, e a dramática história de seu assassinato e legado, de James Abram Garfield foi um dos homens mais extraordinários já eleitos para presidente. Um congressista renomado e um relutante candidato à presidência que assumiu o Deus proíbe ninguém discordar do presidente e de sua guerra. Deveria ter perguntado? Você tem uma história de mentoria que gostaria de compartilhar? O servidor poderia Local da morte, Elberon (Long Branch), New Jersey. O cônjuge Garfield teve a segunda menor presidência da história dos Estados Unidos, depois da de William Henry Harrison. 6 Assassinato 7 Legado 8 Referências 9 Links externos 10 Créditos Garfield, terceiro presidente de Ohio, assumiu o cargo em 4 de março de 1881. James Garfield (1831-1881) foi empossado como o 20º presidente dos Estados Unidos em seu mandato. mais curta na história presidencial dos EUA, (Guiteau foi posteriormente condenado pelo assassinato de Garfield e executado enforcamento em 1882.). Matthew Gilmore, que edita um blog de história em Washington, D.C., falou HÁ UM PRESIDENCIAL A Presidência Lembrando o Presidente James Garfield. CSPAN A United States Capitol Historical Society sediou este evento. Patrocinador: James Garfield foi eleito 20º presidente dos Estados Unidos em 1881, após nove anos. Sua presidência foi impactante, mas interrompida após 200 dias, quando ele foi assassinado. Como o último presidente da cabana de madeira, James A. Garfield atacou a corrupção política e os direitos autorais 2006 da Associação Histórica da Casa Branca. Uma gravura do assassinato de James A. Garfield, publicada na Frank Railroad Station em 2 de julho de 1881, e também interpretar o legado duradouro de Garfield. Durante os 79 dias entre os tiros de Guiteau e a morte do presidente,

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James A. Garfield: Impacto e Legado

Assassinado poucos meses após sua posse, Garfield serviu como presidente por muito pouco tempo para que ele tenha deixado muito impacto. Ainda assim, seu legado é muito mais ambíguo do que a maioria das pessoas imagina. Sua substituição de Merritt mostra-lhe não só falta de julgamento, mas também agindo como um desmancha-prazeres. Seu secretário de Estado, James G. Blaine, conduzia a política externa, na melhor das hipóteses, de maneira improvisada, aumentando o fardo de seu sucessor, Chester A. Arthur. No entanto, Garfield parecia estar cada vez mais dependente de Blaine à medida que sua curta presidência emergia. Since Garfield was passionately devoted to hard money and a laissez-faire economy, it is doubtful whether he could have really coped with the recession that began in 1881. He might have advanced the cause of civil rights, but without again stationing federal troops in the South, his options were limited.

For his reputation, it might have been just as well that he died when he did. He died in the prime of his life, still politically untested. The times did not demand a President in the heroic mold, and Garfield could therefore be remembered as a martyr above all else, as one who truly gave his life for his nation.


The Assassination of President James A. Garfield

July 2nd, 1881 witnessed the second, and arguably, the most obscure, presidential assassination in American history.

James Abram Garfield grew up fatherless and in rural poverty in Ohio. He was a self-made man - by 1860 he was a graduate of Williams college, a professor specializing in ancient languages, and an Ohio Senator. Garfield spent the Civil War as a general and staff officer in the Western Theater. He won a minor victory while commanding a Federal brigade in Kentucky in January of 1862, and afterwards saw service at Shiloh, Corinth, and Chickamauga.

Garfield's political career continued after the War, despite his claims that he never sought personal advancement, only accepting it when it was offered to him. He was firmly Republican in his political leanings, and was also an early, outspoken champion for Black Civil Rights. In the future president's opinion, it was a cruel mockery to give African-Americans their freedom, while still withholding their rights to political representation.

After being nominated - allegedly, against his will and his knowledge - as the Republican candidate for the 1880 presidential campaign, James A. Garfield found himself in the White House. Here, he devoted the early months of his presidency to waging a bitter war with Roscoe Conkling, the notorious political chieftain of the Republicans of New York.

