Batalha de Belmont, 7 de novembro de 1861

Batalha de Belmont, 7 de novembro de 1861

Batalha de Belmont, 7 de novembro de 1861

Uma pequena batalha no início da Guerra Civil Americana que deu a U.S. Grant sua primeira experiência de comando no campo de batalha. No início da guerra, Kentucky tentou permanecer neutro. Por algum tempo, ambos os lados respeitaram isso, na esperança de que a paciência trouxesse Kentucky para o seu lado. A opinião no estado era muito equilibrada entre o norte e o sul, portanto, qualquer movimento provocativo poderia ter inclinado a balança.

No final, foram os confederados os primeiros a piscar. Foi o controle do Mississippi que os fez se mover. As forças da União pareciam estar se reunindo mais ao norte, em preparação para um deslocamento ao longo do rio. O general Leônidas Polk, comandando as forças confederadas na área, decidiu que precisava ocupar Columbus, Kentucky, uma cidade nas alturas de comando na margem leste do rio. Em 3 de setembro, suas tropas entraram no Kentucky, chegando a Columbus no dia seguinte.

Sua mudança foi prematura. As forças da União estavam se reunindo, mas seus comandantes não tinham planos imediatos de mover-se para o sul. Seus primeiros movimentos significativos na área aconteceriam no início do ano seguinte e iriam para o leste. No entanto, a ação de Polk mudou fortemente a opinião em Kentucky em direção ao Sindicato. Sua ação foi denunciada como uma invasão do estado, e foi solicitada ajuda federal. O general U.S. Grant, comandante federal em Cairo, a cidade mais ao sul de Illinois, enviou uma guarnição para Paducah, no norte de Kentucky e perto do rio Tennessee.

Embora os acontecimentos em Kentucky tenham ocorrido lentamente, do outro lado do rio no Missouri, o mesmo não era verdade. No final do verão de 1861, uma campanha significativa já havia sido travada no estado e outra estava em andamento. No início de novembro, começaram a chegar aos comandantes da União relatórios de que Polk enviaria reforços de Columbus para o Missouri, para ajudar o general Stirling Price. Os rumores não eram verdadeiros, mas U.S. Grant recebeu a ordem de fazer uma manifestação em direção a Columbus para evitar tal movimento.

Grant só foi capaz de colocar em campo uma força de 3.000 homens. Em 6 de novembro, ele mudou-se para seis milhas de Columbus. Até agora, ele não tinha intenção de buscar uma batalha. No entanto, seus homens já estavam ficando inquietos com a falta de ação, e Grant começou a sentir que precisava dar a eles uma chance de lutar. Ele então soube de um acampamento confederado em Belmont, em frente a Columbus, na margem do rio Missouri. Este era um campo de observação - uma simples precaução contra a Cisjordânia ser apreendida pelas forças da União, contendo um único regimento de Infantaria em 6 de novembro. Grant, entretanto, suspeitou que este acampamento poderia ser uma base para os reforços que ele acreditava estarem sendo enviados para o oeste, e decidiu atacar aquele acampamento.

Na manhã de 7 de novembro, Grant desembarcou seus homens na costa do Missouri, cinco milhas ao norte de Belmont, e começou a marchar para o sul. Avisado sobre esse movimento, Polk decidiu reforçar a força em Belmont, elevando-a para pouco mais de 3.000 homens no momento em que a luta começou. O resto de sua força ele manteve na margem leste, ainda esperando um ataque a Colombo.

A luta começou às 10h30. Nas quatro horas seguintes, os confederados foram lentamente forçados a voltar para o acampamento e, em seguida, voltaram para a margem do rio. Agora as coisas começaram a dar errado para os homens de Grant. Ao chegar ao acampamento inimigo, eles descobriram que os confederados em retirada haviam se abrigado na base da margem íngreme do rio, onde foram protegidos pelos canhões de Colombo. Por algum tempo, a disciplina foi perdida enquanto os homens saqueavam o acampamento confederado.

Os confederados aparentemente derrotados aproveitaram-se disso para deslizar para o norte ao longo da margem do rio, emergindo de volta em um terreno mais alto entre os homens de Grant e seus barcos. Ao mesmo tempo, Polk estava enviando mais homens para o outro lado do rio, tendo finalmente percebido que o ataque de Grant não era uma finta.

Por um momento, as coisas pareceram sombrias para Grant. Vendo-se cercados, alguns dos oficiais de Grant sugeriram rendição. Grant, no entanto, via as coisas de forma diferente - como ele disse "nós cortamos nossa entrada e poderíamos cortar nossa saída da mesma forma". Ele estava certo. Seus homens estavam agora de volta ao controle e facilmente romperam as linhas confederadas entre eles e seus barcos (embora um regimento se separou do exército principal e teve que marchar muito mais ao norte antes de encontrar transportes adequados).

Belmont era uma espécie de empate. Grant perdeu 607 homens (120 mortos, 383 feridos e 104 capturados ou desaparecidos), Polk um pouco mais com 641 homens (105 mortos, 419 feridos e 117 desaparecidos). Polk poderia alegar que Grant havia falhado em sua tentativa de capturar o acampamento confederado, Grant que ele havia planejado apenas um ataque e, portanto, teve algum sucesso. Grant certamente sofreu algumas críticas no norte, onde a batalha foi considerada inútil e um risco desnecessário. Teve alguns resultados positivos para o norte. Aumentou a confiança de Grant em sua própria capacidade de comando e na capacidade de seus homens de lutar contra os confederados. Também ajudou a chamar a atenção do presidente Lincoln para ele como um dos poucos soldados da União dispostos a lutar.


Batalha de Belmont, 7 de novembro de 1861 - História

o Batalha de Belmont foi travada em 7 de novembro de 1861, no condado de Mississippi, Missouri. Foi o primeiro teste de combate na Guerra Civil Americana para o Brig. O general Ulysses S. Grant, o futuro general em chefe do Exército da União e as tropas do eventual presidente Grant dos EUA nesta batalha foram o "núcleo" do notável Exército do Tennessee da União.

Em 6 de novembro, Grant partiu do Cairo, Illinois, para atacar a fortaleza confederada em Columbus, Kentucky. Na manhã seguinte, ele soube que as tropas confederadas haviam cruzado o rio Mississippi para Belmont, Missouri. Ele desembarcou seus homens no lado do Missouri e marchou para Belmont. As tropas de Grant invadiram o acampamento confederado e o destruíram. No entanto, as forças confederadas dispersas rapidamente se reorganizaram e foram reforçadas por Colombo. Eles então contra-atacaram, apoiados por fogo de artilharia pesada do outro lado do rio. Grant retirou-se para seus barcos e levou seus homens para Paducah, Kentucky. A batalha foi pequena, mas com poucos acontecimentos em outros lugares na época, recebeu atenção considerável da imprensa.


Movendo-se para o sul

Para apoiar a operação, Grant instruiu Smith a se mudar para o sudoeste de Paducah como uma diversão e o Coronel Richard Oglesby, cujas forças estavam no sudeste do Missouri, para marchar para New Madrid. Embarcando na noite de 6 de novembro de 1861, os homens de Grant navegaram para o sul a bordo de navios a vapor escoltados pelas canhoneiras USS Tyler e USS Lexington. Consistindo em quatro regimentos de Illinois, um regimento de Iowa, duas companhias de cavalaria e seis canhões, o comando de Grant numerou mais de 3.000 e foi dividido em duas brigadas lideradas pelo general de brigada John A. McClernand e o coronel Henry Dougherty.

Por volta das 23h, a flotilha Union parou para pernoitar ao longo da costa de Kentucky. Retomando o avanço pela manhã, os homens de Grant chegaram a Hunter's Landing, a cerca de cinco quilômetros ao norte de Belmont, por volta das 8h e começaram a desembarcar. Ao saber do desembarque da União, Polk instruiu o Brigadeiro General Gideon Pillow a cruzar o rio com quatro regimentos do Tennessee para reforçar o comando do Coronel James Tappan em Camp Johnston perto de Belmont. Enviando batedores de cavalaria, Tappan implantou a maior parte de seus homens para o noroeste, bloqueando a estrada de Hunter's Landing.


A Batalha de Belmont

Ao norte e oeste deste local, a Batalha de Belmont foi travada em 7 de novembro de 1861. Foi a primeira batalha em que Ulysses S. Grant comandou um exército. Recentemente, ele havia sido promovido a brigadeiro-general e colocado no comando do Distrito federal do sudeste do Missouri, com sede em Cairo, Illinois. Opondo-se a Grant estava o major-general Leonidas Polk, um bispo episcopal que se tornou soldado. Polk comandava as fortificações confederadas em Columbus, Kentucky, com vista para o rio Mississippi. Bem em frente a Columbus, no lado do rio em Missouri, ficava um pequeno vilarejo e desembarque chamado Belmont.

