HMS Mashona

HMS Mashona

HMS Mashona

HMS Mashona foi um contratorpedeiro da classe Tribal, lançado em setembro de 1937 e afundado por aeronaves alemãs em 28 de maio de 1941 durante a caça ao Bismarck.


HMS Mashona (F59)

HMS Mashona (L59 / F59) là một tàu khu trục lớp Tribal được chế tạo cho Hải quân Hoàng gia Anh Quốc trước Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai. Nó đã phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II cho đến khi bị đánh chìm bởi một cuộc không kích ngoài khơi Đại Tây Dương vào tháng 5 năm 1941.

erro de lista: texto e lista misturados (ajuda)
như thiết kế:

  • 8 x hải pháo 4,7 polegadas QF Mark XII (L / 45) trên bệ CP Mk. XIX (4x2)
  • 4 x pháo QF 2 libras Mk. VII phòng không (1x4)
  • 8 x súng máy Vickers.50 Mk. II (2x4)
  • 4 x ống phóngư lôi21 polegadas (530 mm) Mk. IX (1x4)
  • 1 x đường ray và 2 x máy ném mìn sâu

cải biến trong chiến tranh:

  • 6 x hải pháo 4,7 polegadas L / 45 QF Mk. XII trên bệ CP Mk. XIX (3x2)
  • 2 x pháo QF 4 polegadas (101,6 mm) Mk. XVI trên bệ góc cao Mk. XIX (1x2)
  • 4 x pháo QF 2 libras Mk. VII phòng không (1x4)
  • 4 x pháo phòng không Oerlikon 20 mm nòng đơn và nòng đôi
  • 4 x ống phóng ngư lôi 21 polegadas Mk. IX (1x4)
  • 1 x đường ray và 2 x máy ném mìn sâu

HMS Mashona

Alus tilattiin 19. kesäkuuta 1936 osana vuoden 1935 laivasto-ohjelmaa Vickers Armstrongilta Tynesidestä. Saiba mais sobre Parsons Maritime Steam Turbine Companyltä. Köli laskettiin 5. elokuuta 1936. Alus laskettiin vesille 3. syyskuuta 1937 ja valmistui vasta 30. maaliskuuta 1939, mikä johtui tykkitornien toimituksen viiveistä. Aluksen hinta oli tarjouksen perusteella 341 108 puntaa ilman Amiraliteetin toimittamia ase- ja viestijärjestelmiä. [1]

Maaliskuussa alus oli valmistajan koeajoissa ja se otettiin 30. maaliskuuta palvelukseen Kotilaivaston 2. Tribal-hävittäjälaivueeseen, joka nimettiin huhtikuussa 1939 6. hävittäjälaivadiseksi. Se aloitti vastaanottokokeet, joiden suorituksen jälkeen alus siirrettiin huhtikuussa Portlandiin koulutettavaksi ja merikelpoisuuskokeisiin Kanaalin alueella. Se liittyi toukokuussa laivueeseensa. [1]

Alus saattoi 12. toukokuuta Kanaalissa RMS Empress of Australiaa, joka kuljetti kuningas Yrjö VI ja kuningatar Elizabethia vierailulle Kanadaan. Se määrättiin kesäkuussa osallistumaan Liverpoolin lahdella sukellusvene HMS Thetiksen pelastustöihin. Elokuussa alus siirtyi sodanajan sijoituspaikkaansa Kotilaivaston mukana. [1]

Alus määrättiin avustamaan 25. syyskuuta vaurioitunutta sukellusvene HMS Spearfishiä HMS Somalin ja HMS Matabelen kanssa. Osasto suojasi seuraavana päivänä sukellusveneen kotiinpaluuta. [1]

Alus siirrettiin 25. lokakuuta Middle Dock Engineeringin telakalle South Shieldsissä, mistä se palasi 10. marraskuuta laivueeseensa. Alus suojasi 24. marraskuuta laivueensa mukana Kotilaivaston aluksia etsittäessä Saksan laivaston taisteluristeilijöitä Gneisenauta ja Scharnhorstia, jotka olivat upottaneet saattuetta suojanneen aseistetun rahtilaivan HMS Rawalpindin.

1940 Muokkaa

Maaliskuussa 1940 alus siirrettiin Chathamin telakalle huollettavaksi. Alus suojasi 6. huhtikuuta palvelukseen palattuaan laivueen mukana Norjasta Forthiin matkannutta saattuetta, mistä vapauduttuaan alus liittyi 9. huhtikuuta Saksan laivaston osastoa Bergenin edustalta etsiväään laivasto-ostoon. Operaation peruunnuttua palasi Kotilaivastoon, johon liityttyään joutui voimakkaan ilmahyökkäyksen kohteeksi. Ilmahyökkäyksen aikana upotettiin HMS Gurkha. [1]

Alus purjehti 11. huhtikuuta Scapa Flowsta etsimään saksalaisia ​​aluksia Ålesundin alueelta ennen liittoutuneiden maihinnousua alueelle yhdessä HMS Somalin, HMS Afridin, HMS Sikhin, HMS Matabelen ja HMS Mohawkin kanssa. Osasto joutui 13. huhtikuuta ilmahyökkäykseen, mutta ei kärsinyt merkittäviä vaurioita. Se tuki seuraavana päivänä Namsoksessa merijalkaväen maihinnousua operaatio Henryssä, mistä vapauduttuaan se lähti suojaamaan joukkojenkuljetussaattuetta. [1]

Saattue joutui 16. huhtikuuta Lillesjonassa voimakkaan ilmahyökkäyksen kohteeksi. Alus määrättiin seuraavana päivänä tankkauksen jälkeen viirikön mukana kuljettamaan joukkoja laivoista maihin, minkä jälkeen viirkkö suojasi MV Chobryn matkan Namsokseen. Mashona ja HMS Nubian tankkasivat 18. huhtikuuta risteilijöiltä ennen paluutaan Scapa Flowhun, jonne ne saapuivat seuraavana päivänä. [1]

Alus suojasi 29. huhtikuuta risteilijöitä HMS Galateaa, HMS Arethusaa, HMS Sheffieldiä ja HMS Southamptonia matkalla Åndalsnäsiin evakuoimaan joukkoja Somalin, Sikhin, HMS Wandererin, HMS Walkerin ja HMS Westcottin kanssa. Alukselle kuormattiin seuraavana päivänä joukkoja Veblugnsnäsissä, minkä lisäksi se suojasi muuta evakuointia. Osasto joutui seuraavana päivänä ilmahyökkäykseen. [1]

Alus osallistui kesäkuun alussa Åndalsnäsin evakuointiin HMS Inglefieldin, HMS Delightin, HMS Dianan, Somalin, HMS Birminghamin, HMS Manchesterin ja HMS Calcuttan kanssa. Osasto aloitti 2. kesäkuuta paluumatkan Scapa Flowhun, missä alukset liitettiin Kotilaivastoon. [1]

Mashona, HMS Tartar, HMS Bedouin ja HMS Ashanti suojasivat 7. kesäkuuta taistelulaiva HMS Valiantia matkalla Norjan rannikolle lopullisessa evakuoinnissa. Osasto muodosti niin kutsutun Grupo 1: n suojausosaston, joka kohtasi seuraavana päivänä loput osaston aluksista Färsaarten vesillä. Suojausosasto vapautui tehtävästään vielä samana päivänä suojaamisen siirtyessä muille aluksille. Osasto hajotettiin ja sen alukset palasivat laivueisiinsa. [1]

Alus määrättiin 20. kesäkuuta Färsaarille vastaanottamaan saapuvia ruotsalaisia ​​sotalaivoja HMS Maorin ja HMS Tartarin kanssa. Ruotsi oli tilannut kaksi hävittäjää ja kaksi torpedovenettä Italiasta, mitkä oli pysäytetty matkalla. Protestien jälkeen alukset palautettiin Ruotsille Scapa Flowssa. [1]

HMS Mashona kärsi 27. kesäkuuta vaurioita myrskyssä, minkä vuoksi se siirrettiin 30. kesäkuuta Rosythissa telakalle tarkastettavaksi ja korjattavaksi. Alus palasi heinäkuussa jatkamaan laivaston suojausta laivueensa mukana Kotilaivastossa, kunnes se siirrettiin lokakuussa huollettavaksi Liverpooliin. Telakalla aluksen X-torni korvattiin kaksiputkisella 4 tuuman ilmatorjunta kykyisellä tornilla. [1]

Alus palasi marraskuussa laivueeseensa. Se pelasti 12. joulukuuta edellisenä päivänä sukellusvene U-96: n torpedeiro SS Rotoruan eloonjääneet. [1]

1941 Muokkaa

HMS Mashona, HMS Tartar ja HMS Bedouin Suojasivat HMS Interpidiä ja HMS Icarusta, jotka laskivat miinoja Norjan rannikkoreitille (operaatio DZ). Alukset palasivat 5. tammikuuta tehtävän päätyttyä laivueeseensa Scapa Flowssa. Alus kärsi seuraavana päivänä vaurioita törmättyään HMS Sikhin kanssa. Aluksen vauriot estivät palveluksen ja se määrättiin siirrettäväksi West Hartlepooliin telakalle. [1]

Alus otettiin 13. tammikuuta Grayn telakalle, josta se palasi 3. maaliskuuta laivueeseensa Scapa Flowhun. Alus suojasi 24. maaliskuuta Clydestä viirikön mukana saattuetta WS7, josta viirikkö erkani 28. maaliskuuta palatakseen Clydeen. [1]