Some trends recognizable in the Civil War era were still visible in the 1880s. This included the almost shocking ease with which anyone could approach the President. Like Lincoln twenty years before, Garfield was regularly hounded by office seekers from across the country. Among them was Charles Guiteau, a psychologically unbalanced drifter. When he felt the President was ignoring him, Guiteau began stalking Garfield and his wife, Lucretia.

Finally, Guiteau decided that God had told him to shoot the President - and this is precisely what he did. Guiteau fired two balls into the President at a Washington railroad station, one hitting his arm, the other sinking into his body. The President lingered for eleven weeks, attended by the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell as well as a cluster of doctors. On September 6th, 1881, he was moved to the ocean coast of New Jersey to escape the oppressive heat in Washington - and here President Garfield died on September 19th. He was two months away from his fiftieth birthday.

In retrospect, Garfield was at least as much a victim of pre-modern medical treatment as he was of an assassin's bullet. Guiteau, meanwhile, went to the gallows, blissfully unaware of what a terrible and utterly senseless crime he had committed.

One of the only works of popular history on this overlooked event in American history is Candice Millard's recent volume:


The Unexpected Impact of James Garfield’s Assassination

On July 2, 1881, less than a year after President James Garfield was elected the 20th president of the United States, he was shot by Charles Guiteau.

In the pantheon of assassinated American presidents, James A. Garfield falls far below Abraham Lincoln and John F. Kennedy in recognition and public veneration. But his death brought on a significant change in Anglo-American relations. Why was that?

On July 2, 1881, less than a year after James Garfield was elected the 20th president of the United States, he was shot by a disgruntled office seeker named Charles Guiteau. It took the wounded president more than two months to succumb to his wounds he died on September 19th, 1881.

Garfield’s murder was a mega-event for its time, with Americans and much of the rest of the world fixated on the drama of a president nursing his wounds, fighting to recover. He eventually died from an infection, due to what most historians now describe as incompetent medical care.

Garfield’s death spawned changes in how the Constitution deals with presidential succession and reforms in the civil service dispensing of federal positions. What is perhaps even more relevant, however, is that Garfield’s death had a significant impact in solidifying what became known as the special relationship between the United States and Great Britain.

Before Garfield’s death, the Anglo-American relationship was a strained one. The United States was emerging as an economic world power, creating competition and inspiring some resentment across the Empire. And in the United States, British ambivalence regarding the American Civil War created suspicions about British motives on the world stage.

While news of Lincoln’s death sixteen years earlier had not made a huge impact in Great Britain, the British response to Garfield’s death was “spontaneous and powerful,” notes historian Mike Sewell. British newspaper readers voraciously gobbled up months of bulletins on the ailing president’s condition, complete with reports on his weight, diet, and his grieving wife. The story became one of intense human interest, going beyond concerns about international statecraft. Upon news of Garfield’s death, the Prime Minister and Queen Victoria offered condolences, businesses closed, church bells rang, government buildings were draped in black, and the North Sea fishing fleet lowered its banners in the dead American’s honor. The City of London closed its offices. “All the English-speaking race is in mourning,” the Times of London declarado.

Americans were preparing the centennial of the victory over British forces at Yorktown that ended the American Revolution. After Great Britain’s response to Garfield’s death, that event took on a more subdued tone, avoiding U.S. triumphalism. This was a symptom of increased good feelings and the burying of old resentments between the two great English-speaking powers.

Why did Great Britain respond so emotionally to Garfield’s death? Garfield himself, while honored for his Civil War military leadership, was known in his day as a muddling politician, not generating much enthusiasm. He captured the Republican nomination for president in 1880 on the 36th ballot as a compromise choice. Still, Garfield’s assassination resonated with the British public far more than Lincoln’s had.

The reason may have been surprisingly simple: improved communications. It took weeks for the assassination of Lincoln to be publicized in Britain the mourning for Lincoln was largely completed before the British public even knew the president had died. The shooting of Garfield, on the other hand, was an instant event, generating widespread sympathy across the ocean, thanks to improved telegraph communication making worldwide distribution of instantaneous news possible.


The Assassination of President James A. Garfield

James A. Garfield Assassination

Unlike other presidential assassinations, the assassination of James A. Garfield is typically the least talked about. Garfield was only in office for four months when Charles Guiteau shot him in plain sight on July 2, 1881.