Em Columbus, penhascos altos projetavam-se em direção ao rio e forneciam o primeiro local ideal abaixo do Cairo para a colocação de baterias de artilharia. Ambos os lados consideraram este local estrategicamente importante para o controle do rio Mississippi. Ocupar Columbus, entretanto, seria violar a neutralidade declarada de Kentucky na guerra civil. Em 3 de setembro de 1861, a Confederação deu o primeiro passo nessa direção quando o exército de Polk ocupou as alturas acima de Colombo.

Na época da Batalha de Belmont, as fortificações de Colombo estavam cheias de 140 peças de artilharia, incluindo uma arma de rifle Whitworth de 128 libras apelidada de "Lady Polk". A guarnição era composta por 19.000 soldados. Das fortificações, uma cadeia de quilômetros de comprimento

tinha sido estendido para o outro lado do rio até Belmont para bloquear as canhoneiras da Union. Esta corrente maciça, exigindo uma âncora de seis toneladas para mantê-la no lugar, teve apenas uma breve carreira antes de quebrar, aparentemente devido ao seu próprio peso. A âncora, uma pequena seção da corrente e os restos das fortificações são preservados no Parque Estadual Columbus-Belmont Battlefield em Columbus, Kentucky.

Imediatamente após a ocupação de Colombo por Polk, Grant reagiu subindo o rio Ohio do Cairo e apreendendo Paducah, Kentucky em 6 de setembro de 1861. A localização de Paducah nas proximidades da foz dos rios Tennessee e Cumberland abriu para as forças da União uma rota de invasão em o coração da Confederação ocidental.

Em novembro de 1861, os confederados estabeleceram um posto avançado, chamado Camp Johnston, em Belmont para servir como posto de observação. A decisão de Grant de assaltar este acampamento foi baseada em informações errôneas. Ele foi levado a acreditar que Polk deveria enviar tropas para reforçar as forças pró-Sul sob o comando do general Sterling Price no sudoeste do Missouri. Grant também estava preocupado que um destacamento da União enviado para expulsar o comandante guerrilheiro do Sul, M. Jeff Thompson, o esquivo "Raposa do Pântano", fosse isolado e capturado pelos movimentos das tropas de Polk.

Na manhã de 7 de novembro, uma flotilha federal de quatro transportes e duas canhoneiras desembarcou a força de ataque de Grant

de 3.114 homens em Hunter's Point, duas milhas acima de Belmont. Enquanto essa força atacava o acampamento Confederado, o General C.F. Smith, comandante em Paducah, deveria conduzir uma manifestação contra Columbus do lado do rio em Kentucky para desencorajar Polk de reforçar o acampamento Johnston.

Uma marcha de uma milha através da floresta e um emaranhado de mato colocou as duas brigadas de Grant em contato com quatro regimentos de infantaria confederados sob o Brigadeiro General Gideon Pillow. Formado em linha de batalha em um milharal, este corpo de tropas era quase igual ao de Grant, mas mal distribuído. Depois de mais de uma hora de luta dura, os confederados ficaram sem munição e os homens de Grant conseguiram dispersá-los.

Os Federados então convergiram para o acampamento confederado de duas direções e conduziram seus defensores em direção ao rio, onde encontraram proteção e esconderijo atrás do aterro quase vertical na beira da água. Uma vez no acampamento, Grant perdeu o controle de suas tropas, que abandonaram o ataque para saquear o acampamento e comemorar o que parecia ser uma vitória fácil. Essa folia provou ser prematura, pois Polk vinha observando o progresso da batalha de Colombo. Enquanto seus grandes canhões mantinham as canhoneiras de Grant a uma distância respeitosa, Polk enviou dois navios a vapor através do rio com regimentos adicionais sob o comando do Brigadeiro General Benjamin Cheatham. Suas ordens eram para rasgar a de Grant

flanquear e impedir que sua força recue para seus transportes.

Grant descreveu a reação de seus homens aos reforços que se aproximavam: "No início, alguns dos oficiais pareciam pensar que ser cercado era ser colocado em uma posição desesperadora, onde não havia nada a ver com rendição. Mas quando eu anunciei que nós tinha cortado nossa entrada e poderia cortar nossa saída tão bem, parecia uma nova revelação para oficiais e soldados. " O caminho de volta envolveu combates ferozes e muitas baixas da União, mas Grant conseguiu levar a maior parte de seu exército de volta para a segurança dos transportes. Grant foi o último federal a deixar o campo. Ele embarcou no transporte guiando seu cavalo pela margem quase perpendicular do rio e trotando-o através de uma estreita prancha.

A batalha de Belmont durou seis horas. A União perdeu 120 mortos, 383 feridos e 104 capturados ou desaparecidos, totalizando 607 vítimas, ou 20% da força total. Do lado confederado, 105 foram mortos, 419 feridos e 117 capturados ou desaparecidos, totalizando 641 vítimas, ou 16% do total da força engajada.

O próprio Grant reconheceu as críticas do Norte de que a Batalha de Belmont foi uma batalha totalmente desnecessária, sem resultados. Mas ele ainda insistia, em suas Memórias Pessoais, que havia alcançado seus objetivos. Ele sentiu que havia impedido que as tropas fossem destacadas de Colombo para o serviço

em outros lugares, e mais importante, ele dera às suas tropas a experiência de combate necessária. “As tropas nacionais adquiriram confiança em si mesmas em Belmont que não as abandonou durante a guerra”, escreveu ele. Apesar dos erros inevitáveis ​​de um general neófito, Grant demonstrou em Belmont sua firmeza de julgamento sob fogo e sua capacidade de sair de situações difíceis - duas qualidades que foram fundamentais para sua grandeza como comandante.

Polk venceu a Batalha de Belmont, mas sua defesa bem-sucedida foi em vão. Quatro meses depois de Belmont, Grant lançou um ataque de Paducah aos Forts Henry e Donelson nos rios Tennessee e Cumberland. Com a rendição desses fortes a Grant, Polk foi flanqueado em Columbus e obrigado a abandonar as fortificações maciças deste "Gibraltar do Oeste" sem que um tiro fosse disparado.

Erguido pelo Departamento de Recursos Naturais de Missouri.

Tópicos e séries. Este marcador histórico está listado nesta lista de tópicos: Guerra, Civil dos EUA. Além disso, está incluído nas listas das séries Ex-presidentes dos EUA: # 18 Ulysses S. Grant e Missouri - A State Divided: The Civil War in Missouri. Um mês histórico significativo para esta entrada é setembro de 1713.

Localização. 36 & deg 45.952 & # 8242 N, 89 & deg 7.429 & # 8242 W. Marker está em Belmont, Missouri, no Condado de Mississippi. O marcador fica na State Highway 80, no

direito ao viajar para o leste. Localizado em uma pequena área de estacionamento no final da rodovia, perto de um "towhead" ao longo do rio Mississippi. Toque para ver o mapa. O marcador está nesta área dos correios: East Prairie MO 63845, Estados Unidos da América. Toque para obter instruções.

Outros marcadores próximos. Pelo menos 8 outros marcadores estão a uma curta distância deste marcador. Quarta artilharia pesada colorida dos Estados Unidos (aproximadamente 0,6 milhas de distância em Kentucky) Afro-americanos em Columbus durante a Guerra Civil (aproximadamente 0,7 milhas de distância em Kentucky) O rio Mississippi na Guerra Civil (aproximadamente 0,7 milhas de distância em Kentucky) Terremotos ao longo o Mississippi (aproximadamente 0,7 milhas de distância em Kentucky) Âncora e Corrente (aproximadamente 0,7 milhas de distância em Kentucky) Poder de fogo de Polk (aproximadamente 0,7 milhas de distância em Kentucky) Em busca de. (aproximadamente 0,7 milhas de distância em Kentucky) "Gibraltar of the West" (aproximadamente 0,7 milhas de distância em Kentucky).

Mais sobre este marcador. Flanqueando o título do marcador estão os retratos dos generais Grant e Polk. No centro está um mapa da batalha durante a guerra. Ao lado do texto à esquerda está um esboço que mostra um barco a vapor descarregando soldados. À direita do texto está outro esboço mostrando uma das canhoneiras leves semelhantes às usadas em Belmont. No canto inferior esquerdo do marcador está um esboço que parece mostrar o rio do lado de Kentucky. No canto inferior direito, um esboço do tempo de guerra retrata os combates em Belmont.