Mashona, HMS Eskimo, HMS Tartar ja HMS Somali suojasivat 22. toukokuuta taistelulaiva HMS Rodneya, kun sen tehtävänä oli turvata RMS Britannicia matkalla Atlantin ylitse Bostoniin. Suojaus erkani 24. toukokuuta, kun se sai käskyn osallistua Saksan laivaston taistelulaivan Bismarckin ja risteilijä Prinz Eugenin etsintään Ranskan rannikon ja viimeisen tieetyn olinpaikan välillä. Mashona ja tártaro erkanivat 27. toukokuuta osastosta tankatakseen. [1]

Alus joutui 28. toukokuuta ilmahyökkäykseen, jolloin sen oikean puoleiseen kattilahuoneeseen osui pommi. Miehistö ei kyennyt estämään vedentuloa alukseen, jolloin se piti jättää. Alus upposi Irlannin länsipuolella, jolloin 36 miehistönjäsentä sai surmansa. tártaro, HMS Sherwood ja HMCS St. Clair pelastivat 184 eloonjäänyttä. [1]


HMS Mashona e Suboficial J J Tweed

Postado por EnsignBlue & raquo 20 de abril de 2003, 17:15

Meu nome é Keith Martin. Sou bibliotecário na Irlanda e estou pesquisando a história de HMS Mashona, um destruidor de classe tribal perdido em 1941.

Membros de sua tripulação estão enterrados na Irlanda e há grande interesse no navio e em sua tripulação.

Se alguém tiver alguma informação sobre o Mashona ou fotos, por favor, entre em contato comigo.

O Mashona foi bombardeado por uma aeronave alemã quando voltava da Caçada para o Bismarck.

Postado por Aufklarung & raquo 20 de abril de 2003, 23:02

Postado por Andy H & raquo 20 de abril de 2003, 23:23

Tente o link abaixo espero que ajude

Re: HMS Mashona e Suboficial J J Tweed

Keith, li seu comentário com interesse sobre o HMS Mashona e o suboficial J J Tweed. Meu pai, Michael O Grady recuperou o corpo de J J Tweed do mar durante a passagem em seu barco à vela da Ilha Clare para Roonagh
Ponto no continente. Ele levou o corpo de volta para a ilha de Clara para ser enterrado. O padre na época recusou-se a enterrá-lo em solo consagrado, para desgosto de meu pai. O resultado foi que foi enterrado fora do muro do cemitério. A situação foi corrigida em 2002 pelo padre Ned Crosby e pelo povo da ilha. O muro do cemitério foi desviado para incorporar o túmulo de J J Tweed e ele agora repousa na companhia de seu colega marinheiro - meu pai, dentro do próprio cemitério. Mais sobre isso em meu livro (The Green Road To The Lighthouse)

Re: HMS Mashona e Suboficial J J Tweed

Postado por Mark McShane & raquo 25 de outubro de 2008, 14h29

Eu ia listar os nomes das pessoas enterradas na Irlanda do Mashona e também me referir aos Arquivos Nacionais em Kew, mas vejo pelo seu site que você tem tudo isso bem coberto. Boa sorte com o projeto. Você colocará um pouco da história do navio em seu site?


Inhaltsverzeichnis

Das Schiff wurde am 5 de agosto de 1936 bei der Werft von Vickers-Armstrongs em Newcastle upon Tyne am River Tyne auf Kiel gelegt und am 3. setembro de 1937 vom Stapel gelassen [1], beides zusammen mit dem Schwesterschiff esquimó, da der High Walker Yard seit dem Bau der Zerstörer HMS Fama und Firedrake diese zum vierten Mal auf der Helling als Paar nebeneinander gebaut hatte. [2] Wie bei den beiden Zerstörern der F-Klasse, soll die Parsons Marine Turbine Co. em Wallsend auch bei Mashona und esquimó der Hauptauftragnehmer und Vickers Armstrong, anders als bei den unmittelbar davor gebauten Afridi und Cossaco und zwei Zerstörern der H-Klasse nur der Lieferant der Schiffsrümpfe gewesen sein. Wegen Schwierigkeiten mit der termingerechten Lieferung der Hauptartillerie konnte die Mashona erst drei Monate nach ihrem direkten Schwesterschiff esquimó tenho 30 anos. März 1939 em Dienst gestellt werden.

Ihre Karriere começou como Eskorte für eine Reise von König George VI. und Königin Elizabeth auf dem Dampfer RMS Empress of Australia. Danach wurde die Mashona der 6. Zerstörerflottille em Scapa Flow zugeteilt.

Kriegseinsätze Bearbeiten

Ihr erster Kriegseinsatz em setembro de 1939 diente, zusammen mit den Schwesterschiffen Matabele und Somali, der erfolgreichen Bergung des U-Boots HMS Spearfish, das während eines Einsatzes in der Deutschen Bucht schwer beschädigt worden war.
Anfang abril de 1940 gehörte die Mashona zu den Einheiten der Home Fleet, die den Erfolg des deutschen Angriffs auf Norwegen zu verhindern suchten. Sie gehörte zu dem Verband, der einen Gegenangriff auf Bergen durchführen sollte, der nach massiven Angriffen durch 47 Junkers Ju 88 des KG 30 und 41 Heinkel He 111 des KG 26 auf die Flottenverbände abgebrochen wurde. Dabei wurde der Tribal-Zerstörer Gurkha versenkt, der den Geschwaderverband verlassen hatte. Die später zurücklaufende Mashona konnte beim Absuchen der Untergangsstelle noch fünf Schiffbrüchige bergen, der früher eingetroffene Kreuzer HMS aurora hatte zuvor die Besatzung des gesunkenen Zerstörers nahezu vollständig abbergen können. Morrer Mashona blieb weiter vor Norwegen und unterstützte die alliierten Landungen zur Unterbindung eines deutschen Vormarsches. So brachte sie mit den Tribal-Zerstörern Afridi, Núbio, Matabele und Sikh alt. 16. abril die britischen Truppen für die nördliche Zange des geplanten Angriffs („Mauriceforce“) auf Trondheim nach Namsos. [3] Nach dem Auffüllung ihrer Treibstoff- und Munitionsbestände em Scapa Flow lief sie am 29. April mit Somali, Sikh, Andarilho, andador und Westcott und am 2. Mai 1940 mit Inglefield, Prazer, Diana und erneut Somali nach Åndalsnes, um den südlichen Teil diese Angriffs („Sickleforce“) wieder zu evakuieren. [4] Bei diesen Einsätzen standen jeweils britische Kreuzer vor der Küste, um die Zerstörer zu sichern und zu unterstützen. Mehrfach überstand der Zerstörer Luftangriffe ohne bedeutende Schäden. Im Rahmen der wegen des deutschen Angriffs im Westen beschlossenen „Operação Alfabeto“ nahm die Mashona zusammen mit den Tribal-Zerstörern tártaro, beduíno und Ashanti Anfang Juni an der Evakuierung der alliierten Truppen aus Narvik und Norwegen teil.

Ende Juni 1940 gehörte die Mashona Bei den Faröern mit der tártaro sob der maori zu den Einheiten der Royal Navy, die vier schwedischen Zerstörer Psilander (ex Giovanni Nicotera) und Vomitar (ex Bettino Ricasoli) der Sella-Klasse (970 ts, 2 × 2 120 mm, 1926/27) sowie Romulus (ex Spica) und Remus (ex Uma loja) der Spica-Klasse (800 ts, 3 × 100 mm, 1935) festhielten, die Schweden em Italien gekauft hatte. Am 20. Juni zwangen sie die schwedischen Besatzungen, ihre Boote zu verlassen und schickten sie auf das Begleitschiff Patricia (ex Patris II, 3994 BRT) und den Tanker rícino (8714 BRT), mit denen sie em ihre Heimat zurückkehren sollten. Die beschlagnahmten vier Kriegsschiffe überführten die Briten bis zum 30. nach Scapa Flow. Die protestierenden Schweden folgten ihren Schiffen und konnten sie am 2. Juli wieder übernehmen sowie am 5. Juli von Kirkwall ihre Reise fortsetzen. Auf dem Marsch nach Schweden wurden sie am 7. Juli noch von britischen Flugzeugen angegriffen, wurden aber nicht getroffen. Über das von den Deutschen besetzte Kristiansand erreichten sie am 10. Juli 1940 Gotemburgo. [5] Bei der Begleitung der schwedischen Schiffe nach Scapa Flow erlitt die Mashona schwere Seeschäden, die vor Ort repariert wurden. Ab Oktober bis Mitte Dezember 1940 erfolgte dann eine gründliche Instandsetzung des Schiffes em Liverpool, bei der das 120-mm-Zwillingsgeschütz in der hinteren überhöhten Posição („X“ -Posição) durch ein für die Flugzeugabwe zeschütz überchütz überhöhten Posição („X“ -Posição) durch ein für die Flugzeugabwe zeschütz besser g. .