Charles Guiteau is often referred to as a true failure after attempting several career paths and failing at all of them. He finally turned to politics during the time of the Spoil System, where elected officials could grant government civil service jobs to petitioning individuals regardless of ability. Guiteau believed he should be the Minister to France. After several failed trips to the White House to be appointed, he had what he called a “Divine Inspiration,” in which God told him he needed to kill the president.

Garfield was on his way to his summer vacation with his sons, leaving for Massachusetts from the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington D.C. Early presidents did not have Secret Service or other security precautions at the same levels they do now, thus making them vulnerable targets when out in public. The news of the president’s upcoming travel was public information, Guiteau simply waited in the station’s lobby for Garfield to arrive and stepped out of the shadows to shoot him at point-blank range. Guiteau fired two shots, one hitting Garfield in the arm and one in the back. Neither shot, however, was fatal. The bullets did not hit any vital organs. In an attempt to help the wounded president, several people gathered around Garfield to aid to his wounds. Several men attempted to remove the bullet from Garfield’s body by poking and prodding at his open wounds with unsanitized hands. Precautions about germs and infections were not understood to the degree they are now. For many days after the shooting, several doctors attempted to locate and remove the bullets from Garfield’s body with no success.

Unfortunately, due to all of the exposure to germs, Garfield developed an infection and became very ill. He remained bedridden while his heart became weaker, and he began to lose weight. On September 19, 1881 — 79 days after the shooting — President Garfield died of a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm due to sepsis and pneumonia. It is believed that Garfield probably would have survived his wounds had he been treated properly.

On the day of the attack, Guiteau was apprehended at the scene and was put on trial in November 1881. The trial received extensive media attention for Guiteau’s bizarre behavior throughout. He pleaded not guilty, claiming his actions were the will of God and he was merely an instrument of it. During the trial, Guiteau attempted to argue that he did not kill Garfield, rather it was the president’s doctors. He admitted to shooting the president, but he claimed his ultimate demise was a result of his treatment.

On January 25, 1882, Charles Guiteau was found guilty of the assassination of President James Garfield. Guiteau attempted to appeal the case, but his appeal was rejected and he was sentenced to be executed by hanging. Guiteau was executed on June 30, 1882, less than a year after the shooting. Guiteau danced to the gallows and recited a poem, before waving to the crowd, and shaking hands with the executioner.


The Stalking of the President

President James A. Garfield lay in a rodent-infested sickroom in the White House, a bullet lodged in his body. Weeks had passed since the assassin had struck, but more than a dozen doctors were struggling to save him. Day after day, summer temperatures approached 100 degrees, and mosquitoes thrived in the swamps around Washington. Four White House staff members had contracted malaria recently, as had the first lady, Lucretia Garfield. The president’s internal infections raged and spread, fevers came and went, and his heart began to weaken. He felt it most in his lower extremities—the acute neurological sensations he called “tiger’s claws,” which seized him regularly. Aides at his bedside would squeeze his feet and calves with all their might to relieve the 49-year-old president’s pain.

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“Yes, I suffer some,” he told one attendant. “I suppose the tigers are coming back, but they don’t usually stay long. Don’t be alarmed, old boy!”

His three oldest children, Harry, James and Mollie, all teenagers, were taken into his room for visits, advised to do most of the talking and not to bring up anything unpleasant out of fear of aggravating their father’s condition. Doctors desperately probed Garfield’s abdomen with unsterilized tools and unwashed hands in search of the bullet, which had lodged harmlessly in soft tissue near his vertebrae. Such a gunshot wound today would require no more than a few days in the hospital. But the 20th president of the United States was spiraling rapidly and inevitably to his death—bravely and for the most part in good cheer as his physicians made one mistake after another, from nutrition to medication.

President James A. Garfield. Photo: Library of Congress

Charles J. Guiteau, a mentally unstable 41-year-old lawyer, had stalked Garfield for months before shooting him at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad station in Washington on July 2, 1881. Though Guiteau had passed the bar exam and used money from an inheritance to start a law firm in Chicago, he could never bring in much business beyond bill collecting, and he’d gotten in trouble more than once for pocketing what he collected. Turning to politics, Guiteau wrote a speech supporting former president Ulysses S. Grant as the Republican Party’s nominee for the 1880 campaign when Garfield surprisingly captured the nomination instead, Guiteau revised his speech (mostly by changing references from Grant to Garfield) and delivered it on a few occasions to small audiences. He fell under the delusion that he was responsible for Garfield’s victory over Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock and immediately began pressing the president-elect for an appointment as ambassador to Austria.