Veja também . . . Batalha de Belmont. Breve resumo da batalha. (Enviado em 8 de abril de 2009, por Craig Swain de Leesburg, Virginia.)


Conteúdo

No início da guerra, o estado fronteiriço crítico de Kentucky, com um governador pró-confederado, mas uma legislatura amplamente pró-União, declarou neutralidade entre os lados opostos. Kentuckians pró-confederados cruzaram para o Tennessee para se alistar, mas os homens da União formaram abertamente um campo de recrutamento dentro do Kentucky, violando a neutralidade do estado.

Em resposta, o major-general confederado Leonidas Polk moveu as forças confederadas para o Kentucky em 3 de setembro de 1861 e ocupou Columbus, uma posição-chave nas falésias com vista para o rio Mississippi. Três dias depois, Union Brig. O general Ulysses S. Grant apreendeu Paducah. Grant, comandando o Distrito do Sudeste do Missouri, pediu permissão ao comandante do teatro, major-general John C. Frémont, para atacar Columbus, mas nenhuma ordem veio. Nos dois meses seguintes, apenas manifestações limitadas foram conduzidas contra os confederados. [4]

Frémont soube que os confederados planejavam reforçar suas forças no Arkansas e, em 1o de novembro, ordenou que Grant fizesse uma finta em direção a Colombo para manter os confederados lá. Grant enviou cerca de 3.000 homens sob o comando do coronel Richard Oglesby ao sudeste do Missouri. Grant soube que os reforços da Confederação estavam se mudando para o Missouri para interceptar a coluna de Oglesby. Ele enviou reforços e também ordenou Brig. Gen. Charles F. Smith se mudará de Paducah para o sudoeste do Kentucky para distrair os confederados. Grant decidiu atacar Belmont, um porto de balsas e um pequeno vilarejo de três barracos, do outro lado do rio de Columbus. O Comando Expedicionário de Grant numerou 3.114 oficiais e homens, e foi organizado em duas brigadas sob o Brig. Gen. John A. McClernand e Coronel Henry Dougherty, duas companhias de cavalaria e uma bateria de artilharia. Em 6 de novembro, escoltado pelas canhoneiras USS Tyler e USS Lexington, Os homens de Grant deixaram Cairo, Illinois nos barcos a vapor Aleck Scott, Chanceler, Keystone State, Belle Memphis, James Montgomery, e Rob Roy. [5]

O General Confederado Leonidas Polk tinha cerca de 5.000 soldados guardando Colombo. Quando soube dos movimentos de Grant, presumiu que Columbus era o objetivo principal e que Belmont era uma finta. Ele ordenou 2.700 homens sob o Brig. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow para Belmont, mantendo o resto para defender Colombo.

Quando chegou a Belmont, Grant encontrou Camp Johnston, um pequeno posto de observação confederado, sustentado por uma bateria de artilharia. Ele decidiu atacar para impedir que os confederados reforçassem o major-general Sterling Price ou Brig. Gen. M. Jeff Thompson da Guarda Estadual de Missouri, e para proteger o flanco esquerdo exposto de Oglesby. [6]

Edição de União

Edição Confederada

Às 8h30 do dia 7 de novembro, a força de Grant desembarcou em Hunter's Farm, 3 milhas ao norte de Belmont, fora do alcance das seis baterias confederadas em Columbus. (As pesadas baterias de água do Columbus apresentavam Columbiads de 10 polegadas e obuseiros de 11 polegadas e uma arma, a "Lady Polk", era a maior da Confederação, um rifle Whitworth de 128 libras.) Ele marchou com seus homens para o sul na única estrada , limpando as obstruções de madeira caída que formaram um abatis. A uma milha de Belmont, eles formaram uma linha de batalha em um campo de milho. A linha consistia na 22ª Infantaria de Illinois, 7ª Infantaria de Iowa, 31ª Infantaria de Illinois, 30ª Infantaria de Illinois e 27ª Infantaria de Illinois, misturados com uma companhia de cavalaria. A linha de batalha confederada, em uma crista baixa a noroeste de Belmont, de norte a sul, era composta pela 12ª Infantaria do Tennessee, 13ª Infantaria do Arkansas, 22ª Infantaria do Tennessee, 21ª Infantaria do Tennessee e 13ª Infantaria do Tennessee. [7]

O ataque de Grant conduziu na linha de escaramuça Confederada e pelo resto da manhã, ambos os exércitos, consistindo de recrutas verdes, avançaram e recuaram repetidamente. Por volta das 14h00, a luta tornou-se unilateral quando a linha de Pillow começou a entrar em colapso, recuando em direção ao Camp Johnston. A retirada ordenada começou a entrar em pânico quando quatro peças de campo federais se abriram contra os soldados em retirada. Uma saraivada do 31º Illinois matou dezenas de confederados, e os soldados da União atacaram de três lados e invadiram o campo. Os confederados abandonaram suas cores e sua artilharia e correram em direção ao rio, tentando escapar. Grant estava constantemente na frente, liderando seus homens. Seu cavalo foi atingido por baixo dele, mas seu ajudante, Capitão William S. Hillyer, ofereceu sua montaria e Grant continuou a liderar. [8] [9]

Os soldados inexperientes de Grant tornaram-se, em suas próprias palavras, "desmoralizados com a vitória". Brigue. O general McClernand caminhou até o centro do acampamento, que agora voava na bandeira dos Estados Unidos, e pediu três vivas. Uma atmosfera bizarra de carnaval prevaleceu e as tropas foram levadas pela alegria de sua vitória, tendo capturado várias centenas de prisioneiros e o campo. Para recuperar o controle de seus homens, que estavam saqueando e festejando, Grant ordenou que o acampamento fosse incendiado. Na confusão e na fumaça cegante, soldados confederados feridos em algumas das tendas foram queimados acidentalmente até a morte, fazendo com que os confederados que voltavam acreditassem que os prisioneiros foram deliberadamente assassinados. [10]

Os Federais começaram a marchar de volta aos seus transportes, levando consigo dois canhões capturados e 106 prisioneiros. Eles foram repentinamente atacados por reforços confederados trazidos de Colombo nos transportes Principe e Charme, que ameaçou interromper a retirada de Grant. Esses eram os homens da 15ª Infantaria do Tennessee, da 11ª Infantaria da Louisiana e da infantaria mista comandada por Pillow e o Coronel Benjamin F. Cheatham. Nessa época, o major-general Leonidas Polk também cruzou o rio Mississippi de Columbus e assumiu o comando das forças confederadas durante a luta. [11] Quando os homens da União se viraram para enfrentar os reforços confederados, o canhão "Lady Polk" disparou contra suas fileiras de Colombo e vários outros canhões confederados abriram fogo. As canhoneiras da União trocaram tiros em uma batalha com as baterias confederadas. Grant disse: "Bem, devemos abrir caminho para fora assim como cortamos para entrar." [12]

Quando Grant chegou ao patamar, ele soube que um regimento da União estava desaparecido. Ele galopou de volta para procurá-lo, mas encontrou apenas soldados confederados se movendo em sua direção. Ele girou o cavalo e correu para o rio, mas viu que os capitães dos barcos já haviam ordenado o lançamento dos cabos de amarração. Grant escreveu em suas memórias,

“O capitão do barco que acabava de sair me reconheceu e ordenou ao engenheiro que não ligasse o motor: ele mandou uma prancha correr para mim. Meu cavalo pareceu entender a situação. Ele colocou as patas dianteiras sobre a margem sem hesitar ou insistir, e, com as patas traseiras bem embaixo dele, deslizou pela margem e trotou a bordo. " [13]

Enquanto os barcos voltavam para Paducah, o desaparecido regimento de Illinois foi visto marchando rio acima e os homens foram levados a bordo. [14] No retiro, Grant perdeu seu cavalo baio, sela, baú e caneta de ouro, enquanto McClernand perdeu sua "bela cama de ferro", mesa de campo com despachos e um tinteiro com seu nome. [15]

Os confederados viam Belmont como uma vitória sulista, já que Grant havia encenado um ataque e sido expulso. O superior de Polk, General Albert Sidney Johnston, observou que "O dia 7 de novembro preencherá uma lacuna brilhante em nossos anais militares e será lembrado com gratidão pelos filhos e filhas do Sul". Na noite de 7 de novembro e na manhã de 8 de novembro, Grant lembrou das unidades que ordenou que fossem encaminhadas em Missouri e Kentucky. Um soldado da União comentou: "Bem, Grant foi chicoteado em Belmont, e isso o assustou tanto que ele revogou todas as nossas ordens e levou todas as tropas de volta às suas antigas estações por marchas forçadas." [16] No entanto, Grant viu a batalha de forma muito diferente. Em suas memórias, ele afirma: "Os dois objetivos pelos quais a batalha de Belmont foi travada foram totalmente cumpridos. O inimigo desistiu de qualquer idéia de destacar tropas de Colombo. Suas perdas foram muito pesadas naquele período da guerra." [17]

As perdas sindicais foram de 607 (120 mortos, 383 feridos e 104 capturados ou desaparecidos). As baixas confederadas foram ligeiramente maiores, com 641 (105 mortos, 419 feridos, 106 capturados e 11 desaparecidos). Um resultado notável da batalha foi o combate e a grande experiência de comando de unidade que Grant ganhou. Também deu ao presidente Abraham Lincoln, que estava desesperado para que seus exércitos atacassem os confederados em algum lugar, uma impressão positiva de Grant. [18]

O local anteriormente fortificado no lado de Kentucky foi designado como Parque Estadual Columbus-Belmont, comemorando a vitória dos confederados.