Das Ende der Mashona Bearbeiten

Im Mai 1941 eskortierte das Schlachtschiff Rodney mit vier Tribalzerstörern den Truppentransporter Britânico (26.943 BRT) nach Kanada. auf die Nachricht vom Untergang der Hood beteiligte sich die Rodney mit Mashona, tártaro und Somali auch an der Suche nach der Bismarck und ließ nur die esquimó beim nach Kanada weiterlaufenden Transporter. Am 26. Mai wurden die Zerstörer nach dem Zusammentreffen mit dem Flottenflaggschiff Rei george v entlassen, da sie bei den Wetterbedingungen den Schlachtschiffen bei hoher Fahrt kaum folgen konnten und auch schon bedrohlich wenig Treibstoff hatten. Somali hatte schon etwas früher allein den Rückmarsch angetreten Mashona und tártaroversuchten gemeinsam mit ökonomisch günstiger Geschwindigkeit britische Häfen zu erreichen. Am 28. Mai 1941 wurde die Mashona bei schweren Angriffen von Junkers Ju 88 der I./KG 77 der Luftwaffe getroffen und afundou vor der Küste von Galway [6] auf der Position 52 ° 58 ′ 0 ″ N, 11 ° 36 ′ 0 ″ W 52.966666666667 -11.6 Koordinaten: 52 ° 58 ′ 0 ″ N, 11 ° 36 ′ 0 ″ W. 36 Seeleute verloren ihr Leben. 184 Überlebende des Untergangs wurden von der tártaro und den an der Untergangsstelle eintreffenden Zerstörern der Town-Klasse (1940) HMS Sherwood e HMCS St. Clair [7] geborgen und auf der tártaro nach Greenock gebracht.


O naufrágio do HMS Mashona

HMS Mashona foi um contratorpedeiro da classe Tribal da Marinha Real que prestou serviço na Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Ela foi construída por Vickers Armstrong, com seu maquinário fornecido pela Parsons. Ela foi autorizada no ano de programa de 1936. Mashona foi estabelecido em 5 de agosto de 1936, lançado em 3 de setembro de 1937 e concluído em 30 de março de 1939.

Mashona HMS, sob o comando do Cdr. Selby, foi um dos participantes na perseguição do encouraçado alemão Bismarck.

Em 28 de maio de 1941, um dia após a destruição do Bismarck, as forças britânicas foram fortemente bombardeadas por aeronaves alemãs e o HMS Mashona foi atingido e afundado na costa de Galway com a perda de 48 homens.


HMS Mashona - História

pelo Tenente Cdr Geoffrey B Mason RN (Rtd) (c) 2003

HMS TARTAR (F 43) - Destruidor da classe Tribal
incluindo movimentos de escolta de comboio

Destruidor da Frota Classe TRIBAL encomendado sob o Programa de Construção de 1936 de Swan Hunter e Wigham Richardson de Wallsend em 12 de junho de 1936. Ela foi colocada no chão em 26 de agosto daquele ano e lançada em 21 de outubro de 1937 como o 17º navio de guerra RN a levar este nome, introduzido em 1702 e usado pela última vez por um contratorpedeiro pré-1ª Guerra Mundial vendido em 1921. A construção foi concluída em 10 de março de 1939 e o navio foi equipado para ser usado como um líder de flotilha. Durante o serviço inicial, ela foi um dos navios da Frota Doméstica enviados ao local do desastroso naufrágio do HM Submarine THETIS na Baía de Liverpool em 1 de junho de 1939. Após uma campanha de poupança nacional da WARSHIP WEEK em março de 1942, ela foi adotada pela comunidade civil de Finchley, agora parte do bairro londrino de Barnet. Para obter mais detalhes sobre esta classe de destruidor de frota, consulte THE TRIBALS de M Bryce. (Observação: o número da flâmula alocado para sinalização visual na construção era L43, mas foi alterado para F43 antes da conclusão.)

B a t l e H o n o u r s

Velez Malaga 1704 - LAGOS 1759 - Ouessant 1781 - DOGGER BANK 1781 - BALTIC 1855 - SHIMONESKI 1864 - ÁFRICA DO SUL 1899-1900 - DOVER PATROL 1914-1918 - NORUEGA 1940-1941 - BISMARCK Ação 1941 - ARCTIC 1941 - MALTA COMBOIOS 1942 - NORTE DA ÁFRICA 1942-43 - SICÍLIA 1943 - SALERNO 1943 - MEDITERRÂNEO 1943 - NORMANDIA 1944 - CANAL INGLÊS 1944 - BISCAIA 1944 - BURMA 1945

Distintivo: em um campo branco a cabeça de um tártaro propriamente dito

D e t a i l s of P r e - W a r S e r v i c a

Março Testes de empreiteiros e comissionamento para serviço com a 2nd Tribal Destroyer Flotilla. Frota doméstica

Conclusão da 10ª versão e testes de aceitação iniciados.

Abril Trabalhou em Portland após a conclusão dos testes.

(Nota: Transferido para a 6ª Flotilha de Destroyer re-designada que também incluía Destroyers HM

SOMALI, ASHANTI, BEDOUIN, MATABELE, PUNJABI, TARTAR and ESKIMO.)

Implantação de maio de Portland em continuação

Junho desviado para auxiliar nas operações de resgate na baía de Liverpool após o naufrágio do submarino HM THETIS

durante os testes após a conclusão da compilação.

Na liberação do trabalho de resgate malsucedido reiniciou o programa de investigação.

Passagem de julho para Devonport para reparos

3º Recebido para reparação de defeitos por HM Dockyard, Devonport.

25º Retomou os deveres da Flotilha com a Home Fleet após a conclusão dos testes e tomou passagem para Scapa Flow.

D e t a i l s d W a r S e r v i c a

(para obter mais informações sobre o navio, vá para a página inicial do Histórico Naval e digite o nome na Pesquisa de site)

Setembro Implantado com a Flotilha na estação de guerra designada em Scapa Flow para triagem de grandes navios de guerra,

interceptação de corredores de bloqueio e invasores de comércio com patrulhas anti-submarinas.

Outubro Deveres da Frota de Casa com a Flotilha em continuação.

24º Implantado com o Screen for Home Fleet navios durante a busca pelo alemão SCHARNHORST e

GNEISENAU após naufrágio do HM Armed Merchant Cruiser RAWALPINDI.

Dezembro Passagem para Clyde para reparo de defeitos

4º Entregue para reparação em Govan por Alexander Stephens.

(Nota: Em comum com outros destróieres da classe TRIBAL, vazamento extenso foi experimentado

devido às operações de alta velocidade em condições climáticas adversas.

Para obter detalhes sobre as atividades navais em Home Waters em 1939, consulte a História do Estado-Maior Naval e

ENGAJE O INIMIGO MAIS PRÓXIMO por Corelli Barnett.

29º Retomou as funções da Flotilha em Home Fleet e tomou passagem para Scapa Flow.

Deveres da Flotilha de Janeiro com a Frota de Casa em continuação

a Implantado para escolta de comboios de e para a Noruega e triagem de frota.

Fevereiro (Nota: os navios da Flotilha estavam fazendo patrulha e defesa de comboio no Mar do Norte.)

Março Implantado com HMS MOHAWK para escolta de rms QUEEN ELIZABETH durante a passagem

em NW Approaches na viagem inaugural para Nova York. No lançamento tomou passagem para retomar o Norte

Deveres marítimos baseados em Rosyth para defesa do comboio.

4º Implantado com HMS SOMALI, HMS MATABELE e HMS MASHONA como escolta para

Convoy HN24 durante a passagem da Noruega para Methil.

8º Entrou para o HM Destroyers AFRIDI, GURKHA, SIKH, MOHAWK, ZULU, COSSACK,

Contratorpedeiros poloneses KASHMIR e KELVIN ORP GROM e BLYSKAWICA

com escoltas para ON24 em tela para Cruisers GALATEA e ARETHUSA realizando

procure ao norte de 58.30N 3.30E por navios de guerra alemães relatados em passagem no norte do Mar do Norte.

(TARTAR, com MASHONA, MATABELE, SOMALI pode, em vez de ter se juntado ao principal de Adm Forbe

9ª Busca de navios abandonados e reunidos da Frota Doméstica também desdobrados para esta operação.

Após a chegada destacou-se com os três contratorpedeiros poloneses para escoltar o Convoy HN25 durante sua passagem

da Noruega depois de escapar antes que as tropas de invasão alemãs ocupassem Bergen.

14ª. Unidades da frota doméstica reunida para operações ao largo da Noruega em apoio aos pousos aliados planejados

18º Destacado para escolta do cruzador HMS SUFFOLK danificado durante a passagem para Scapa Flow.

21º Implantação retomada com unidades da Frota doméstica na costa da Noruega e patrulhas costeiras realizadas para

para interceptar novos desembarques inimigos.

28º (Nota: HM Destroyers ASHANTI, MOHAWK, SOMALI, SIKH e NUBIAN também foram

desdobrado e devolvido para reabastecimento ou para deveres de defesa do comboio.).

30º Participou da evacuação das tropas aliadas de Andalsnes e Molde com HM Destroyers

SOMALI, MASHONA e HM Auxiliary AA Naviam ULSTER PRINCE.

Sob ataques aéreos pesados ​​e sustentados.

Transferido para Mole para embarcar o Capitão Denny e equipe com o PRÍNCIPE ULSTER.

(Para obter detalhes sobre a desastrosa campanha da Noruega e o alto preço pago em perdas e grandes

danos aos navios da RN, consulte NARVIK por D MacIntryre, A EXPEDIÇÃO DOOMED

por J Adams, ENGAJE O INIMIGO MAIS PRÓXIMO e a História do Estado-Maior Naval.)

