Telesila, Poetisa Guerreira de Argos, que se destacou no campo de batalha e no quarto

Telesila, Poetisa Guerreira de Argos, que se destacou no campo de batalha e no quarto

Um antigo oráculo contado por uma sacerdotisa Pítia diz: " Mas quando chegar o tempo em que a mulher vence na batalha, expulsando o homem, e ganha grande glória em Argos, então muitas esposas dos argivos rasgarão ambas as faces em seu luto . ” Este oráculo foi mais tarde mencionado pelo historiador Heródoto (c. 484 - c. 425 aC) e pelo geógrafo Pausânias (c. 110 dC - c. 180 dC). A mulher a que este oráculo se refere era Telesila, uma mulher conhecida por sua liderança em Argos durante sua crise política e militar e sua reconstrução subsequente. Telesila não era apenas uma guerreira, mas também uma poetisa. Ela era evidentemente famosa o suficiente para que Antípatro de Tessalônica, autor de mais de uma centena de epigramas da Antologia Grega, considerou adequado incluí-la em seu cânone de nove poetisas.

Calliope, musa da eloqüência e poesia épica de Cesare Dandini. Christie's

Na batalha, Telesilla era formidável. No dele Virtudes Mulierum (Bravura das Mulheres ), Plutarco conta que em 494 aC, quando o rei dos espartanos Cleomenes I moveu suas tropas contra a cidade de Argives, depois de matar muitos dos homens argivos, as mulheres mais jovens de Argives se levantaram para conter o inimigo e preservar seu país. Lideradas por Telesila, as mulheres pegaram em armas e guardaram os muros ao redor da cidade. Sócrates relata que apesar de terem sofrido grandes perdas em seu número, as mulheres lutaram contra Cleomenes e outro rei, Demarato, que havia conseguido se infiltrar na muralha da cidade e obter a posse do Panfílíaco. As mulheres salvaram a cidade e aqueles que morreram em batalha foram enterrados perto da Estrada Argive. Uma estátua de Ares foi erguida como um memorial ao valor daqueles que morreram e daqueles que sobreviveram. Diz a lenda que a batalha aconteceu no sétimo dia do mês, que agora é conhecido como tetartou (Quarto mês). Polyaenus conta que os argivos conheceram este mês como Hermaeus. No primeiro dia do mês de Hermaeus, eles celebraram o Hybristika (Festival da Impudência) onde as mulheres estavam vestidas com camisas e mantos masculinos, e os homens com véus e mantos femininos.

Sacerdotisa de Delphi por John Collier, mostrando a Pítia sentada em um tripé com vapor saindo de uma fenda na terra abaixo dela (1891) Art Gallery South Australia

Telesila, a poetisa doente

Telesila, a mulher que se credita a instigar a ascensão das mulheres de Argos, era uma poetisa. Filha de uma família conhecida, Telesila era uma jovem doente.


Espartanos vs Mulheres de Argos

O rei Cleomenes e os espartanos pensaram que sua guerra contra Argos havia acabado. A vitória era deles! O exército argivo foi dizimado e alguns sobreviventes fugiram do campo de batalha para um bosque sagrado como refúgio. Esses homens foram facilmente exterminados & # 8211 queimados vivos quando os soldados espartanos atearam fogo aos pinheiros. Agora, tudo o que faltava era marchar sobre Argos e conquistar a cidade tão famosa pela música e poesia.

A batalha (cerca de 510-494 aC) foi celebrada na arte e na literatura grega. De acordo com relatos lendários registrados por Heródoto, Pausânias e Luciano, as mulheres argivas salvaram sua cidade do ataque espartano. Dentro das muralhas da cidade, uma ilustre poetisa chamada Telesilla assumiu o comando. Ela enviou velhos, meninos e escravos domésticos para cuidar das paredes. Enquanto isso, ela e as mulheres de Argos pegaram armas e armaduras de casas e templos. Vestidas com roupas masculinas, as mulheres se aglomeraram onde os espartanos estavam iniciando o ataque final. Resolutas e imperturbáveis ​​pelos terríveis gritos de batalha dos espartanos e # 8217, as mulheres enfrentaram o ataque espartano com bravura, mantiveram sua posição e lutaram com surpreendente força.