7 de novembro de 1861

Na manhã seguinte, Grant soube que as tropas confederadas haviam cruzado o rio Mississippi para Belmont, Missouri.

Às 8h30 do dia 7 de novembro, a força Grant & # 8217s desembarcou na Hunter & # 8217s Farm, 3 milhas ao norte de Belmont, fora do alcance das seis baterias confederadas em Columbus.

Grant desembarcou seus homens no lado do Missouri e marchou com seus homens para o sul na estrada única, removendo obstruções de madeira caída que formavam um abatis. A uma milha de Belmont, Grant formou uma linha de batalha em um campo de milho.

Os penhascos de Columbus, Kentucky, vistos de Belmont.

A linha de batalha de Grant consistia na 22ª Infantaria de Illinois, 7ª Infantaria de Iowa, 31ª Infantaria de Illinois, 30ª Infantaria de Illinois e 27ª Infantaria de Illinois, misturados com uma companhia de cavalaria.

Brigue. O general Gideon Pillow colocou sua linha de batalha confederada em uma crista baixa a noroeste de Belmont, de norte a sul, composta pela 12ª Infantaria do Tennessee, 13ª Infantaria do Arkansas, 22ª Infantaria do Tennessee, 21ª Infantaria do Tennessee e 13ª Infantaria do Tennessee.

O ataque surpresa de Grant & # 8217s ultrapassou a linha de escaramuças de Pillow e, pelo resto da manhã, ambos os exércitos, consistindo de recrutas verdes, avançaram e recuaram repetidamente.

Por volta das 14h00, a luta tornou-se unilateral quando a linha do Pillow & # 8217s começou a ruir, recuando em direção ao Camp Johnston.

Pillow estava perdendo sua primeira batalha da Guerra Civil quando seus homens entraram em pânico e começaram a recuar de quatro das peças de artilharia de campo de Grant disparando contra sua posição.

Uma salva do 31º Illinois matou dezenas de homens de Pillow, e os soldados de Grant atacaram Pillow de três lados e invadiram seu acampamento.

Os homens de Pillow abandonaram suas armas de artilharia, bem como as cores confederadas, e correram em direção ao rio, tentando escapar.

Grant estava constantemente na frente, liderando seus homens.

Então, o cavalo de Grant foi baleado debaixo dele, mas ele montou um cavalo do ajudante e continuou a liderar.

Os soldados inexperientes de Grant se tornaram, em suas próprias palavras, & # 8220demoralizados de sua vitória. & # 8221

Brigue. O general McClernand caminhou até o centro do acampamento, que agora voava na bandeira dos Estados Unidos, e pediu três vivas.

Uma atmosfera bizarra de carnaval prevaleceu sobre as tropas da União, levadas pela alegria de sua vitória, tendo capturado várias centenas de prisioneiros e o campo.

Para recuperar o controle de seus homens, que estavam saqueando e festejando, Grant ordenou que o acampamento fosse incendiado.

Na confusão e na fumaça cegante, soldados confederados feridos em algumas das tendas morreram queimados acidentalmente.

Grant e seus homens começaram a marchar de volta para seus transportes, levando com eles duas armas capturadas e 106 prisioneiros confederados.

Pillow, a essa altura, havia encontrado reforços confederados trazidos nos transportes Príncipe e Encanto. Esses eram os homens da 15ª Infantaria do Tennessee, da 11ª Infantaria da Louisiana e da infantaria mista comandada por Pillow e o Coronel Benjamin F. Cheatham.

Pillow ordenou que Cheatham atacasse Grant.

Ao mesmo tempo, as forças confederadas dispersas rapidamente se reorganizaram e foram reforçadas por Colombo. Os confederados que retornavam acreditavam que seus semelhantes mortos nos incêndios haviam sido deliberadamente assassinados.

Quando Grant e seus homens se viraram para enfrentar Pillow e seus reforços confederados, vários canhões confederados dispararam contra as fileiras da União de Colombo.

Grant e as canhoneiras da União lutaram com os homens de Pillow e as baterias confederadas.

Grant é citado como tendo dito,

& # 8220Bem, devemos cortar nosso caminho para fora assim como cortamos nosso caminho para dentro. & # 8221

Quando Grant chegou ao porto do rio, ele soube que um de seus regimentos da União estava desaparecido.

Grant galopou de volta para procurá-los, mas encontrou apenas soldados confederados se movendo em sua direção.

Grant girou o cavalo e correu para o rio, mas viu que os capitães dos barcos já haviam ordenado o lançamento dos cabos de amarração.

Grant escreveu em suas memórias: & # 8220O capitão do barco que havia acabado de sair me reconheceu e ordenou que o engenheiro não ligasse o motor: ele então mandou puxar uma prancha para mim. Meu cavalo pareceu entender a situação. Ele colocou as patas dianteiras sobre a margem sem hesitar ou insistir e, com as patas traseiras bem embaixo do corpo, deslizou pela margem e trotou a bordo. & # 8221

Enquanto os barcos fluviais de Grant estavam recuando para Paducah, Kentucky, o regimento desaparecido de Illinois foi visto marchando rio acima e levado a bordo.

A batalha de Belmont é considerada uma vitória dos confederados, embora tenha sido basicamente inconclusiva. No entanto, com pouca coisa acontecendo em outros lugares na época, ele recebeu atenção considerável da imprensa.

No entanto, Pillow e seu comando foram votados como Agradecimentos do Congresso Confederado em 6 de dezembro de 1861:

& # 8230 pela coragem desesperada que exibiram ao sustentar por várias horas, e sob as circunstâncias mais desvantajosas, um ataque por uma força do inimigo muito superior à sua própria, tanto em número e nomeações quanto pela habilidade e bravura com que se converteram o que a princípio ameaçou tanto desastre, em uma vitória triunfante.

Gideon Pillow é mais lembrado por seu fraco desempenho na Batalha de Fort Donelson.

Pillow foi capturado pelas forças da União em Union Springs, Alabama, em 20 de abril de 1865, e foi libertado em liberdade condicional em Montgomery, Alabama, em maio.

Pillow recebeu o perdão presidencial em 28 de agosto de 1865.

Após a guerra, Pillow foi forçado à falência, mas iniciou uma prática jurídica bem-sucedida em Memphis, Tennessee, como parceiro do ex-governador Isham G. Harris.

Gideon Johnson Pillow morreu no Condado de Lee, Arkansas, e está enterrado no Cemitério Elmwood, localizado em Memphis, Tennessee.


Bunker Hill

Sacha assumiu o comando de Grant e das forças sindicais e eu de Pillow e dos confederados. Por causa do pequeno tamanho de cada exército, cada regimento realmente contava e a primeira tentativa de Sascha no meu flanco resultou em uma rota completa de um de seus regimentos, o que realmente o colocou em desvantagem pelo resto do jogo. Ele também teve alguns problemas para mover suas forças juntas, mesmo com as habilidades de Grant, devido a algumas jogadas de azar que tornaram as coisas mais difíceis para ele. Embora minhas habilidades de comando fossem menores que as dele, tive que fazer menos comandos enquanto estava jogando na defesa, o que no final cancelou sua classificação superior de comando. Sascha fez algumas tentativas corajosas em meus flancos, mas todos foram repelidos e, eventualmente, os confederados montaram um contra-ataque que mais ou menos enrolou o flanco esquerdo do sindicato, quebrando o exército sindical. Parece que desta vez os rebeldes mudaram a história.