1o Pegou a passagem de Andalsnes para Harstad.

Retomada dos deveres da Frota Doméstica para defesa de apoio interno e comboios de evacuação baseados em Harstad.

24ª passagem para Scapa Flow de Harstad

Número da flâmula para fins de sinalização visual alterado para G43.

Junho Parte da escolta do Porta-aviões HM ARK ROYAL durante operações de voo fora da Noruega

8º Implantado com HM Destroyers MASHONA, BEDOUIN e ASHANTI como tela para HM

O navio de guerra VALIANT cobrirá a passagem do Grupo I dos comboios de evacuação final da área de Ofotfjord.

9º Separado do Grupo I com HMS VALIANT e navios de tela para cobrir a passagem de retorno de outros

10º Participou de uma busca malsucedida de Frota Doméstica por GNEISENAU e SCHARNHORST após naufrágio

do HM Aircraft Carrier GLORIOUS.

11º Retornou a Scapa Flow e retomou as funções na Flotilha.

20º Nas Ilhas Faroé com o HMS MASHONA para apreender os destróieres suecos ROMULUS e REMUS.

(Nota: Esses navios foram comprados da Itália e estavam em trânsito para a Suécia.

Após intensa atividade diplomática, eles foram posteriormente devolvidos à Suécia vindos de Scapa Flow.

22º Retornado ao Scapa Flow.

Julho Implantado com a Flotilha para triagem da Frota Doméstica e defesa do comboio.

14º Em conserto no equipamento do leme pelo estaleiro Cammell Laird.

24ª Retomada das funções da flotilha na frota doméstica

(Observação: implantações anti-invasão extensas foram feitas durante este período e

navios da Frota doméstica afetados.)

8º Desdobrado como parte da escolta de navios da Força H durante a passagem do Atlântico para o Reino Unido a partir de Gibraltar.

Primeiro HM Cruiser FIJI escoltado que foi danificado em um ataque do U32 ao largo de Shetland enquanto estava em

passagem com outros navios de guerra para um ataque francês livre em Freetown. HMS ANTELOPE também foi

5º Desdobrado como escolta para os navios do 1º Esquadrão de Minelaying durante o minelay na Barragem do Norte.

(Operação SN14 - Consulte o Histórico do Estado-Maior Naval (Mineração) para obter detalhes.)

Passagem de outubro para Devonport para reequipamento

4º Recebido para reequipamento por HM Dockyard, Devonport

(Nota: Trabalho incluindo reparo para alimentar vazamentos de água (Veja acima) e substituição do gêmeo 4.7 pol.

montagem na posição X por montagem dupla de 4 pol. HA para melhorar a defesa AA.)

Testes de reajuste do Post de dezembro.

(Nota: Uma fonte registra atraso na conclusão devido à sabotagem de cabos elétricos.)

Passagem para retomar os deveres da Frota Doméstica da Flotilha em Scapa Flow como Líder do 4º Destroyer

Na chegada ao Scapa Flow, realizamos testes com protótipo de equipamento de radar

(Observação: uma fonte cita o Tipo 74X que não existe. Pode ter sido um teste inicial em

recém-instalado radar de controle de fogo Tipo 284 no HM Battleship KING GEORGE V.

Consulte RADAR AT SEA por D Howse.)

3º Desdobrado como escolta para HM Cruisers ARETHUSA e AURORA com os navios da Flotilla para

uma varredura ofensiva e minelay por HM Destroyers INTREPID e ICARUS fora de Egersund.

(Operação DZ - falhou depois que o contratorpedeiro na escolta abriu fogo contra minelayers.)

1º Nomeado para escolta de minelayers com navios da Home Fleet durante minelay planejado

(Operação EA - foi cancelada devido a condições climáticas adversas.)

1º Implantado com HM Destroyers SOMALI, BEDOUIN e ESKIMO como escolta para HM Landing

Navios (Infantaria) PRINCESA EMMA e PRINCESA BEATRIX durante a passagem para Lofoten

Ilhas para ataque de 3 e 4 Comandos como Força-Tarefa REBEL.

(Operação CLAYMORE - Para obter detalhes, consulte THE WATERY MAZE de B Fergusson.)

4º Forneceu suporte durante as operações de pouso.

A traineira KREBS foi interceptada ao largo de Svolvser e colocou o grupo de embarque a bordo. O ENIGMA

máquina de codificação e documentação de apoio foram recuperados e posteriormente usados ​​pela Bletchley

Equipe do parque para ajudar na descriptografia. (Veja QUEBRANDO O ENIGMA por D Khan e

INTELIGÊNCIA BRITÂNICA DURANTE A 2ª Guerra Mundial (Ed Hinsley para mais detalhes.)

10º Implantado em Scapa Flow para tarefas da frota doméstica da Flotilha

Tarefas da frota doméstica de abril, incluindo triagem das principais unidades durante a busca malsucedida de alemão

envia SCHARNHORST e GNEISENAU em aproximações NW.

Pode ser implantado para defesa do comboio do Atlântico

22ª Parte da escolta para mv BRITANNIC com HM Battleship RODNEY, HM Destroyers ESKIMO

MASHONA e SOMALI durante a passagem nas abordagens NW de Clyde.

24º Separado da escolta com HMS MASHONA e HMS SOMALI como tela para HM

Battleship RODNEY durante operação de busca por navios Home Fleet para o encouraçado alemão

BISMARCK após o naufrágio do HM Battlecruiser HOOD.

25º Separado da tela HMS RODNEY quando as condições meteorológicas tornavam impossível

27º Presente no naufrágio do BISMARCK.

Para obter detalhes sobre a busca e o naufrágio de BISMARCK, consulte a História do Estado-Maior Naval, PURSUIT por

L Kennedy e BATTLESHIP BISMARCK de Mullenheim Rechberg.)

Dia 28 Durante a passagem de retorno para Scapa Flow com HMS MASHONA foi atacado pesado

100 milhas a oeste da Irlanda, durante as quais o HMS MASHONA foi atingido e sofreu um ataque grave

dano . Após o naufrágio do navio, resgatou 14 oficiais e 215 soldados e pousou

Junho retomou as funções da flotilha com a frota doméstica

Indicado para operações de Home Fleet para capturar navio meteorológico alemão para obter

Máquina de codificação ENIGMA e documentação associada (Operação EC).

26ª Parte da escolta para o HM Cruiser NIGERIA com o HMS BEDOUIN durante a passagem de

Scapa Flow para a área da Ilha de Jan Mayen para capturar a traineira alemã a fim de recuperar

28º Traineira avistada LAUENBERG embarcou no navio que estava sendo afundado.

Apenas a documentação pode ser recuperada antes do navio afundar (veja a referência acima).

Julho Indicado para investigação do uso de Spitzbergen como base de abastecimento para escoltas de comboios russos.

27º Implantado com HM Cruisers AURORA, NIGERIA e HMS PUNJABI

em Spitzbergen para realizar o reconhecimento da ancoragem para uso futuro.

Primeiro, visitou o assentamento russo em Barentsburg com o HMS PUNJABI.

2. Cidadãos russos evacuados e estação meteorológica destruída na Ilha Bear.

4ª passagem para Scapa Flow de Murmansk após o desembarque de passageiros russos.

8º Retornado a Scapa Flow com HMS NIGERIA e HMS PUNJABI.

Presente durante a visita a Scapa Flow por HM King George VI e exercícios de demonstração.

17ª Parte da escolta de contratorpedeiro da Frota Doméstica para o HM Battleship PRINCE OF WALES durante

passagem de retorno da Islândia com o primeiro-ministro Winston Churchill embarcou.

(Nota: o primeiro-ministro participou da reunião da Carta do Atlântico com o presidente dos EUA

em Argentia Bay, Newfoundland.)

18º Primeiro Ministro embarcou do HMS PRINCE OF WALES em Clyde e o levou para

Greenock por seu retorno a Londres.

20º Implantado com HM Destroyers ANTELOPE, ANTHONY, ECLIPSE e ICARUS como

tela para HMS AURORA e HMS NIGERIA acompanhando ss EMPRESS OF

AUSTRALIA e RFA OLIGARCH para Spitzbergen para estabelecimento de guarnição

Na liberação da operação de Spitzbergen escoltou EMPRESS OF AUSTRALIA para

Murmansk levando mineiros russos e população norueguesa.

Desembarcaram russos e pegaram passagem para o Reino Unido como escolta para EMPRESS OF AUSTRALIA com

Os noruegueses ainda estão a bordo e se juntaram a outros navios GAUNTLET durante a passagem

(Nota: HMS NIGERIA e HMS AURORA realizaram um ataque a um comboio costeiro

neste período e afundou a camada de minério BREMSE.)

Data de conclusão da implantação GAUNTLET a ser confirmada.)

Passagem de setembro para Londres para reequipamento

2º Recebido para reequipamento por Green e Silley Weir, Royal Albert Dock.

(Nota: O trabalho realizado incluiu a remoção do mastro principal original para melhorar os arcos de artilharia,

encurtamento do funil posterior, reassentamento das posições de carga de profundidade e instalação do tipo

285 radar de artilharia para controle de fogo de armamento principal.)

17ª passagem para Scapa Flow na conclusão dos testes pós-reequipamento

Retomada do serviço da Frota Doméstica como Líder da 6ª Flotilha.