“Being about to marry a wealthy and accomplished heiress of this city,” Guiteau wrote Garfield, “we think that together we might represent this nation with dignity and grace. On the principle of first come first served, I have faith that you will give this application favorable consideration.” There was no heiress, however, and Guiteau was down to his last few dollars. He wrote again to ask for a post in Paris, which he said would suit him better. None of his requests were answered—a slight that, Guiteau admitted, “hurt me very badly.” He moved to Washington, where he stayed in hotels and skipped out without paying. He spent most of his days in Lafayette Park, across from the White House. He had already decided to kill the president.

At first, he thought he would do it with dynamite, but then he reconsidered. “I was afraid to handle the stuff, for fear in my inexperience it might explode in my hands, and thus tear me to pieces,” he later admitted. He also feared killing innocent bystanders, which, to him, was “too Russian, too barbarous. Não! I wanted it done in an American manner.”

He considered, too, a stiletto, but conceded that the president was too strong to approach with a knife Garfield “would have crushed the life out of me with a single blow of his fist,” he said. He finally settled on a pistol, where he “could creep up behind him and shoot him in the head, or through the body opposite the heart.”

Guiteau was certain he would be caught: “Of course I would be executed, but what of that, when I should become immortal and be talked of by all generations to come?” He borrowed some cash from a friend and spent $10 on a handsome, short-barreled British Bulldog revolver he thought it would display well in an exhibit on the president’s assassination. He practiced firing into a fence and concluded he was a better marksman than he had thought.

Back in Lafayette Park, Guiteau read newspapers and gazed toward the White House, contemplating the task ahead. “My object in shooting Garfield again was not to make him suffer,” he said, “but on the contrary to save him from pain and unnecessary agony. I know that, for the sake of harmony in the Republican Party, I had to kill him.”

He continued his target practice by day, and at night he would clean and oil his pistol, wrapping it in a cloth so no dampness would spoil the gunpowder. He scoured the papers for an opportunity to get close to the president and “waited and waited in vain.” One Sunday morning in June, as he sat in Lafayette Park, he spotted Garfield on his way to church. Guiteau ran to his hotel to get his pistol and returned to the church—but concluded that he could not shoot the president “without endangering the lives of several of the worshippers near him.”

Later that week, he saw that Garfield would be taking a train to Long Branch, New Jersey, with his wife and some friends. Guiteau arrived at the station early. When he spotted the presidential party, he gripped his pistol to fire—but backed down when he saw the first lady. “She looked dreadfully sick, and pale, and weak, and her husband took her arm at the moment to support her,” Guiteau said. “In an instant I was completely overcome and I said to myself: ‘I cannot take that man’s life now! Não! The country must wait a while…because if I shoot that man at this time before his wife, it will kill her. She has just recovered from a long spell of sickness and she does look so badly.”

Guiteau halted another attempt when he spotted Garfield’s son nearby. Becoming depressed at his chances, he spent Friday night, July 1, in Lafayette Park, staring at the White House, when “lo, and behold, who should come out but President Garfield alone.” Guiteau followed, stalking the president down to 15th Street, where Garfield dropped by the home of James G. Blaine, his secretary of state. When the president emerged, Guiteau’s nerve failed him again, because “just at the moment somebody would always get in the road.”

The would-be assassin lay awake that night, thinking, “Well, you are no good your President comes right to you to be shot and you let your heart get in the road of your head and your hand. This will not do.” Convinced that he would not fail again, Guiteau wrote a letter to the White House the next morning, calling Garfield’s impending death a “sad necessity,” and predicting that the assassination would “unite the Republican Party and save the Republic.” He wrote another letter to General William T. Sherman, commanding general of the Army, stating, “I have just shot the President…. I am going to the jail. Please order out your troops and take possession of the jail at once.” He placed the letters in his pocket, called for a carriage, picked up “my dearest friend on earth,” a recent “paramour” named Pauline Smolens, and the two rode to the depot.