O jogo era muito divertido e Sasha era um verdadeiro esportista que continuou tentando até que seu exército não pudesse mais. A chave do jogo é se o sindicato pode conseguir números superiores para os confederados estendidos e derrotá-los em detalhes antes que os confederados possam estabilizar sua fachada. Infelizmente, Sasha perdeu algumas rolagens de comando e perdeu seu primeiro ataque gravemente, o que o colocou em uma posição ruim, já que fui capaz de consolidar minhas tropas, frustrando seus esforços.

We are both looking forward to our next game together, but that could be awhile due to Sascha's job taking him out of town during the week and family on the weekend so it's likely to be holidays and vacations when I get to see him again.


Historical Events in November 1861

    American Civil War: Western Department Union General John C. Frémont is relieved of command and replaced by David Hunter
    Battle of Port Royal, fought in Port Royal Sound, South Carolina begins, Union victory (US Civil War) University of Washington founded in Seattle

Eleição de interesse

Nov 6 Jefferson Davis elected to 6 year term as US Confederate President

Vitória em Batalha

Nov 7 Battle of Belmont, fought in Mississippi County, Missouri begins, first combat test for Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant, Union victory (US Civil War)

    Battle of Port Royal, fought in Port Royal Sound, South Carolina ends, Union forces capture Fort Walker and Fort Beauregard (US Civil War) Battle of Mount Ivy, Kentucky

Evento de Interesse

Nov 8 USS San Jacinto commanded by Charles Wilkes captures two Confederate diplomats from the British mail steamer Trent, almost causing a war between the US and the UK


Batalha [editar | editar fonte]

At 8:30 a.m. on November 7, Grant's force disembarked at Hunter's Farm, 3 miles north of Belmont, just out of range of the six Confederate batteries at Columbus. (The Columbus heavy water batteries featured 10-inch Columbiads and 11-inch howitzers and one gun, the "Lady Polk", was the largest in the Confederacy, a 128-pounder Whitworth rifle.) They marched southward on the single road, laboring to clear obstructions of fallen timber that formed an abatis. A mile before town, they formed a battle line in a corn field. The line, from north to south, consisted of the 22nd Illinois Infantry, 7th Iowa Infantry, 31st Illinois Infantry, 30th Illinois Infantry, and 27th Illinois Infantry, intermixed with a company of cavalry. The Confederate battle line, on a low ridge northwest of Belmont, from north to south, was made up of the 12th Tennessee Infantry, 13th Arkansas Infantry, 22nd Tennessee Infantry, 21st Tennessee Infantry, and 13th Tennessee Infantry. & # 914 e # 93

Grant's attack pushed back the Confederate skirmish line and for the remainder of the morning, both armies, consisting of green recruits, advanced and fell back repeatedly. By 2 p.m., the fighting became one-sided as Pillow's line began to collapse, withdrawing toward Camp Johnston. The orderly retreat began to panic and four Federal guns opened up the retreating soldiers. After a volley from the 31st Illinois killed dozens of Confederates, the Union soldiers attacked from three sides and surged into the camp. The beaten Confederates abandoned their colors and their guns, and ran towards the river, attempting to escape. Grant was constantly at the front, leading his men. His horse was shot from under him, but he mounted an aide's horse and continued on. & # 915 e # 93

Grant's inexperienced soldiers became, in his words, "demoralized from their victory." Brigue. Gen. McClernand walked to the center of the camp, which now flew the Stars and Stripes, and asked for three cheers. A bizarre, carnival-like atmosphere prevailed upon the troops, carried away by the joy of the moment, having taking several hundred prisoners and the camp. In order to regain control of his men, who were plundering and partying, Grant ordered the camp set on fire. In the confusion and blinding smoke, wounded Confederate soldiers in some of the tents may have been accidentally burned to death, causing returning Confederates to think that prisoners had been deliberately murdered. & # 916 e # 93

As the Federals began to march back to their transports, taking with them two captured guns and 106 prisoners, they were attacked by Confederate reinforcements brought on the transports Prince e Charm who appeared to cut off Grant's avenue of retreat. They were the men of the 15th Tennessee Infantry, the 11th Louisiana Infantry, and mixed infantry under Pillow and Col. Benjamin F. Cheatham. As the Union men turned to face the Confederate reinforcements, the "Lady Polk" fired into their ranks from Columbus and numerous other Confederate guns opened fire. The Union gunboats exchanged fire with the Confederate batteries. Grant said calmly, "Well, we must cut our way out as we cut our way in." & # 917 e # 93

Once back at the landing, one Union regiment was unaccounted for, separated from view by the terrain. Grant galloped back to look for it, but found only a mass of Confederate soldiers moving in his direction. He spun his horse and raced for the river, but saw that the riverboat captains had already ordered the mooring lines cast off. Grant wrote in his memoirs, "The captain of the boat that had just pushed out recognized me and ordered the engineer not to start the engine: he then had a plank run out for me. My horse seemed to take in the situation. He put his fore feet over the bank without hesitation or urging, and, with his hind feet well under him, slid down the bank and trotted on board." & # 918 e # 93


Localização

Mississippi County, Missouri

Dates

Generals

Union: Ulysses S. Grant
Confederate: Gideon J. Pillow

Soldiers Engaged

Union Army: 3,100
Confederate Army: 5,000

Resultado

Vítimas

Union: 600
Confederate: 600

The Confederate soldiers peered out from their trenches, dug deep into the bluffs 150 feet above the Mississippi River at Columbus, Kentucky. The early light of dawn had cut through the morning mists, revealing the great river–the dividing line at that point between Kentucky and Missouri–twisting its way through marshlands, dense forests and untamed countryside speckled with farmhouses and cornfields. Looking north, the Southerners could make out in the distance two Federal gunboats, Tyler e Lexington, coming down the river.

During the last two months, the woodenclads had made several brief but harmless forays to test the strength and range of the 140 Confederate guns placed along the bluffs. But on November 7, 1861, the soldiers’ pulses quickened as they watched the fully armed steamers bearing down on them. Cavalry scouts had sent word that Federal transports were debarking a force of 3,000 men three miles upriver on the opposite shore, at a point concealed by the sharp bend in the river and the heavy woods on the bank. Their target was the Confederate garrison at Belmont, Mo., directly across the river from the fortified bluffs.

The blue-uniformed troops who tramped off the boats were commanded by a 39-year-old brigadier general who had held that rank for three months to the day. That morning, when the Columbus artillery fired their heavy guns blindly over the treetops at the invaders, they not only fired the first salvos of the Battle of Belmont but also unknowingly signaled the dawn of the Civil War career of Ulysses S. Grant.

Although hastily conceived, Belmont would mark Grant’s initiation into military command. Before night had fallen, he would twice cheat death, while displaying for the first time the leadership and determination that would make him the greatest general in the war. Columbus, a small town on the eastern bank of the Mississippi, was the focus of much attention in the late summer of 1861. Just 20 miles south of Cairo, Ill., it sat along a bend in the river where the Mississippi was only 800 yards wide. The steep bluffs just north of town commanded all the shipping that passed by, and equally enticing, the Mobile & Ohio Railroad had its northern terminus there, ending a rail route that stretched all the way to Corinth, Miss. Whoever controlled Columbus effectively controlled the upper Mississippi.

Both sides were facing a unique problem in Kentucky, where fiercely divided loyalties had produced a neutrality so precarious that neither North nor South dared to be the first to send soldiers into the state, for fear that such a violation would either encourage further invasion by the enemy or drive Kentucky into the other camp. President Abraham Lincoln, a native Kentuckian, said that ‘to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game.’

Tension mounted throughout the summer as both Maj. Gen. John Frémont, the Federal commander in the west, and Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, the Southern commander, received reports that the other was about to march on Columbus. Frémont finally became impatient and, realizing that war in the west inevitably meant a fight in Kentucky, decided to strike the first blow. On August 28, 1861, he appointed Grant commander of the District of Southeast Missouri, with orders to clear the area of Confederate troops. The first step was to secure Cairo, then move into Kentucky and occupy Columbus. On September 4, Grant arrived at his command post in Cairo, a small frontier town situated on a low peninsula that jutted out at the juncture of the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers. When Polk learned that Grant had sent a small reconnaissance party downriver to Belmont, he finally gave in to the constant entreaties of his subordinate, Brig. Gen. Gideon Pillow, and decided to move before the Federals did. On September 4, Pillow occupied Columbus.Both sides spent the next two months preparing themselves for the inevitable battle for Kentucky. In Cairo, Illinois and Iowa volunteers drilled and built fortifications while Grant obtained equipment and supplies, set up medical and postal systems and arranged for his soldiers’ pay. By November 1, Grant had 20,000 men under his command–almost none of whom had ever fought a battle.