Novembro Implantação da Frota Doméstica para triagem, patrulha e defesa do comboio em continuação.

Janeiro Indicado para apoio e escolta de comboios russos com navios da frota doméstica

(Nota: Para obter detalhes de todas as operações do comboio russo, consulte CONVOYS TO RUSSIA by RA

Ruegg, THE RUSSIAN CONVOYS de B Schoefield, CONVOY 1 de P Kemp

4ª Parte da escolta para o Comboio Russo PQ7B com HM Destroyer ICARUS.

13º Juntou-se ao comboio de retorno QP5 como escolta para parte da passagem para a Islândia com o HM Cruiser

CUMBERLAND e HMS ICARUS.

10º Implantado com HM Destroyers ASHANTI, BEDOUIN, ECHO, ECLIPSE, FAULKNOR,

FURY, GROVE, ICARUS, INCONSTANT, INTREPID, JAVELIN, LANCASTER,

LEDBURY, LOOKOUT, ONSLOW, PUNJABI, VERDUN, WELLS e WOOLSTON como

tela para HM Battleships KING GEORGE V e DUKE OF YORK, HM Aircraft Carrier

VICTORIOUS, HM Cruisers KENYA e BERWICK fornecem cobertura distante para passagem

dos comboios russos PQI2, PQ13 e retornando QP9.

25ª Retomada das funções da Flotilha.

8º Entrou para HM Destroyers FAULKNOR, BEDOUIN e ESKIMO como tela para unidades de

Frota doméstica durante busca malsucedida pelo encouraçado alemão TIRPITZ no Mar do Norte.

Danos sustentados na montagem dianteira do canhão devido a operações de alta velocidade em condições meteorológicas adversas.

10º Retornado a Scapa Flow com unidades Fleet.

14º Realizou patrulha para ataques de navios na área de Bodo com HM Destroyers FURY.

INTREPID, ICARUS, ESKIMO e BEDOUIN.

20º Implantado com HM Destroyers ECHO, ASHANTI, BEDOUIN, ESCAPADE, ESKIMO,

FAULKNOR, FORESIGHT, ICARUS, INGLEFIELD, LEDBURY, MARNE,

MIDDLETON, ONSLOW, PUNJABI e WHEATLAND como tela para HMS KING

GEORGE V, DUQUE DE YORK, HM Battlecruiser RENOWN, HMS VICTORIOUS,

HM Cruiser EDINBURGH e HM Cruiser KENT fornecem cobertura distante para passagem

do comboio russo PQ13 e comboio de retorno QP9.

(Nota: Esses comboios tinham uma proteção ampliada por causa do aumento da ameaça de ataque

pelos cruzadores alemães SCHEER e HIPPER agora acompanhados pelo encouraçado TIRPITZ

Passagem para o casco para reparo de danos e reequipamento em estaleiro comercial.

28º Recebido pelo estaleiro Brigham and Cowan.

Abril Em conserto e reequipamento

7º Deveres da Frota de Casa Retomada após a conclusão dos testes pós-reequipamento.

Julho Flotilla deveres com Home Fleet em Scapa Flow para triagem e patrulha em continuação.

Agosto Nomeado para serviço destacado de apoio à operação de socorro em Malta

2º Partida de Clyde como escolta para comboios militares WS21 (Operação PEDESTAL).

9º Separado para reabastecer em Gibraltar e reunido após a conclusão.

10º Implantado com HM Destroyers LAFOREY, LIGHTNING, LOOKOUT, QUENTIN,

ESKIMO, SOMALI, WISHART, ANTELOPE, VANSITTART, ZETLAND and

ITHURIEL as screen for HM Battleships NELSON and RODNEY, HM Aircraft Carriers

EAGLE, INDOMITABLE and VICTORIOUS, HM Cruisers PHOEBE, SIRIUS and

CHARYBDIS to provide cover against surface attack on the convoy.

11th Under air and submarine attacks after sighting by Italian submarine UARSCIER.

(Note: HMS EAGLE was torpedoed by U73.)

12th Under further air and submarine attacks.

Carried out depth charge attacks which drove off Italian submarine GRANITO.

Drove off attack by Italian submarine EMO with HMS LOOKOUT.

During air attacks that evening both HMS INDOMITABLE and HMS FORESIGHT,

were damaged and put out of action.

Took damaged destroyer in tow and detached for passage to Gibraltar .

(For Details of passage of PEDESTAL convoy see PEDESTAL by P Smith, MALTA

CONVOYS by R Woodman, ENGAGE THE ENEMY MORE CLOSELY and the

13th Under unsuccessful attack by U73.

Scuttled HMS FORESIGHT 13 miles SW of Galita Island and took passage to Gibraltar

16th Passage to Scapa Flow with other Home Fleet ships detached for PEDESTAL

September Deployed with Flotilla at Scapa Flow for Home Fleet duties

9th Part of Fighting Escort for Russian Convoy PQ18 with HM Cruiser SCYLLA, HM

Destroyers ASHANTI , ESKIMO, FAULKNOR, FURY, IMPULSIVE, INTREPID,

MARNE , MARTIN, METEOR, MILNE, OFFA, ONSLOW, ONSLAUGHT,

( Note: HM Submarines also carried out anti-submarine escort duties. See references.)

17th Detached from PQ18 with HMS SCYLLA, HM Escort Aircraft Carrier AVENGER,

HM Destroyers ASHANTI , ESKIMO, FAULKNOR, FURY, INTREPID, MARNE ,

METEOR, MILNE, OFFA ONSLAUGHT, ONSLOW, OPPORTUNE, SOMALI,

WHEATLAND and WILTON . Joined return convoy QP14 as Fighting Escort.

. 20th Detached from QP14 having remained with convoy after Home Fleet escorts left.

October Nominated for detached service in support of planned allied landings hi North Africa .

Passage to Gibraltar as escort for military convoy.

November Deployed at Gibraltar to prepare for support of Operation TORCH.

(See ENGAGE THE ENEMY MORE CLOSELY and Naval Staff History.)

8th Deployed for screening of Fleet units and convoy defence during landings and follow-up

. to Attached to 6th Destroyer Flotilla after landings for anti-submarine patrol.

30th Nominated for service at Algiers with Force Q

December Deployed with Force Q for interception of enemy supply convoys to North Africa and for

January Provided screen for cruisers of Force Q during interception patrols and defence of coastal

to convoys between Algerian ports. Under air attacks.

March Detached for service at Mers-el-Kebir for defence of anchorage against anticipated attacks

by Italian human torpedoes.

( Note: This form of attacks had already been used against ships at Alexandria and

Gibraltar . No craft were sighted during this period and ship then resumed Force Q

April Force Q deployment in continuation.

28th Carried out attack on E-Boats near Marrettimo , Algeria .

7th Deployed with other destroyers of Mediterranean Fleet for blockade of Cape Bon area to intercept

craft attempting to evacuate enemy personnel from Tunisia (Operation RETRIBUTION).

(For details see ENGAGE THE ENEMY MORE CLOSELY and the Naval Staff History.)

Transferred to Malta with Force Q for support of planned invasion of Pantellaria .

Carried out bombardment of shore positions n Pantellaria prior to landings.

10th Joined HM Cruisers AURORA and NEWFOUNDLAND with HM Destroyers LAFOREY,

LOYAL, LOOKOUT, JERVIS, NUBIAN, TROUBRIDGE and WHADDON to cover attack on

Pantellaria (Operation CORKSCREW.).

11th Deployed as Guardship at Pantellaria pending arrival of naval occupation party.

On release from Guardship duty embarked senior officer for passage to Djidjelli , Algeria .

July Nominated for support of planned allied landings in Sicily (Operation HUSKY).

(For details see above references and THE NAVAL WAR IN THE MEDITERRANEAN

by J Greene and A Massignani .)

10th Deployed with Support Force East for escort of assault convoys and support of landings.

Provided gunfire support and patrols against surface and submarine attack on ships

11th During support deployment took part in rescue of 200 survivors from Hospital Ship TALAMBA

sunk by German air attack off beach head.

12th Sank ammunition ship BAARN which was on fire after air attacks.

13th Took damaged destroyer HMS ESKIMO in tow to Malta .

( Note: HMS ESKIMO had sustained major damage and flooding after air attacks.

August Support and patrol duties off Sicily in continuation.

Nominated for support of planned allied invasion of Italian mainland.

31st Provided naval gunfire support during landings in Calabria with HMS NELSON, HMS

RODNEY, HM Cruiser ORION, HM Destroyers OFFA, PETARD, QUAIL,

QUEENBOROUGH, QUILLIAM, TYRIAN, TROUBRIDGE and Polish PIORUN

September Nominated for support of allied landings at Salerno (Operation AVALANCHE).

Passage to Salerno area to join Northern Attack Force as part of Task Force 89.

9th Deployed with HM Destroyers LAFOREY, LOOKOUT and LOYAL of 19th Destroyer

Flotilla for gunfire support and defensive patrol duties off landing area.

19th Provided gunfire support during German counter-attack.

Under attacks by radio-controlled glider bombs.

October Support and patrol duties off west coast of Italy and Sicily in continuation.

Nominated for return to UK for refit.

30th Sailed from Gibraltar .

November Taken in hand for refit by HM Dockyard, Devonport.

Nominated for service in Plymouth Command on completion.