Agora Cleomenes e seus homens enfrentavam um dilema. Seria um tipo inglório de vitória se eles massacrassem mulheres tão valentes. Mas, por outro lado, que desastre vergonhoso seria se os guerreiros espartanos do crack de alguma forma falhassem em derrotar as mulheres.

Os espartanos se retiraram e renderam a batalha a Telesila e suas forças.

Por causa da vitória das mulheres, dizia-se que as mulheres de Argos adoravam Ares, o deus da guerra. Escrevendo cerca de 600 anos após a batalha, Pausânias visitou Argos e descreveu um alívio perto do teatro e santuário de Afrodite em homenagem a Telesila como a poetisa-guerreira. Ela foi retratada vestindo um capacete, com seus livros de poesia a seus pés. Essa escultura não existe mais, mas pequenos fragmentos da poesia de Telesilla & # 8217 sobrevivem. Parece que ela escreveu canções para meninas e poemas sobre temas míticos. Dada a coragem amazônica de Telesila e de suas recrutas, talvez não seja surpresa que a bela cabeça de uma amazona, na foto acima, tenha sido feita em Argos no final do século V aC.


Espécies de plantas culturalmente significativas dos povos indígenas

O último estudo focou em locais ricos em artefatos que já haviam sido ocupados pelos povos Pueblo do Planalto do Colorado, incluindo Hopi, Zuni, Utes e Navajo (Diné).

Os cientistas estavam interessados ​​principalmente em pesquisar espécies de plantas de povos pueblo culturalmente significativas que crescem na área. As populações de puebloans na região estavam em seu pico há 1.000 anos, e essas espécies teriam sido usadas naquela época e em anos posteriores para alimentos, remédios e propósitos cerimoniais ou religiosos.

No total, os pesquisadores identificaram e coletaram amostras de mais de 117 espécies de plantas que sabiam ter algum significado para os residentes indígenas antigos e modernos relacionados aos povos Pueblo. Todas essas espécies foram encontradas nas proximidades de vários sítios arqueológicos de Puebloan, e outros locais na área foram verificados para ver se os mesmos tipos de plantas poderiam ser encontrados fora desses locais.

A distribuição dessas espécies de plantas foi surpreendente e reveladora. Como os cientistas explicaram em seu relatório de 17 de maio no Anais da Academia Nacional de Ciências (PNAS), a ecologia vegetal da paisagem parecia ter sido moldada por um planejamento intencional.

Muitas espécies de plantas foram encontradas crescendo quase exclusivamente perto dos sítios arqueológicos de Puebloan, onde grupos nativos se estabeleceram em populações grandes ou pequenas. Em locais distantes dos assentamentos de povos Pueblo, essas plantas em particular raramente foram encontradas. Perto dos maiores e mais complexos sítios arqueológicos, os pesquisadores encontraram um número maior de diferentes espécies culturalmente importantes, em comparação com sítios menores que tinham menos diversidade de plantas.

“As plantas não estavam aleatoriamente apenas lá”, explicou Pavlik em um comunicado à imprensa da Universidade de Utah. “As pessoas trouxeram propágulos [sementes ou botões] da espécie com eles.”

Os povos pueblo do planalto do Colorado deixaram uma marca clara de sua presença. Exceto neste caso, os artefatos descobertos eram plantas, em vez das produções culturais usuais como cerâmica, ferramentas ou armas.

“Este é um dos raros momentos na literatura arqueológica em que as pessoas investiram em espécies nativas e as trouxeram para suas habitações”, continuou Pavlik. “Isso indica este nível mais alto de manipulação da paisagem, o que chamamos de 'legado ecológico' da ocupação humana passada.”

No geral, havia pelo menos 31 espécies que pareciam ter sido plantadas ou cultivadas intencionalmente nas áreas onde viviam os povos Pueblo. Pode ter havido mais, mas algumas das espécies de plantas comuns em sítios arqueológicos também eram comuns em outras áreas, tornando impossível dizer se foram plantadas intencionalmente ou se espalharam naturalmente.

Sociedades sustentáveis ​​e ecologicamente corretas, como os povos Pueblo, criadas há mais de 1.000 anos, são úteis hoje para compreender essas sociedades, as nossas e onde procurar outros artefatos. ( sodawhiskey / Adobe Stock)


O mundo treme, mas o Khan não

Depois de muito debate, Timur decidiu seguir em frente e se preparar para uma invasão massiva. Enquanto preparava suas forças, ele enviou o príncipe Pir Mohammed Jahangir à frente para colocar a cidade sagrada de Multan (localizada no atual Paquistão) sob cerco.