Polk, meanwhile, was building the Columbus bluffs into an impregnable fortress. He had 140 big guns placed along the cliffs, including an 8-ton Dahlgren dubbed ‘Lady Polk’ after his wife. Rifled and breech-loading, the Dahlgren was capable of firing a 128-pound cone-shaped projectile. In support of the artillery, the men dug a network of trenches. As a further barrier, a massive iron chain was stretched across the river, kept afloat by log pontoons, tied to two sycamore trees on the Missouri side and grounded on the Columbus shore by a 6-ton anchor. Eventually, 19,000 Confederate troops occupied the citadel.

At the end of October, Frémont’s attention was focused on western Missouri, where the previous month Confederates under Brig. Gen. Sterling Price had captured a large Union force at Lexington. Frémont worried that Price would be reinforced by troops from Tennessee, using Columbus as a crossing point into southern Missouri. Believing rumors that Polk was about to send these reinforcements, on November 1 Frémont directed Grant to make demonstrations along both sides of the river. The next day Frémont received information that Jeff Thompson, the troublesome Rebel guerrilla leader who had been harassing Union troops and loyalists in Missouri, was at Indian Ford on the St. Francis River, 60 miles southwest of Cairo. Thompson possessed a highly mobile force that could easily provide cover for Confederate detachments as they crossed Missouri, so Frémont ordered Grant to send troops from Cape Girardeau and Bird’s Point, on the Missouri side of the Mississippi, to drive Thompson into Arkansas.

But Frémont’s intelligence was wrong in both instances. Thompson was much farther east, in Bloomfield, Mo., recovering from a recent defeat. And far from sending troops into western Missouri, Polk was actually getting ready to dispatch 5,000 men east to Clarksville, Tenn., on orders from General Albert Sidney Johnston in Bowling Green, who expected a Federal attack from Paducah, Ky., which Grant had occupied on September 5.

Unaware of the true disposition of Confederate troops, Grant set out with his maiden command. On November 2 he ordered the Bird’s Point force, under Colonel Richard Oglesby, to move toward the St. Francis River. Colonel Joseph Plummer, at Cape Girardeau, would coordinate with Oglesby. Grant told Oglesby that the objective was not merely to drive Thompson into Arkansas, as Frémont had demanded, but to destroy Thompson’s force altogether. Oglesby set out on November 4, but was no sooner on his way than he received new orders from Grant to head south toward New Madrid, Mo. When Oglesby reached a road that led to Columbus, he was to ‘communicate with me [Grant] at Belmont from the nearest point on the road.’ The change in plans was prompted by a telegram Grant said he received on November 5 from Frémont’s headquarters in St. Louis, relating what again turned out to be erroneous intelligence–namely, that Price’s reinforcements were passing through Columbus. The telegram specified that Grant should make demonstrations in the vicinity of Columbus, and Grant thought he would need Oglesby’s men in support. There is no record of the telegram, and it is extremely unlikely that it was ever issued. Frémont had been dismissed from command on November 2, three days before the telegram was sent, and the Western Department was in a state of confusion that traditionally accompanies a transition of power. Major General David Hunter, the interim replacement, had not even put together his staff yet.

Grant apparently was acting on his own. It was a bold move for a new commander who had not yet seen combat in the war. He had taken command of the 21st Illinois Volunteer Infantry as colonel in June, transforming a group of civilian volunteers into disciplined soldiers. But they had done little more than hold bridges and scour the Missouri countryside for elusive guerrilla leaders such as Colonel Tom Harris. Although Grant had been promoted to brigadier general of volunteers on August 7, three weeks later he was still without a command, languishing in Frémont’s St. Louis headquarters, frustrated and disappointed. Even when he had 20,000 troops under his direct control at Cairo, he was compelled to wait, spending every spare moment poring over maps, drawing up plans for victory, becoming more and more restless and eager to engage the enemy. In September, Grant wrote his wife, Julia, that ‘I would like to have the honor of commanding the Army that makes the advance down the river, but unless I am able to do it soon cannot expect it….I regret exceedingly that my force here [in Cairo] has been, from necessity, kept too much reduced to admit of an advance upon Columbus.’ The next month he was even more adamant, writing Julia, ‘What I want is to advance.’Fifteen years earlier, during the Mexican War, then-Lieutenant Grant had formally protested his appointment as regimental quartermaster, claiming that it removed him ‘from sharing in the dangers and honors of service with my company at the front.’ When he was ordered to remain in camp during the Battle of Monterrey, his curiosity got the better of his judgment, and he rode to the front, joining his regiment in a charge against the enemy.

The men at Cairo, although green troops, were also impatient after remaining idle for so long. Aware of their restlessness, Grant wrote later, ‘I did not see how I could maintain discipline, or retain the confidence of my command, if we should return to Cairo without an effort to do something.’ Colonel John Logan of the 31st Illinois believed that ‘the men composing our force were in good condition, and eager for a trial of strength.’ Belmont, with its small and insignificant garrison, was an ideal place for the young troops to experience their first taste of battle.

Five infantry regiments from Illinois and Iowa–totaling 3,014 soldiers–assembled in Cairo and were divided into two brigades. Brigadier General John McClernand would lead the 27th, 30th and 31st Illinois, while Colonel Henry Dougherty, who had served as a private in the Mexican War, would command the 22nd Illinois and the 7th Iowa. In addition to the infantry, the Federal force included two companies of cavalry and six guns: four 6-pounders and two 12-pounders.Before he left Cairo, Grant issued a flurry of orders to his subordinates. He sent word to his old West Point commandant Brig. Gen. C.F. Smith in Paducah, Ky., to move a force toward Columbus as a diversion. In the dispatch, Grant mentioned that an attack directed at Belmont ‘would probably keep the enemy from throwing over the river much more force than they now have there, and might enable me to drive those they now have out of Missouri.’ Colonel W.H.L. Wallace and his 11th Illinois Infantry, stationed at Bird’s Point, were ordered to overtake and link up with Oglesby.

While Grant was making preparations for attack, Pillow was getting his men ready for the trip to Clarksville to aid Johnston’s troops. Pillow’s commander, Polk, the Episcopal bishop of Louisiana, was busy trying to resign his command. Polk had accepted the post as a favor to his friend President Jefferson Davis–a temporary assignment until the fortifications at Columbus were completed and Johnston had arrived to take command in the west. With both conditions fulfilled, Polk felt it was time to return to civilian and religious life. As dusk fell on Cairo’s muddy streets on the evening of November 6, Grant and his men hastily boarded a flotilla of five steamers and, with an escort of two gunboats, floated down the dark, quiet Mississippi River. At 11 p.m., the amphibious expedition moored for the night on the Kentucky shore eight miles below Cairo and 11 miles north of Columbus. Pickets went ashore to meet up with Smith’s troops from Paducah. At 2 a.m., Grant claimed he received a message from Wallace, now at Charleston, Mo., informing him that the enemy had ferried troops from Columbus to Belmont the day before, apparently for the purpose of cutting off Oglesby. This information, it turned out, was untrue. Strangely, there is no contemporary record of the message at all, nor is it mentioned in any of Grant’s accounts written immediately after the battle. At any rate, determined to meet the enemy, Grant withdrew his pickets and at 6 a.m. moved the boats away from shore.

At about 8 o’clock in the morning, the steamers reached their destination on the Missouri side of the Mississippi–Hunter’s Landing, a point three miles north of Belmont, close to the Confederate camp but hidden by tall trees. The men disembarked on the steep and muddy riverbank and formed into ranks in a nearby clearing in front of a cornfield. After sending McClernand and his staff to reconnoiter the road to Belmont, Grant took 350 men from Dougherty’s brigade downriver and posted them in a dried-up ravine facing east to act as a rear guard and protect the transports. Belmont itself was not really a town, just a steamboat landing with a log house and a shed, on a flat, marshy, heavily wooded elbow of land that jutted out into the Mississippi. Here and there the wilderness was interrupted by a cornfield or cabin. The Confederate garrison–a log house, drill field and tents collectively known as Camp Johnston–was located directly across the river from the Columbus batteries. The men stationed at the camp had cut down the trees around the camp and used the sharpened logs and stumps as a 200-yard-long makeshift abatis.