February Post refit trials.

March Deployed with HM Destroyers ASHANTI , ESKIMO, JAVELIN, HAIDA ( RCN ) and

HURON ( RCN ) as Leader of 10th Destroyer Flotilla deployed in Plymouth Command

for offensive patrols against coastal shipping of French coast (Operation TUNNEL

Series) and convoy defence. (See HOLD THE NARROW SEA by P Smith.)

10th Deployed with Flotilla for TUNNEL strike against German warships reported as escort

for German submarine on passage to Brest .

( Note: No interception was made as enemy ships remained close to coast.)

15th Deployed with HM Cruiser BELLONA as Force 26 and provided cover for operations

by coastal craft in defence of Convoy WP429 against E-Boat attacks off Lands End.

April Deployment at Plymouth for TUNNEL operations and convoy defence in continuation.

( Note: Extensive training exercises in preparation for allied landings in Norway were

being carried out in Plymouth Command and cover for these was provided by

larger warships when any enemy threat was anticipated. This ship was not involved

in the disastrous TIGER Exercise in Lyme Bay when several US Landing Ships

May Nominated with HMS BELLONA to provide cover for minelaying operations off French

coast by HM Minelaying Cruiser APOLLO as part of preparations for allied landings in

Normandy (HOSTILE series of Operations. See Naval Staff History (Mining) for details)

17th Deployed with HMS BELLONA and HMS APOLLO as escort for passage and execution of

minelay west of Ushant (Operation HOSTILE 32)

( Note: This operation had been abandoned earlier after escort opened fire on HMS APOLLO.)

20th Escorted HMS APOLLO with HMS BELLONA and ships of Flotilla for repeat minelay north

of Ushant . (Operation HOSTILE 33).

( Note: HMS BELLONA withdrew due to threat of submarine attack.)

22nd Escorted HMS APOLLO with ships of Flotilla for repeat minelay in Ile de Vierge area, off

Brittany (Operation HOSTILE 34).

25th Escorted HMS APOLLO with HMCS HURON covered by Coastal Command aircraft for final

minelay before landings (Operation HOSTILE 40)

June Nominated for support of allied landings in Normandy (Operation NEPTUNE)

(Note: For details of naval activities prior to and during landings see OPERATION

NEPTUNE by K Edwards and LANDINGS IN NORMANDY (HMSO).

6th Deployed with ships of Flotilla in western approaches to English Channel to prevent

Interference with landings or passage of convoys during NEPTUNE .

( Note: Polish Destroyers PIORUN and BLYSKAWICA were also deployed with 10th Flotilla.)

8th Patrol area shifted to NE of Ushant to meet possible threat from German destroyers.

9th In action with German warships with Flotilla and damaged by return fire.

Destroyer ZH1 (Ex Dutch GERARD KELENBERG) was later sunk by HMS ASHANT1 and Z32

was damaged and wrecked on Isle de Bas when driven ashore. Destroyers Z24 and T24 escaped.

(Note: 140 enemy survivors were rescued by British ships.)

11th Under repair of action damage at Devonport.

25th Resumed duties with Flotilla for support of Channel operations.

July Flotilla duties in English Channel for interception of enemy ships off French coast

7th Intercepted and engaged minesweepers of 46th German Flotilla off Channel

Islands and sank the minesweepers M4601 and M4605.

(Operation DREDGER -See HOLD THE NARROW SEA .)

August Channel interception with Flotilla in continuation.

6th During interception deployment with HMS BELLONA, HMS ASHANTI , HMCS

HAIDA and HMCS IROQUOIS carried out attack on convoy 32 miles SSW of St Nazaire.

( Note: Ships were deployed as Force 27).

The minesweepers M263 and M486, Patrol Boat V414 and a coastal launch together with

four small ships under escort were all sunk.

September Channel patrol and interception in continuation with Flotilla.

( Note: During this period extensive efforts were being made to evacuate German personnel

Nominated for service in Eastern Fleet after refit

February Post refit trials and prepared for service in East Indies Fleet as Leader of 10th Flotilla.

March Took passage from Clyde as part of escort for Escort Aircraft Carriers to Gibraltar .

12th Carried out exercises in Mediterranean before departure for Trincomalee.

April Passage in Mediterranean and Red Sea

20th Joined HM Destroyers VERULAM, NUBIAN and PENN in 10th Flotilla

28th Deployed as screen for HM Battleship QUEEN ELIZABETH, French Battleship

RICHELIEU, HM Escort Aircraft Carriers SHAH and EMPRESS, HM Cruisers

CUMBERLAND , SUFFOLK CEYLON and Dutch Cruiser TROMP with HM

Destroyers ROTHERHAM , VERULAM, NUBIAN and PENN for offensive

sweep in Andamans and Nicobars area as Force 63.

(Operation BISHOP. For details of East Indies Fleet operations in 1945 see THE

FORGOTTEN FLEET by J Winton and WAR WITH JAPAN (HMSO).

29th Refuelled from RFA OLWEN with destroyers of Force 63.

30th Took part in bombardment and fighter strike against airfield at Car Nicohar and at Port Blair

1st Took part in repeat bombardment at Car Nicobar .

2nd Took part in repeat bombardment at Port Blair.

3rd Passage with Force 63 to take up station for cover of landings at Rangoon .

4th Refuelled before joining HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH, HMS SUFFOLK, and Dutch TROMP

with HMS PENN to form Force 64.

6th Screen deployment during bombardments at Port Blair, Phoenix Bay , Mount Harrier and

Stewart Sound , North Andamans ,

9th Returned to Trincomalee with Force 64.

10th Joined HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH, HM Cruiser ROYALIST, HM Escort Aircraft Carriers

HUNTER, SHAH and EMPEROR, HMS CUMBERLAND and Dutch cruiser TROMP with

HMS Destroyers SAUMAREZ, VENUS, VERULAM, VIRAGO and VIGILANT of 26th

Flotilla, HMS ROTHERHAM and HMS NUBIAN in Force 61 (Operation DUKEDOM).

( Note: This Force was created in an emergency move to intercept Japanese warships known

to be on passage from Singapore in the Malacca Straits. See references.

13th Remained with HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH and major units of East Indies Fleet to continue

screening duties when 26th Flotilla detached for interception of Japanese warships.

( Note: The subsequent action is fully described in above references and SINK THE HAGURO

16th Under air attacks with Fleet units but these were unsuccessful.

21st Returned to Trincomalee with Fleet units.

5th Deployed with HM Destroyers ESKIMO. NUBIAN, PENN and PALADIN

as Force 65 to carry out attacks on shipping between Nicobars and Sabang

12th Attacked two ships off Rondo Island 20 miles north of Sabang with HMS NUBIAN and HMS

( Note: The ships were later identified as KUROSHIMA MARU No.2 and Submarine Chaser 57.

See OPERATION PACIFIC by E Gray and above references.

A rescue attempt by the two RN ships was made but Japanese sailors refused to come

Under attacks without damage or casualties.

15th Returned to Trincomalee.

July Deployed at Trincomalee inn preparation for planned landings in Malaya (Operation ZIPPER).

( Note: Did not take part in minesweeping cover operations.)

Part of screen for major units during passage in Indian Ocean awaiting approval for landings,

( Note: Start of ZIPPER was delayed by US insistence and problems related to the return of

long serving SEAC personnel to UK in the PYTHON Scheme

See WAR IN THE PACIFIC and Final Report of Supreme Commander SEAC (HMSO).

August East Indies Fleet duties in continuation.

8th Sailed from Penang for support of planned landings at Port Swettenham.

9th Provided support at MORIB Beach .

HMS TARTAR sailed from Penang on 7th September after being present at the surrender on 2nd of the month. She called a Trincomalee before taking passage to UK and arrived at Plymouth on 17th November 1945. The ship was Paid-off and placed in the Reserve Fleet there early in 1946 after de-storing and reduction to Reserve status. She was used as an Accommodation Ship for Reserve Fleet personnel before being placed on the Disposal List in 1947. Sold to BISCO for breaking-up on 6th Jan. 1948 this destroyer arrived at J Cashmere's yard in Newport, South Wales for demolition on 22nd February 1948. This destroyer had an outstanding record of service during WW2 having gained 12 more Battle Honours and served in most major Theatres of War. Only three others of this Class of 16 Fleet Destroyers built for the RN survived hostilities. The name was carried forward for the 18th time on 22nd September 1960 when given to a TRIBAL Class Frigate launched at HM Dockyard Devonport.

CONVOY ESCORT MOVEMENTS of HMS TARTAR

Estas listas de comboios não foram cruzadas com o texto acima


Historique

Sa mise en service fut grandement retardée par le manque d’affûts doubles disponibles. Après son entraînement, il escorte sur une partie du trajet le paquebot Empress of Australia transportant le roi George VI et la reine au Canada et aux États-Unis. Il va aussi participer aux recherches du sous-marin Tétis en baie de Liverpool en juin 1939 .

Lorsque la Seconde Guerre mondiale éclate au début de septembre 1939 , il est prêt à l’action au sein de la 6 e flottille de destroyers. Du 25 au 26 septembre , il escorte en compagnie du Somali et du Matabele le sous-marin Spearfish en grande difficulté dans la baie de Heligoland. Les quatre navires seront attaqués à maintes reprises par l’aviation allemande et rentreront sous la protection de la Home Fleet. Le Mashona passe ensuite en carénage au chantier Middle Dock Engineering de South Shileds du 25 octobre au 10 novembre 1939 . Durant le reste de l’hiver 1939-40, ses opérations consistent en patrouilles et en mission d’escortes, participant notamment aux recherches des croiseurs de bataille allemands Scharnhorst et Gneisenau après qu’ils aient coulés le croiseur auxiliaire HMS Rawalpindi le 23 novembre 1939 .