Multan é famosa por seu grande número de santuários sufis, incluindo a tumba retangular única de Shah Gardez, que data da década de 1150 e é coberta por azulejos esmaltados azuis típicos de Multan. (Junaidahmadj /CC BY-SA 3.0)

Enquanto isso acontecia, Timur ordenou a montagem de noventa mil soldados. Para se certificar de que todos estavam a bordo, Timur pediu um Qurultay, que é uma reunião com todos os príncipes, chefes e outros funcionários para informá-los quais eram suas intenções.

Embora a verdadeira fé seja observada em muitos lugares da Índia, a maior parte do Reino é habitada por idólatras. Os sultões de Delhi têm sido negligentes em sua defesa da fé. Os governantes muçulmanos se contentam com a coleta de tributos desses infiéis. O Alcorão diz que a maior dignidade que um homem pode alcançar é fazer guerra aos inimigos de nossa religião. Maomé, o Profeta, aconselhou como sábio. Um guerreiro muçulmano morto assim adquire um mérito que o traduz imediatamente para o paraíso.

Timur também deixou claro que eles deveriam temer a ele e a seu exército, pois "a maior parte da Ásia está sob nosso domínio, e o mundo treme ao mínimo movimento que fazemos". Timur também viu o destino a seu lado e acreditou ter sido abençoado com oportunidades favoráveis. Por causa disso, seus exércitos cavalgaram “para o sul, não para o leste. A Índia, por meio de seus distúrbios, abriu suas portas para nós. ”

Timur enviou uma carta endereçada a Sarang Khan de Dipalpur com um possível acordo:

Se os governantes do Hindustão vierem até mim com tributo, não interferirei em suas vidas, propriedades ou reinos, mas se eles forem negligentes em oferecer obediência e submissão, empregarei minhas forças para a conquista dos reinos da Índia. Em todo caso, se eles derem algum valor às suas vidas, propriedades e reputação, eles me pagarão um tributo anual e, se não, ouvirão sobre minha chegada com meus poderosos exércitos. Até a próxima.

É difícil levar um império ao seio, como uma noiva, sem problemas e dificuldades e o choque de espadas. O desejo de seu príncipe é tomar este reino com suas ricas receitas. Bem, deixe-o arrancar de nós pela força das armas, se puder. Tenho numerosos exércitos e elefantes formidáveis ​​e estou bem preparado para a guerra.


Tag: The Thing 1982

Foi uma década de Elvis, Eisenhower, Guerra Fria, bombas atômicas e filmes de ficção científica! Não nasci nos anos 50, mas gostaria de ter ido aos cinemas e drive-ins durante os anos 50 para ver essas joias da ficção científica. Os filmes de ficção científica dos anos 50 foram desaparecendo lentamente entre os jovens. Os baby boomers, a Geração X e a primeira onda de Millennials são os últimos a se lembrar de tais filmes piscando na TV. Dependendo de onde você mora, canais como TBS, USA, TNT, talvez sua estação local fosse conhecida por esses filmes nos anos 80 e 90. Tenho saudades daqueles dias e de ver esses filmes na TV.

É óbvio que adoro filmes de ficção científica dos anos 1950! Claro, isso se deve à idade e à cultura familiar. Eu nasci em 1977 em uma família sulista que era grande em ficção científica e filmes de terror. Ele tinha que ter os três B's (Sangue, seios e feras) de acordo com Job Bob Briggs para ser assistido.

Como a maioria da minha idade, fomos expostos aos filmes passando na TV do modelo do chão ou algo compacto. Foi durante uma época em que você assistia ao filme ou não. Ao contrário de hoje, onde você pode comprar ou alugar com um clique. Era uma época em que você alugava o filme ou esperava que ele fosse ao ar na TV. Em algum momento do ano, eles exibirão o filme em um dos poucos canais à sua disposição. Ainda temos um problema, que são as locadoras de vídeo. A maioria das locadoras da sua mãe e pai não vendia todos os filmes porque eram pequenas empresas. Ao contrário do Blockbuster ou de um Family Video que tinha uma vasta videoteca à sua disposição, também tinha pouco dependendo do seu gosto. A única e talvez a primeira locadora de vídeo que tínhamos em Kendallville durante o início até meados dos anos 80 chamava-se Genie & # 8217s. Genie & # 8217s teve talvez cinquenta filmes no máximo, possivelmente mais, mas não me lembro de ter muito para selecionar. O que me lembro é como era emocionante ir lá nos fins de semana. A maioria dos filmes que apresentavam era drama ou ação. Mas eles tinham uma bela estante dedicada ao terror! O problema é que os filmes de ficção científica dos anos 50 eram difíceis de conseguir. Eu poderia alugar Sexta-feira 13 (1980), um filme legal que assisti várias vezes com a família, mas não posso alugar The Thing (1951)! Minha única esperança era esperar que mamãe comprasse o guia semanal da TV para que eu pudesse folhear e circular os filmes que desejo assistir. Meu avô me ensinou esta arte desde muito jovem, e ele era um PRO!