While Grant’s men debarked and formed into ranks, the gunboats Tyler e Lexington steamed downstream to face the mighty Columbus batteries and divert their cannons from the troops. Tyler‘s senior naval officer was Commander Henry Walke. The boats were former freight and passenger side-wheeler steamboats that had been transformed into gunboats by attaching 5-inch-thick oak planks to the decks and bulwarks. The 575-ton Tyler was armed with two 32-pounders and six 8-inch Dahlgren shell guns. Lexington, at 448 tons, also had two 32-pounders and four Dahlgrens.As Walke directed his boats toward the fortress, he was greeted immediately by the thundering of cannons. Outgunned by a substantial margin, Walke moved his boats in small circles to confuse the enemy. Cannon shells fell around the boats, and the crewmen returned fire, their 32-pounders hitting the cliffs above them, doing no damage to the Rebel gunners. After about an hour, Tyler e Lexington withdrew upriver. The contest was renewed twice more that day. On the final foray, a cannonball from the Confederate batteries passed through the side and deck of Tyler, decapitating one man and wounding several others. While Walke was engaging the Columbus artillery, McClernand finished his reconnaissance, and he and Grant sent skirmishers and cavalry ahead on the road to Belmont. The infantry soon followed, and by 8:30 a.m. they were on their way southeast along Hunter’s Farm Road, ready to drive the Confederates into the river.

Polk learned about the Federal landing as soon as it began, thanks to his cavalry scouts, and he immediately sent an aide across the river to warn the camp. Next, he alerted his division commanders and summoned Pillow to headquarters for a strategy session.The Union landing, Polk assumed, was merely a feint–a carefully orchestrated diversion meant to draw precious troops away from the real objective, the Columbus batteries. The main attack surely would come from the Kentucky side, from Paducah or Fort Holt. Polk had been anticipating such an attack for quite some time, figuring that Columbus was the greater prize. Besides, the Federals could never occupy Belmont–they would be blown to pieces by the big guns across the river. Polk committed the bulk of his men to the defense of his fortress, placing them either within the batteries or along the roads running north and east. Then he met with Pillow.

Pillow, then 55 years old, came from a propertied and well-connected Tennessee family. He had made a name for himself in his native state as a successful civil and criminal lawyer, and it was not long before he entered politics as a Jacksonian Democrat. He quickly rose to prominence in the labyrinthine world of politics, being instrumental in securing the 1844 presidential nomination for his law partner, James K. Polk. But his real fortune was made in land. By 1860, Pillow’s plantation holdings made him the third largest slaveholder in Tennessee and the sixth largest in Arkansas.When the Mexican War came, President Polk rewarded his friend–first with a brigadier general’s commission and then with promotion to major general, making him second only to General Winfield Scott. West Pointers sneered at the political appointee, and Pillow’s arrogance and poor performance as a soldier did not improve his reputation. He became a laughingstock when he built a trench on the inside of a breastwork. Grant considered Pillow both conceited and incompetent.Pillow’s relationship with Leonidas Polk was not much better, affected as it was by his deep resentment at being demoted from major general of the Tennessee Provisional Army to brigadier in the Confederate ranks. At their meeting, Polk ordered Pillow to reinforce the garrison with four regiments, the 12th, 13th, 21st and 22nd Tennessee. Afterward, Polk rode around the bluffs, checking the riverside defenses.

Across the river, the garrison at Camp Johnston was presided over by a native Tennessean named James Tappan. A graduate of Phillips Exeter Academy and Yale College, Tappan had practiced law in Arkansas, served in the state legislature and become a judge before he raised the 13th Arkansas, which he now commanded as its colonel. Tappan also had the 1st Mississippi Cavalry Battalion and six guns, known as the Watson Battery, under the control of West Point graduate and Mexican War veteran Lt. Col. Daniel Beltzhoover. Tappan had been in Columbus the night of November 6, but as soon as he heard the news that Yankees were invading, he hurried back. Once at Camp Johnston, he quickly sent two Mississippi cavalry companies toward Hunter’s Landing. He and Beltzhoover then placed two guns and one company of infantry in a field in back of the camp facing south the other four guns and the rest of his men were positioned about half a mile northwest, along the only direct road leading from Hunter’s Landing to the camp, the very road then being traversed by the Federal infantry.Pillow and his four Tennessee regiments arrived at Belmont at about 9 a.m., increasing the total Confederate strength to roughly 2,700 men. After deploying more skirmishers toward Hunter’s Landing, he recalled the guns and infantry from the position behind the camp and combined all his troops in one defensive line with Tappan’s other troops northwest of camp.

However, Pillow moved the line back 40 yards so that it was no longer on the edge of the forest but fully exposed in an open cornfield, a line of sitting ducks facing an enemy who would be protected by the cover of the woods. Federal cavalry soon ran into Confederate pickets and pushed them back until they reached a long, narrow slough, which was four feet deep in parts. Resistance stiffened at the slough, and when the main force caught up, the Federals deployed in a battle line inside the woods. Skirmishers went forward across the slough in regular lines. Before he advanced, Captain John Seaton of the 22nd Illinois told his men, ‘If I should show the white feather, shoot me dead in my tracks and my family will feel that I died for my country.’

The skirmishers tromped through the muddy marsh and timber, driving away a small contingent of Rebel cavalry. More troops were sent up in support, and the original line of battle was re-established on the other side of the slough. Logan, a veteran of the Battle of Bull Run, the Mexican War and the equally vicious Democratic politics in Illinois, pushed his 31st Illinois forward at the Union center until he met growing fire from the enemy. Advancing tree by tree and fighting Rebel skirmishers who were hidden behind the brush, the Union troops slowly struggled forward, sometimes shooting blindly into the woods. The artillery, known as the Chicago Battery, lagged behind, caught in the muddy ravines and thick underbrush. Its commander, Captain Ezra Taylor, was forced to cut down trees to make a path. But by 11 a.m., all Confederate skirmishers had been driven back. The men on the Confederate line waited impatiently in the cornfield, listening to the sound of muskets and men scrambling through the woods. Soon the skirmishers began to emerge from the forest, rejoining their companies on the line or bringing in the wounded. Then came the enemy.Logan and the 31st Illinois, on the Union left, were the first to face the enemy line. They came under heavy fire from the 12th Tennessee, Tappan’s 13th Arkansas and part of the 22nd Tennessee, forcing them to lie on the ground behind stumps and underbrush and shoot from that position while artillery and musket fire passed over them. The 30th Illinois caught up quickly, but when the troops reached the open field, Beltzhoover blasted them with cannon fire, decimating the Union ranks and sending them back into the woods for cover.

The Confederate batteries continued to pummel the Union lines while Grant rode up and down, shouting orders and encouragement until his horse was shot from under him. The Union men stayed in the thicket where they were shielded from the intense cannonade. Frustrated and low on ammunition, Pillow ordered a bayonet charge along his entire line to drive the enemy from its natural redoubt. The charge drove Logan’s 31st Illinois back 30 yards into the brush. On the right, the charging Tennesseans hit the 7th Iowa’s battle line and swung it back like the opening of a double gate. Seaton organized a counterattack, as did Logan, and drove the Confederates back to the cornfield. The shooting continued until around noon, when Taylor finally managed to drag his guns forward. He placed them in the front with Dougherty’s brigade and opened an exchange of cannon fire that was so fierce that Taylor found himself alone in front, his own infantry having fallen back 200 yards. Beltzhoover soon ran out of ammunition and retreated as well, leaving one gun behind in his haste. The Chicago Battery moved into Beltzhoover’s old position and opened up, breaking the Confederate line and forcing them to fall back to their camp. The Federals followed quickly.

While the fighting was going on, Colonel John Buford of McClernand’s brigade had led the 27th Illinois south around the large, wet slough, where he met up with Dollin’s cavalry. After overcoming a detachment of the 13th Tennessee that Pillow had placed on the extreme left, the combined Union force headed toward Camp Johnston by a southern route that took them into the enemy’s flank and rear.

Grant’s forces now stood on the edge of the camp’s abatis, surrounding the enemy on the west and south. The Confederates, with their backs to the river, put up a strong resistance, slowing the Federal advance through the abatis, but Grant positioned the Chicago Battery on a knoll 300 yards away. The gunners opened fire, bombarding the garrison and driving the Southerners to the riverbank and out of camp. The victorious Federals rushed in to occupy their prize.At 2 p.m., all firing ceased. Ignoring the fleeing enemy and overlooking two approaching transports loaded with Polk’s reinforcements, the young Union volunteers looted the enemy camp for uneaten food and possessions, prematurely celebrating victory with cheers and cannon volleys aimed at empty steamers far out of range. As the band started playing, the men gathered around the flagpole, according to the ritual of the day, to sing patriotic songs. McClernand, an Illinois politician and a staunch War Democrat, gave a speech. As Logan put it: ‘Fatigued with the hard march and fight, hunger invited [the Union soldiers] to the untouched breakfast, which seemed to have been especially prepared for them, and many of our men proceeded to devour it. After this, speech-making was indulged in, and loud cheers given for the Union.’