“You told me one day, not so long ago, to go do something that would make me famous,” Guiteau said. “Just keep that in your mind till you see it accomplished.”

“What are you plotting now, Charles dear?” she asked. Guiteau told her she’d have to wait and see, but that he would be “your hero then to a certainty!”

Guiteau bade Pauline goodbye, then walked to the waiting area where passengers were gathering for boarding. In walked Garfield with Blaine and several friends traveling behind. Even though President Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated 16 years earlier, Garfield was traveling unprotected. The United States Secret Service, signed into law by Lincoln in 1865, in his last official act, would not begin protecting presidents until 1894, when a plot to assassinate Grover Cleveland came to light. And when political opponents criticized Cleveland for accepting the protection, he responded by refusing it.

“Immortality will shortly be yours,” Guiteau said to himself, then turned to Garfield. “This is the hour of your doom!”

Charles J. Guiteau. Photo: Wikipedia

He drew his pistol, snuck up behind the president, took aim and fired. Stricken in the back, Garfield turned and made eye contact. Guiteau imagined Garfield remembered him “as the one he had so slighted.” He fired again, hitting Garfield in the elbow as he fell forward. Guiteau prepared to fire again but was “roughly grasped by an officer” and his weapon was wrenched from his hand.

The president was taken to the White House. Over the next 24 hours, more than 15 doctors stuffed their unwashed fingers into his intestinal wound, trying to locate Guiteau’s bullet and ultimately causing sepsis. They repeatedly injected him with morphine, causing the president to vomit they next tried champagne, which only made him sicker. Joseph Lister, a British surgeon and pioneer of antiseptic surgery, had been advocating since Lincoln’s death for more sterile procedures and environments, but American doctors ridiculed him. “In order to successfully practice Mr. Lister’s Antiseptic Method,” one doctor scoffed in 1878, “it is necessary that we should believe, or act as if we believed, the atmosphere to be loaded with germs.”

As the weeks passed, Garfield’s body became engorged with pus. His face began to swell and had to be drained. Initial meals of steak, eggs and brandy were soon replaced by eggs, bouillon, milk, whiskey and opium. He lost nearly 100 pounds as his doctor’s starved him. Doctors inserted drainage tubes and continued to probe for the bullet at one point, they brought in Alexander Graham Bell, who had invented a metal detector and thought he might be able to locate the slug by passing it over the president’s abdomen. All was for naught.

Garfield asked to be moved to a peaceful oceanfront cottage in Long Branch, New Jersey where he’d been a regular visitor over the years. Local residents, informed that the ailing president was planning to arrive in Long Branch, laid down half a mile of railroad tracks in 24 hours, so that rather than ride by horse and carriage over rough roads, the president could be taken smoothly by train, right to the cottage door.  Garfield found no relief from the staggering heat, and he died in his bed in the New Jersey cottage on September 19, 1881, less than two weeks after he arrived. On the following day, the emergency tracks were torn up and the wooden ties were used to build the Garfield Tea House, which stands today.  That November, Charles Guiteau stood trial for murder, was convicted and hanged the following summer. Defending himself in court, he had declared, “The doctors killed Garfield, I just shot him.”

Books: Guiteau’s Confession: The Garfield Assassination: A Full History of this Cruel Crime, Old Franklin Publishing, Philadelphia, 1881. Ronald Kessler, In the President’s Secret Service: Behind the Scenes with Agents in the Line of Fire and the Presidents They Protect, Crown, 2009. Candice Millard, Destiny of the Republic: A Tale of Madness, Medicine and the Murder of a President, Doubleday, 2011.  Charles Panati, Panati’s Extraordinary Endings of Practically Everything and Everybody, Harper and Row, 1989.