A primeira vez que fui exposto a um filme de terror de ficção científica de que me lembro foi Criatura da Lagoa Negra (1954). Eu vi este filme pela primeira vez na TV na casa da minha tia e do meu tio em Michigan entre 1980-81, então eu tinha cerca de 3-4 anos na época. O filme me cativou e me assustou. Também não ajudou o fato de ser noite e eu estar vendo o filme no campo. Foi aquela noite e o filme que despertou meu caso de amor pelos filmes de ficção científica dos anos 1950. No ano seguinte, encontrei a versão americana de Godzilla (1956). Encontrei este filme na locadora da Genie & # 8217s. Eu vi esta criatura gigante na capa do VHS que dizia: “Godzilla: Rei dos Monstros!” Eu tinha que ver isso!

Eu estava em choque e pasmo quando criança e continuei procurando que isso aparecesse na TV. Tentei alugar o filme com frequência, mas para minha surpresa, outras pessoas gostaram do filme e o alugaram. É como tentar alugar o Tecmo Super Bowl em sua mercearia local para descobrir que ele está faltando todas as sextas e sábados! Mas estou divagando. Durante esse tempo, me deparei com muitos movimentos estranhos, a maioria dos quais mencionados por minha família. Eles conversariam sobre filmes como The Blob (1958), The Thing from Another World (1951), War of the Worlds (1953), Them (1954), 20 Million Miles to Earth (1957), Forbidden Planet (1956) e The Fly (1958), para citar apenas alguns. Esses filmes eram apenas mitos que eu precisava investigar.

Esses filmes e muitos outros dos anos 50 não mencionados, eu procuraria religiosamente no guia da TV e procuraria na locadora local, na esperança de que eles os vendessem. Eventualmente, a Genie's fecharia as portas e a próxima locadora seria a Video Connection, que mais tarde se tornou a Video Unlimited. Foi aqui que consegui alugar muitos dos movimentos listados. Por muito tempo, muitos dos filmes nada mais eram do que mitos e lendas, até que os encontrei na locadora ou na TV. Depois que os anos 1980 desapareceram, esses filmes ainda eram exibidos na TV a cabo. Canais como a rede dos EUA ou TBS eram conhecidos por exibir esses recursos, especialmente em Commander USA & # 8217s Groovie Movies e Super Scary Saturday. Todos os sábados, os dois programas seriam reproduzidos ao mesmo tempo, mas com cinco minutos de diferença. O Commander USA começava ao meio-dia e o Super Scary Saturday às 12h05 e alternava entre os dois programas. Mas, com a década de 90, esses filmes foram lentamente desaparecendo da TV a cabo. Canais como TBS e TNT ainda os exibiam de vez em quando. Especialmente na TNT, com o nascimento da Monstervision começando em 1991 durante seus estágios iniciais, em vez de meados do final dos anos 90, apresentado por Joe Bob Briggs. Isso é compreensível, já que muitas pessoas queriam ver filmes mais modernos e ainda querem. Quando chegou a década de 2000, raramente aparecia um filme de ficção científica dos anos 50. Na década de 2010, ele praticamente desapareceu da TV a cabo. Claro, todos os anos no Halloween, TCM e AMC mostram alguns desses filmes, mas não muitos.

James Hendricks como & # 8220Commander USA & # 8221
Al Lewis as & # 8220Grampa & # 8221

A boa notícia é que esses filmes estão de volta, mas principalmente transmitidos por streaming, e isso é uma coisa boa. Por quase 15 anos, era raro ver algo desse tipo em um cabo básico ou premium. Com o advento do streaming e do Blu-rays, eles estão mais acessíveis para comprar e alugar. Para não esquecer, onde eu moro, temos dois grandes apresentadores de terror que mostram esse tipo de filme. Eles são Svengoolie na MeTV Fort Wayne às 20h e Lord Blood-Rah na MyTV Fort Wayne às 22h todos os sábados.