The lack of discipline alarmed the veteran Grant, who described the men as being ‘demoralized from their victory.’ In his first command as colonel of the 21st Illinois, he had curbed rampant absenteeism, drunkenness and disorderly conduct with threats of court-martial, imprisonment and even execution. But in the heat of battle, Grant could not restore order. He saw the enemy, hidden by the steep riverbank, safely escaping north to the protection of the woods. He was also aware that Confederate reinforcements were coming across the river in transports. Partly out of desperation, partly because he decided that the direct object of the expedition had been accomplished, Grant ordered the camp set on fire.Polk’s men over on the Columbus bluffs had been listening to the cannon fire and musketry all morning, but while the fighting remained in the woods all they could see were billows of smoke floating over the treetops. Once the battle moved to the clearing at Camp Johnston, however, they could see everything. When the camp was set ablaze, they realized that they could safely bombard the enemy without injuring their compatriots, and they quickly let loose with solid shot, shell and grapeshot. When the first shell landed in the middle of the drill field, the Union celebrations came to an abrupt and sobering halt. The infantrymen fell into formation and marched double-quick off the parade field, past the abatis and into the woods.

Even before the camp was in flames, Polk could see that matters were getting out of hand alarmed, he sent in reserves. The first to cross the Mississippi was Colonel Samuel Marks with the 11th Louisiana, the 15th Tennessee, a company of Memphis Light Dragoons and cavalry. Next came Colonel Benjamin Cheatham, ferried over to reorganize the scattered Confederate survivors. Once Cheatham had crossed and disappeared into the forest, Polk himself brought over two additional regiments.

Marks landed about 400 yards north of the camp. Disorganized veterans of the morning’s battle urged him to turn back, crying that they had been defeated. Pillow arrived and ordered Marks to move his men southwest through the woods for a counterattack.When Cheatham reached the Missouri shore north of Camp Johnston, he gathered together, with the help of Tappan and Pillow, the fragments of the 13th Arkansas and the 13th and 22nd Tennessee. This reassembled force of 1,500 turned south and headed inland.

The Federals had formed a new column, with McClernand in the front and Dougherty in the rear, and were marching northwest back to their transports when Cheatham ran straight into Dougherty’s right flank. Surprised, Dougherty and his men scrambled to form a line of battle, but the troops were exhausted and there was considerable confusion. The two forces exchanged volleys until a Confederate bayonet charge broke through Dougherty’s line in the midst of an artillery barrage. Dougherty fell with a shattered leg that later had to be amputated the rest of the bluecoats fled through the woods.Meanwhile, McClernand led his column into the cornfield and ran straight into Marks’ soldiers, who were positioned astride Hunter’s Farm Road. The morning’s roles were reversed as the Confederates emerged from the woods toward a Union force out in the open. Caught between Cheatham behind them and Marks in front, cries of ‘Surrounded! Surrounded!’ rose up from the Federal ranks.Many of the Union troops wanted to surrender. Grant announced that ‘we had cut our way in and could cut our way out just as well–it seemed a new revelation to officers and soldiers.’ McClernand ordered the Chicago Battery onto a rise, and it blasted away with double shot and canister. A volley from Logan’s muskets followed, which one Confederate described as a ‘blast of fire…full in our faces, a horizontal sheet of flame and bullets that took my breath away!’ The barrage knocked a hole in Marks’ line, and Logan and the 31st Illinois dashed through the breach. The remaining troops quickly followed, the Rebels hard on their heels.

Fighting their way back to the landing, the men stopped to fire at the pursuing Confederates. When they finally started to board the transports, the Rebels fired at them from the forest’s edge. Grant had ridden back to the little hollow where he had placed the rear guard, only to find that they had already left, withdrawing to the transports with the rest of the army. Grant went alone to check on the enemy’s progress. Wearing a normal soldier’s overcoat, he rode his horse into a cornfield. Suddenly, Confederate troops appeared only 50 yards away. Camouflaged by the tall, leafy cornstalks, he slowly turned around and walked his horse away. Once at a safe distance, he began to gallop as fast as he could back to the landing. Later he learned that Polk had spotted him in the cornfield and invited his marksmen to take a shot. Not recognizing Grant as the opposing general, none of the marksmen took him up on the offer, missing an opportunity that might well have changed the outcome of the war.

By the time Grant reached the river, the sun was starting to set. The continuing enemy fire had forced the boats to launch while Grant remained on shore. As they floated away, a plank was extended from Belle Memphis onto the riverbank. Grant’s horse slid down the muddy bank on its hindquarters, stepped onto the plank and trotted on board. With the last and most important Union soldier safely aboard, the transports left Missouri. Grant called in the gunboats to silence the Rebels on the shore. With grapeshot, canister and five-second shells, Tyler e Lexington sent the enemy soldiers fleeing straight into the woods.

At one point Grant, who had been lying on a couch in the captain’s room, rose and went on deck to observe the activity. While he was on deck, a bullet penetrated the wooden ship and hit the couch in the exact spot where his head had rested minutes earlier.As night fell, the flotilla made its way upriver, stopping at Bird’s Point to pick up Buford’s cavalry squadron, which had completely circumvented the second half of the battle and wandered up the Missouri shore. More than 600 casualties were suffered by each side, with many wounded Federal soldiers left on the field during the hasty withdrawal 175 Confederates were taken prisoner, and two guns were captured.Both Polk and Grant claimed victory, though neither side had gained any strategic advantage. The Columbus bluffs soon became irrelevant, outflanked in February 1862 by Grant’s capture of Forts Henry and Donelson. That same month the Confederates left Columbus. A month later, Union troops moved in.

One Northern commentator claimed that, in attacking Belmont, Grant had only’stirred up the hornets, and then ran as fast as his legs could carry him, stung at every step.’But Grant’s men had learned lessons at Belmont that could only be taught by experience. They were now veteran troops–the core of an army that would eventually capture Vicksburg, Miss., and win complete victory in the west.Belmont was also a turning point for Ulysses Grant. After his undistinguished service in the Mexican War and the 13 uneventful years that followed, Grant had finally commanded troops in battle. In his memoirs he wrote, ‘The National troops acquired a confidence in themselves at Belmont that did not desert them through the war.’ This observation might equally apply to the commanding general himself.

This article was written by Max Epstein and originally appeared in the July 1997 issue of America’s Civil War revista. Para mais artigos excelentes, certifique-se de se inscrever em America’s Civil War magazine today!


The Battle of Belmont : Grant strikes South

The battle of Belmont was the first battle in the western theater of the Civil War and, more importantly, the first battle of the war fought by Ulysses S. Grant. It set a pattern for warfare not only in the Mississippi Valley but at Fort Donelson and Shiloh as well. Grant's 7 November 1861 strike against the Southern forces at Belmont, in southeastern Missouri on the Mississippi River, made use of the newly outfitted Yankee timberclads and all the infantry available at the staging area in Cairo, Illinois. The Confederates, led by Leonidas Polk and Gideon Pillow, had the advantages of positi

Includes bibliographical references (pages 277-295) and index

Electronic reproduction. [S.l.] : HathiTrust Digital Library

Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002

Access-restricted-item true Addeddate 2020-07-15 19:10:33 Boxid IA1880122 Camera Sony Alpha-A6300 (Control) Collection_set printdisabled External-identifier urn:oclc:record:45732487 Foldoutcount 0 Grant_report Arcadia #4117 Identifier battleofbelmontg0000hugh Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t36200817 Invoice 1605 Isbn 0807866814
9780807866818 Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0 (Extended OCR) Old_pallet IA18370 Openlibrary_edition OL1868115M Openlibrary_work OL2664947W Page_number_confidence 91.96 Pages 338 Partner Innodata Ppi 300 Rcs_key 24143 Republisher_date 20200715150412 Republisher_operator [email protected]@gmail.com Republisher_time 1109 Scandate 20200701140137 Scanner station23.cebu.archive.org Scanningcenter cebu Scribe3_search_catalog isbn Scribe3_search_id 0807819689 Sent_to_scribe station23.cebu.archive.org Tts_version 4.0-initial-155-gbba175a5

Assista o vídeo: 7 listopada obloty pszczół przed zimą