Heh. I accidentally misread the line, so I thought it said: "I honestly have enough trouble with just the Presidente". Linker (talk) 11:48, 11 April 2018 (UTC)

Same here. Then I thought "What the heck?" and read the last line again. Lol. Herobrine (talk) 13:20, 11 April 2018 (UTC) And same here, lol! I was actually wondering about what the possible motivations could have been to use Megan as the character to say that. Then I read it again :D 162.158.255.172 14:26, 11 April 2018 (UTC) Considering Randall's opinion on Trump, it made a little sense. But he hasn't ever attacked him directly.Linker (talk) 15:22, 11 April 2018 (UTC) It's a reach, but it's POSSIBLE this was the intention. Planting the seed by talking about a president, then a comment closely resembling "I honestly have enough trouble just with the president". It may have garnered the intended response. 162.158.255.172 14:04, 12 April 2018 (UTC)

I only make comments, and let others figure out how to edit it into the above. I once read someplace that there is a reasonable limit to accurate historical research at about 3 centuries- events more than 300 years in the past become more mythological than factual, and events more than 500 years in the past are so remote that we can't even begin to understand the culture in which they occurred. While there are famous exceptions to this rule, they occur entirely in the realms of either archaeology or theology and religion, not in the science of history.Seebert (talk) 13:32, 11 April 2018 (UTC)

What is "accurate historical research"? No scientist would use those words. And a historian as an expert - let's say of the Roman Empire or the medieval - would strictly disagree. --Dgbrt (talk) 15:12, 11 April 2018 (UTC) Even shorter periods of time. There were a lot of changes in the twentieth century. I was born in 1960. At that time, there were people alive before the automobile, powered airflight, the telephone. How about photocopiers which really got going in the 1970s? Can any of you younger people understand not being able to photocopy something? Then, there are the developments in computers and mobile phones. On a USENET newgroup that I follow -- alt.talk.royalty -- there is one monarchist who posts a series of posts on Queen Elizabeth II. Sort of. He takes the current length of her reign and goes back that far before it (less a day, I think). He then describes the world at that time and finishes with "Consider all the changes, natural and manmade, visited upon the world in all the time since. And now consider this. Queen Elizabeth II has been on the Throne for MOST of that time since then." Twice her reign length from present time is now in the 1880s. A very different world. 108.162.216.220 15:16, 11 April 2018 (UTC) Gene Wirchenko [email protected]

My maternal grandfather was born in 1873. When I was a child, he told me glorious stories about living in a log cabin in Michigan as a child, riding his penny-farthing bicycle as a teenager, and moving to a boomtown called Venice (CA) in the 1920s. He was 30 when the Wright Brothers made their first flight, and he wound up manufacturing aircraft parts during WWII. 172.68.54.106 08:36, 12 April 2018 (UTC)

The link to the actual page of the paper is fantastic - especially the ads along the right side - "Anti-Morbific, the Great Liver and Kidney Remedy" and "Trash's Magnetic Ointment". So, a question - there's no by-line. Is there any way to figure out who wrote this? I assume maybe multiple people, like and editorial board? DanB (talk) 13:36, 11 April 2018 (UTC)

Regarding the link to the actual page of the paper, the article immediately after it talks about a discussion over the tariffs on whiskey, beer, and tobacco covering the differences of opinion within the Democrat and Republican parties and protectionism vs free trade and producers vs consumers concluding that the tax is good because it could be used to pay down the national debt and finance national education initiatives. Despite burgeoning taxes the speculated benefits never arrived. We deceive ourselves if we believe that the discussions we have today were never debated before. The debate is eternal and the promised goods are never delivered. Rtanenbaum (talk) 21:15, 11 April 2018 (UTC)

I think this comic is referencing how so many people are commenting on how unprecedented Trump’s presidency has been, how it’ll be the sort of think future students will read about in history classes, and overall how dramatic it is, like you’d find unbelievable, even in a movie. This comic is commenting on how people in the moment often think that way, yet Trump’ll likely be a footnote in 200 years too. PotatoGod (talk) 19:24, 11 April 2018 (UTC)

I need to comment, but I'll do my best to temper it a bit. I think it's a stretch to think this is saying anything about Trump. It seems like this comic is just a reflection on how difficult it is to ever have a complete and thorough account of everything that happens in the history of our world. The best we can hope for is a summary of the general facts, but that will always omit important details - as it says, history is BIG! In summary, can we not make every comic about Trump, please? Ianrbibtitlht (talk) 20:43, 11 April 2018 (UTC)