En mars 1940 , le Mashona est en refonte à Chatham, il sera démagnétisé à cette occasion. Lors de la campagne de Norvège, sa première mission sera d’escorter des navires marchands et le vieux destroyer HNoMS Draug échapper des ports norvégiens vers le Royaume-Uni. Durant cette campagne le Mashona a une activité très intense, il est notamment présent lors de la perte des destroyers Afridi et Gurkha. Il transporte des troupes à Namsos et participe à l’opération Foice, l’évacuation de 2 200 soldats des ports d’Åndalsnes et de Molde. Il escorte ensuite l’Ark Royal avant de participer aux recherches des survivants du porte-avions Glorioso en juin 1940 .

Le Mashona est présent lors de la saisie des navires suédois le 20 juin 1940 aux îles Féroé. Le 27 juin , il est endommagé par une vague durant une sortie de la Home Fleet et doit rejoindre Rosyth pour des réparations. Lors de son passage au bassin, il faut remplacer pas moins de 240 rivets et renforcer certaine partie de la coque. Après une autre période de service avec la Home Fleet, le Mashona est en refonte à Liverpool du mois d’ août 1940 au 5 octobre 1940 . La tourelle X est remplacé et des réparations de coques et machines effectués. De retour au sein de la Home Fleet, il porte assistance aux survivant du cargo Roturua torpillé et coulé le 11 décembre 1940 à 110 milles dans l’ouest de Saint-Kilda par le sous-marin allemand U-96 .

Le 6 janvier 1941 , il entre en collision avec son sister-ship Sikh à Scapa Flow et est envoyé au chantier Gray de West Hartlepool du 13 janvier au 3 mars 1941 . Le 23 mai 1941 , il quitte la Clyde en compagnie du Somali, esquimó et tártaro en escortant le cuirassé Rodney et le paquebot Britânico à destination de Boston. Deux jours plus tard, il est détaché avec les Somali, tártaro et Rodney pour participer à la traque du cuirassé allemand Bismark. Mais le 27 mai , les tártaro et Mashona sont renvoyés vers la côtes car ils sont à court de mazout. Le lendemain, alors qu'ils font route à la vitesse économique de 15 nœuds, ils sont découverts et attaqués par l’aviation allemande. À 09 h 10, le Mashona est touché à bâbord, au niveau de la cheminée arrière par une bombe qui explose dans la première chaudière. L’explosion va causer une grande brèche dans la coque. Le navire prend immédiatement de la gîte et doit être abandonné à 10 h 30 avant de chavirer, laissant seul l’arrière émergé. Le tártaro récupère 184 survivants qui seront débarqués à Greenock. L’épave est finalement coulé par les Sherwood et St. Clair à 13 h 16. Le Mashona perd dans l'attaque 46 hommes, dix blessés décéderont de leurs blessures.

Il reçut un total de deux honneurs de bataille pour son service pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale.


Why Mashona Cattle

Adaptability

Mashona cattle have had many hundreds of years in which to become adapted to the local environment, which is fundamental to considerations of the suitability of the Mashona as a breed to survive and produce in Zimbabwe. Of greatest importance in this respect are the nutritional constraints imposed by seasonal changes in the value of the veld grazing particularly in high rainfall areas on leached sandveld. A wet summer season (December – March) is followed by a longer dry winter season (April- November). The latter heralds a sharp decline in the crude protein content of the grass, an increase in crude fibre content and the consequent reduction in the digestibility of the veld . Thus, although cattle can make rapid livemass gains during summer, their ability to survive and remain productive during the winter period of sub-maintenance grazing is paramount.

Reprodução

Puberty and early calving: Puberty, or sexual maturity, is normally measured as the age at which the first behavioural oestrus (heat) occurs. The Mashona is an early sexually maturing breed, and although no data are available for young bulls, it is assumed that they will also become sexually competent at a relatively young age. The practical significance is that Mashona heifers can be effectively mated at 15 months of age as long as the plane of nutrition provides for sufficient growth and body mass.

Cow productivity

The commercial value of a beef cow must be measured by the output of calf, or meat, per livestock unit of cow over a given time span. This will most closely equate to output per hectare or per dollar invested.

The high calving percentage, pre-weaning survival rate and weaning mass per unit of cow size of the Mashona combine to give an annual production (kg of calf) per LU of cow above all other breeds in Zimbabwe.

Growth and efficiency

The adaptive traits of the Mashona render it particularly suitable for the efficient utilisation of, and the maximisation of growth from, the veld under more extensive systems of production. This ability may increase in importance in relation to the current trend in Zimbabwe away from pen fattening to more extensive systems of fattening off the veld.

Carcass conformation and quality

The main advantages of the Mashona are the relatively high dressing percentage and the ability, because of its early maturity, to fatten and finish at a low body mass. In addition, recent evidence has shown that the proportion of lean to bone and fat in the carcass is relatively high. The most economically important muscle in the carcass, the round or eye muscle, is particularly well developed in Mashona males. As the Mashona lays down a relatively high proportion of its fat in intramuscular form, this renders the meat juicier and more tender than in breeds which deposit a greater proportion as subcutaneous fat.


Coleção

The badge (or wappen) of the German battleship Bismarck (commissioned in 1940) originates from the family Coat of Arms of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck whose name the ship bears.

During her only naval operation, Bismarck, escorted by the cruiser Prinz Eugen, was to break through into the Atlantic to attack Allied convoys. But the secretive dash for open water did not go unnoticed: the ships were spotted and later intercepted by the British. On 24 May 1941, in the Denmark Strait, a shell from Bismarck struck the British battlecruiser HMS de capuz and the ship exploded. Contudo, Bismarck too was damaged and had to abandon her breakthrough mission. During an air raid carried out on 26-27 May by the combined forces of the Royal Navy, Bismarck was immobilized and ultimately sunk with artillery fire.

Prinz Eugen eram um Almirante Hipper-class heavy cruiser that entered service in 1940. The ship's badge (or wappen) includes elements from the Coat of Arms of the famous Prince Eugene of Savoy, the Austrian commander of the late 17th-early 18th centuries, whose name the ship bears.

During the Exercise Rhine (May 1941), the cruiser was to escort Bismarck during the breakthrough into the Atlantic to block Allied shipping. Em 24 de maio, Prinz Eugen was brought to action along with the battleship in the Denmark Strait, following which she detached from Bismarck to go on a solo raid (that brought no results).

The badge of Gotland, a seaplane cruiser of the Swedish Navy that entered service in 1934. It depicts elements of the Coat of Arms of the historical province of Gotland whose name the ship bears.

Gotland was the ship that first sighted Bismarck on 20 May 1941 when the German battleship broke out of the Baltic Sea, and relayed the sighting to the Swedish Navy commanders. The British Intelligence Service obtained that information and passed it to the Admiralty in London, which is when the hunt for the battleship began.

The official squadron badge for No. 209 Squadron (Royal Air Force). The falling eagle symbolizes the destruction of the legendary Baron Manfred von Richtofen — widely known as the Red Baron — who was credited to the guns of a pilot from No. 209 Squadron in 1918.

It was a PBY Catalina, a flying boat piloted by Dennis Briggs and Leonard B. Smith of No. 209 Squadron, which finally relocated Bismarck on the morning of 26 May 1941, after the British had lost contact a day earlier. This allowed the Royal Navy to converge fleets and finally sink the German battleship.

No. 1 Photo Recon Unit

The badge of Photographic Reconnaissance Unit No. 1, a special flying unit of the Royal Air Force, one of the main tasks of which was tot track the movements of warships of the Germany Navy.

On 21 May 1941, a Spitfire PR Mk. VI flown by Flying Officer Michael F. Suckling sighted and photographed the German battleship Bismarck e cruzador Prinz Eugen in Korsfjord, Norway. This way, the fact that the ships went to sea was confirmed, and the Home Fleet began regrouping its forces to intercept the raiders.

825 Naval Air Squadron

The badge of the 825 Naval Air Squadron (formed in 1934), a naval air squadron of the Royal Navy operating ship-based aircraft. The eagle and the Maltese cross symbolize the aircraft carrier Águia and the island of Malta where the squadron was based in the early years of service.

In May 1941, it was part of the aircraft complement of HMS Vitorioso. During the night of 24-25 May, eight Fairey Swordfish torpedo bomber aircraft operating within a squadron attacked Bismarck, scoring a hit amidships and forcing Bismarck to slow down. No aircraft were shot down during the attack, and they successfully made it back to the carrier despite their lack of experience with night-time takeoff and landing.

HMS Ark Royal was the first British aircraft carrier of the new generation, entering service in 1938. This ship had a significant impact on the development of this ship type in the Royal Navy.

She joined the hunt for Bismarck on 23 May 1941 within Force H from Gibraltar, with an aim to intercept the German raider. The carrier played a key role in the operation. On 26 May, her torpedo bombers made a decisive hit on Bismarck, jamming her rudder, which allowed British ships to catch up with and finally sink the battleship.