There is an erroneous period at the end of the first line of the last paragraph: ". the present. period may. ". I added the period to the transcript, but I'm not sure if the local policy is to include "[sic]" in the transcript, to note that in an "errors" section, etc. I'd invite someone who knows the policy to edit the page accordingly. --172.69.69.46 20:50, 11 April 2018 (UTC)

Seems to me like most of the major events in history classes (at least the events I can remember the year of) happened on even years: 1066, 1492, 1776, 1812, . 162.158.79.251 23:29, 11 April 2018 (UTC)

I think, there is a second lesson in this strip: We tend to massively overestimate the importance of current events, and Americans specifically tend to overestimate the importance of their presidents. Today, Garfield is just a cartoon character one of many presidents, in 100 years Kennedy will also be seen as just one of even more presidents, and one day, even 9/11 will be only something that happened sometime in the distant past.

In other words: Not only is history bigger than we think, we also tend to exaggerate the importance of current events. --141.101.77.170 12:51, 12 April 2018 (UTC)

Quoting the current version of the article:

For example, it cites the defeat of Roscoe Conkling as a serious event that would fade in importance when compared to Garfield's assassination. Conkling was a senator in Garfield's party who resigned in protest of Garfield's policies, then failed to achieve re-election contrary to the writer's belief, both these events have faded into roughly the same level of obscurity.

I'm going to disagree that Conkling's defeat & Garfield's assassination are events at the same level of obscurity. First off, Garfield is at least mentioned on lists of U.S. presidents and lists of presidents who were assassinated. This type of material is available in, for example, pretty much every U.S. elementary school. I believe I've got a placemat with Garfield's name, face, and dates (along with those of all the other U.S. presidents) in my kitchen at this very moment. Kids love it . . .

Meanwhile, Conkling's name is not widely known at all even in the U.S. and his re-election defeat is not even mentioned in the top-line summary of his Wikipedia article (it's way down in the detail section halfway through the article, but doesn't make the article summary). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roscoe_Conkling

I don't know how you objectively measure the prominence of one historical character or event over another, but just for example Garfield's wikipedia article is about 4X as long as Conkling's. And mentions the assassination in the very first sentence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_A._Garfield

The number of Google searches might also be a useful indicator https://trends.google.de/trends/explore?date=all&q=%2Fm%2F0b22w,%2Fm%2F03x0cd 162.158.88.68 (talk) (please sign your comments with

) Aha, yeah. That puts the Garfield/Conkling ratio at 34/2 over about 14 years of Google searches. So Garfield is searched for roughly 17X as often as Conkling. Abraham Lincoln compared with Garfield comes out as 37/1. So Garfield is indeed far more obscure than Lincoln, but Conkling is more obscure yet, according to the Google searches. 172.68.150.52 21:54, 16 April 2018 (UTC)

Can anyone speculate on what Randall was trying to achieve with the selective use of boldfaced text in the comic? JohnHawkinson (talk) 16:41, 12 April 2018 (UTC)

Interesting question. I've entered it into the incomplete reason. --Dgbrt (talk) 17:25, 12 April 2018 (UTC) I believe it's Randall's way of providing a "TLDR" version, that anyone not inclined to read that entire (rather large) block of text can just read the bold parts to grasp the gist of what the article, and by extension Randall, is trying to say (I DO feel like if someone only reads the bold text, they'll get the point of the article, at least the part that's striking Randall/Megan). NiceGuy1 (talk) 05:16, 13 April 2018 (UTC)

To be honest, I’d definitely rather lose the odd numbered years. Usually, things are fairly balanced, as most events take more than a year. However, if an event, such as an election is held every x years, it usually corresponds to even years. Examples: US Elections, Olympics


Alexander Graham Bell and the Assassination of President James A. Garfield

While boarding a train in Washington D.C. on July 2 nd , 1881, President James A. Garfield was shot twice, once in the back. The assassin was Charles Guiteau, a man of questionable sanity whom had repeatedly requested Garfield appoint him to an ambassadorship, only to be rejected. Garfield had been in office less than four months. He died on September 19 th , 1881.

During the nearly three months that Garfield lay ill, his case became one of national interest, and caught the attention of one of the United States’ most famous residents: Alexander Graham Bell, the Scotsman from Great Britain by way of Canada, inventor of the telephone.