The badge of HMS de capuz, the biggest battlecruiser in the world that entered service in 1920. The ship was named after the 18th-20th century dynasty of Royal Navy admirals. It features elements from the Coat of Arms of the Hood family and the year in which the first ship named "Hood" was commissioned.

On 22 May 1941, the battlecruiser de capuz, flying the flag of Vice-Admiral Holland, was sent to intercept the battleship Bismarck that was heading towards the open Atlantic. The battle between Holland's units and the German ships occurred on the dawn of 24 may at the exit of the Denmark Strait. Several minutes into the fight, a shell from Bismarck bater de capuz’s ammunition stores and exploded, sinking the ship with almost all of her crew.

HMS Dorsetshire

The badge of HMS Dorsetshire, a County-class heavy cruiser of the Royal Navy that entered service in 1930. It depicts a lion, one of the main elements of the Coat of Arms of England and Dorset County, after which the cruiser was named.

On 26 May 1941, HMS Dorsetshire was called away from escorting a convoy and rushed for an interception course with the battleship Bismarck. The ship participated in the battle on 27 May in its final stages, whens he finished the German battleship off with several torpedo hits. HMS Dorsetshire rescued the majority of the survivors from the defeated German raider ship.

HMS Zulu era um Tribal-class destroyer commissioned in 1938. The ship's badge feathers elements of the traditional armament of the South African Zulu people.

In late May 1941, HMS Zulu — along with the ships of the 4th Destroyer Flotilla which were escorting a convoy across the Atlantic — was called away to join the hunt for Bismarck. During the night of 26-27 May, the ship attacked the German raider with torpedoes despite receiving damage from her guns.

The badge of HMS Norfolk, a County-class heavy cruiser that entered service in 1930. It features elements from the Coat of Arms of Norfolk County whose name the ship bears.

At the beginning of the operation, the ship patrolled the Denmark Strait along with cruiser HMS Suffolk. On 23 May, Norfolk spotted the German ships and radioed their location to the squadron of Vice-Admiral Holland. She pursued the German battleship until 25 May, and later participated in the battle of 27 May when Bismarck was sunk.

The badge of HMS Mashona, uma Tribal-class destroyer that entered service in 1939. It depicted the Bird of Zimbabwe, a legendary totem of the South African Mashona people.

In May 1941, HMS Mashona served within the escort fleet for one of the Altantic convoys. On 24 May, the ship was recalled to join the hunt for the battleship Bismarck. HMS Mashona and the battleship HMS Rodney chased the German raider until 27 May, but had to turn back due to a lack of fuel. The following day, she was sunk by German dive bombers that had been sent to assist Bismarck.

HMS Cossaco era um Tribal-class destroyer that entered service in 1938. She became famous for the boarding of the German tanker Altmark in Norwegian waters and teh associated rescue of 300 British sailors. The ship was named after the Russian Cossack people, a tradition in the British Navy since the middle of the 19th century.

In May 1941, she served as the flagship of Captain Phillip Vian, commander of the 4th Destroyer Flotilla that escorted British battleships. Quando Bismarck was detected on 26 May, Captain Vian — acting upon his own initiative — rushed to intercept the German raider. During the night of 26-27 May, Cossaco and other destroyers of her flotilla launched several torpedo attacks on the battleship and continued to keep her in sight, directing the main fleet forces towards Bismarck.

HMS Suffolk was a County-class heavy cruiser that entered service in 1928. The Castle and Key depicted on the ship's badge are elements of the emblem of the Suffolk Regiment, a motif derived from the battle honor granted following the Regiments' prominent part in the defense of Gibraltar at the end of the 18th century.

In May 1941, the ship patrolled the Denmark Strait along with cruiser HMS Norfolk. Suffolk made the first sighting report on Bismarck and, while maintaining radar contact with her, kept the fleet of Vice-Admiral Holland updated as to the enemy battleship's whereabouts. She participated in the battle in the Denmark Strait as well as in the hunt for the German battleship up until 25 May.

HMS Renome was a battlecruiser of the Royal Navy that entered service in 1916. The classical symbols depicted on the ship's badge — the laurel wreath and the torch of glory — echo the name of the ship.

From 23 May 1941, HMS Renome, under the flag of Vice-Admiral Somerville, took part in the hunt for battleship Bismarck. On 26 May, Force H headed by the battlecruiser appeared to be the only force capable of holding off the raider ship's breakthrough to France. The main task for HMS Renome was to provide cover for the aircraft carrier Ark Royal that had delivered the major blow to the German battleship.

HMS Sheffield was a Town-class light cruiser that entered service in 1937. The design of the ship's badge was derived from teh Coat of Arms of Sheffield city, which the cruiser was named after.

On 23 May 1941, HMS Sheffield left Gibraltar with Force H to participate in the operation to destroy Bismarck. On 26 May, on the order of Vice-Admiral Somerville, she established radar contact with the German raider ship and radioed her location to Ark Royal’s aircraft, which dealt fatal damage to the battleship.

HMS tártaro era um Tribal-class destroyer of the Royal Navy that was commissioned in 1939. The ship was named after the Tartar people living in Russia, a tradition in the Royal Navy since the middle of the 19th century, and the ship's badge echoed her name.

In May 1941, HMS tártaro, along with battleship HMS Rodney and the destroyers HMS Somali e HMS Mashona, served with one of the escort fleets for an Atlantic convoy. On 24 May, the escort was called off to join the hunt for Bismarck. HMS tártaro took off after the German raider and pursued her until the morning of 27 May, when the latter was sunk. On the way back to her base, the destroyer fought off an attack from German dive bombers and took onboard the crew of HMS Mashona after she was destroyed.

The badge of HMS Rodney, uma Nelson-class battleship, that was commissioned in 1927. The Eagle depicted on it was one of the elements of the Coat of Arms of the 18th century Admiral George Rodney, for whom the ship was named.

After HMS de capuz was destroyed in the Denmark Strait, on 24 May 1941, HMS Rodney was withdrawn from a convoy heading to the U.S. and ordered to go after Bismarck. Rodney participated in the search and pursuit for three days, playing a crucial role in the battleship's sinking on 27 May.

HMS Rei george v

HMS Rei george v was the lead ship of a series of battleships of the Royal Navy. The ship was first commissioned in 1940. Her badge depicts the monogram of King George V (1865-1936) whom the battleship was named after.

In May 1941, HMS Rei george v was the flagship of Admiral Tovey, Commander-in-Chief of the British Home Fleet who was put in charge of the operation to intercept and destroy the battleship Bismarck. She participated in the hunt for the German raider ship and her ultimate destruction in action on 27 May.

HMS Vitorioso foi um dos Ilustre-class aircraft carriers innovative ships, they were the first ships of their type to receive an armored flight deck. She entered service in 1941. The ship's badge depicts Victoria, the ancient Roman goddess of victory.

In May 1941, the newly commissioned aircraft carrier was included in the main forces of the Home Fleet and took part in the hunt for the German battleship Bismarck. During the night of 24-25 May, in severe weather conditions, the torpedo bombers of 825 Naval Squadron carried by HMS Vitorioso scored a direct hit against Bismarck, flooding several of the ship's compartments.

HMS Maori era um Tribal-class destroyer that entered service in 1939. The main element of the ship's badge was one of the traditional symbols of the indigenous, warlike Maori people of New Zealand.

In May 1941, HMS Maori was assigned to the 4th Destroyer Flotilla commanded by Captain Phillip Vian. From 26 May, the ship took part in the pursuit of Bismarck. During the overnight battle that continued into the dawn of 27 May, Maori made two torpedo attacks on the German battleship, and the nest day she rescued some of the survivors from the defeated Bismarck.

HMS príncipe de Gales

HMS príncipe de Gales era um Rei george v-class battleship of the Royal Navy that entered service in 1941. The ship's badge depicts elements from the Coat of Arms of the Prince of Wales against the background of the Cross of Saint George, the patron saint of England.

On 22 May 1941, as a part of Vice-Admiral Holland's combined forces, the ship was sent to intercept the German battleship Bismarck. In the battle that occurred on 24 May in the Denmark Strait, príncipe de Gales was damaged and had to break off from action, having delivered a number of successful hits on Bismarck that made the German battleship abandon her raiding plans.

HMS Sikh era um Tribal-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. The ship entered service in 1938. HMS Sikh was named after the Sikh people living in northern India where the lion — Singh — is a cultural symbol. This symbol became the main element depicted on the ship's badge.

In May 1941, HMS Sikh was assigned to the 4th Destroyer Flotilla of the Royal Navy. The ship joined pursuit of the battleship Bismarck along with the other ships of her flotilla on 26 May. Sikh took part in torpedo attacks on Bismarck overnight into 27 May and subsequently shadowed the battleship until the arrival of the main forces of the Home Fleet.

The naval jack of ORP Piorun, an N-class destroyer laid down in England as HMS Nerissa but later transferred to Poland (in 1940). The naval jack of the Polish navy is based on a traditional 17th century fighting jack design of a scimitar ready to strike at the enemy.

During the operation to destroy the battleship Bismarck, ORP Piorun was assigned to the 4th Destroyer Flotilla of the Royal Navy. During the night of 26-27 May, she was the first to establish visual contact with the battleship and charged at Bismarck by herself. Alone, Piorun exchanged fire with Bismarck with neither side scoring any hits.


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