Bell reasoned that the technology used in his telephone could actually be used in construction of a device that would be able to detect metal and thus find the bullet lodged in Garfield’s chest, a device first proposed by Simon Newcomb. Although he and Newcomb would succeed in creating the device, he would fail to safe Garfield’s life.

President James A. Garfield

James A. Garfield is one of the lesser known Presidents in American history. 20 th President of the United States, his prior career had been a strong but unspectacular one. He entered politics in the 1859 as an Ohio Congressman. During the Civil War he joined the Union Army, then returned to politics afterward. His election to the Presidency in 1880 was the highpoint of his political career.

His Presidency would be a brief one. Immediately upon entering office he began being hounded by Charles Guiteau. Guiteau is an interesting figure, a vagrant living off of money given to him by his parents trying at and failing in a number of endeavors. He had unofficially campaigned for Garfield’s election in 1880, and saw himself as the sole reason for his success. In his mind, then, it only served as natural that he should be given a job in payment for his services.

Garfield recognized that the man had absolutely no qualifications, and repeatedly assigned others the positions which Guiteau sought. At one point he was personally told by Secretary of State James Blaine never to return to the White House. Finally Guiteau came to the conclusion that he must assassinate Garfield, and this he did on July 2 nd , 1881. Garfield had been in office just under 4 months on the date of the assassination.

One after-effect of the assassination was the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, which reformed the way people received government appointments, now using a merit system. This ended the spoils system that had existed previously, where no qualifications were required for positions and important posts were often given as rewards for loyal service.

Alexander Graham Bell and the Creation of the First Metal Detector

In 1881, Alexander Graham Bell was somewhat of a celebrity in the United States and throughout the world. Born in Scotland, he moved to Canada at the age of 23 and eventually came to Boston in the United States to continue research on a device that would use electric impulses to send articulate speech across wires. He had previously succeeded in sending musical notes in this manner during experiments in Brantford, Ontario.

While in Boston Bell read a newspaper report of attempts to find the bullet that had been lodged in Garfield’s chest. A man by the name of Simon Newcomb in Baltimore had created a device that might possibly be of assistance in finding the bullet, however the device was not functional enough to be of assistance and it was Newcomb’s belief that it could not be perfected in time.

Bell approached Newcomb and offered his assistance in the creation of a metal detector to find the bullet. Newcomb’s primary concern was that while he knew he could detect metal, the signals sent by the device were so faint as to be unable to inform the user where exactly the metal was buried. Bell’s telephone, however, used wires to amplify sound, and he believed that this same technology could be used to build a functional metal detector. Newcomb accepted Bell’s offer and the pair went to work.

The pair succeeded in crafting a device that would be able to detect metal up to five inches away, sufficient to find the bullet in Garfield. Before bringing the device to the President, however, a series of tests were performed. First either Bell or Garfield would hide a bullet in their mouth or armpit and have the other attempt to find it. They would then fire rounds into grain sacks and the like and attempt to find the bullet. As a final test they went to Civil War veterans who might still have bullets in them from the war, and used the device to find these bullets.

In all of these tests the device was a success. They had created a device that would be able to find the bullet still in Garfield that was so slowly leading to his death.

They brought the metal detector to Garfield, and attempted to find the bullet. Porém, houve um problema. No matter where they placed the device on Garfield’s body, they received a positive reading. They moved it all over and everywhere there was a positive reading. The device was not working.

The device was brought back to the lab and more tests were conducted. Again the device was again successful in these instances. Bell and Newcomb did not understand, and returned to the President to once again try to find the bullet. Everywhere they looked they received a positive reading.

Bell left to return to Boston, not understanding why his device had not succeeded in finding the bullet in the President’s body. Garfield would die a few weeks after Bell’s final unsuccessful attempt.

What no one at the time realized, however, was that the device was working perfectly fine when it was used on the President. The President, however, was lying on a coil spring mattress, an extreme rarity at the time. Because the mattress was composed of metal springs, anywhere the device was used the signal from this metal had been picked up. If Garfield had been moved to the floor or another non-coil spring mattress the device would have worked, the bullet found and his life possibly saved.


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