A má notícia é que os filmes de ficção científica de 1950 são um gosto adquirido. Para os Baby Boomers, Geração X e alguns Millennials, você amou ou odiou esses filmes. Eu, pelo menos, com muitos da mesma idade, talvez um pouco mais jovens ou mais velhos, tenho uma apreciação por esses filmes, que foram em um momento um mistério e um mito até que vimos com nossos próprios olhos - mais ou menos como O Texas Chainsaw Massacre (1974). Eu cresci vendo o filme e não era um mito & # 8211 ele era real! Mas a maioria dos meus amigos nunca viu o filme, e o boato persistiu até que o viram em algum local seguro e secreto, longe de seus pais e provavelmente com aquele único membro da família que estava um pouco estranho. Acho que minha família era estranha, já que essa era uma exibição normal para nós. De qualquer forma, os jovens de hoje não têm ideia. Ok, para ser justo, alguns fazem. Para a maioria, os filmes são antigos e em preto e branco. Se isso não for ruim o suficiente, os efeitos são estúpidos e a atuação é ainda pior. No entanto, muitos jovens que assistem a um filme de terror de ficção científica não percebem que existe um original. Veja John Carpenter & # 8217s The Thing (1982). Muitas pessoas que o viram sabiam que havia um original feito em 1951 por Howard Hawks. De certa forma, isso é bom porque traz de volta aquele mito e status lendário para esses filmes dos anos 50 que se enquadram no gênero de terror de ficção científica.

Embora seja terrível que eu não possa folhear os canais para encontrar um bom recurso de criatura de terror de ficção científica na TV durante a semana, agora posso comprá-los ou transmiti-los por um preço barato ou de graça. Agradeço a Deus por streaming, mídia física, Svengoolie, Lord Blood-Rah, The Haunted Hotel de Rob Graves e The Last Drive-In com Joe Bob Briggs!


Telesila: Mulher Argiva, Poeta Guerreira

“Além do teatro está o santuário de Afrodite. Na frente da fundação está uma estela na qual Telesila, uma poetisa lírica, é retratada. Seus livros são jogados perto de seus pés enquanto ela olha para o capacete que segura na mão quando está prestes a colocá-lo na cabeça. Telesila era famosa entre as mulheres e especialmente homenageada por sua poesia.

Mas uma história maior sobre ela vem de quando os argivos foram derrotados por Kleomenes, filho de Alexandrides e dos lakedaimonianos. Alguns argivos morreram durante a própria batalha e, no entanto, muitos fugiram para o bosque de Ares morreram lá também - a princípio eles deixaram o bosque sob um armistício, mas perceberam que foram enganados e foram queimados com o resto no bosque. Como resultado, Kleomenes levou os espartanos a um Argos privado de homens.

Mas Telesila postou na muralha da cidade todos os escravos que não podiam portar armas por causa da juventude ou velhice e, depois de coletar quantas armas haviam ficado nas casas ou nos santuários, ela armou todas as mulheres na idade mais forte e assim que ela se armou, eles assumiram os postos onde o exército iria atacar.

Quando os espartanos se aproximaram e as mulheres não ficaram maravilhadas com seu grito de guerra, mas esperaram e lutaram bravamente, então os espartanos, porque raciocinaram que se matassem as mulheres, a vitória seria mal divulgada, mesmo que sua própria derrota viria com grande insulto, rendeu-se às mulheres.

A sacerdotisa de Pítia previu essa disputa anteriormente na profecia transmitida por Heródoto, que pode ou não ter entendido (6.77):

Mas quando a fêmea conquista o macho
E o afasta e ganha glória para os argivos,
Isso fará com que muitas mulheres argivas rasguem o rosto.

Estas são as palavras do oráculo sobre a conquista das mulheres. ”

ὑπὲρ δὲ τὸ θέατρον Αφροδίτης ἐστὶν ἱερόν, ἔμπροσθεν δὲ τοῦ ἕδους Τελέσιλλα ἡ ποιήσασα τὰ ᾄσματα ἐπείργασται στήλῃ · καὶ βιβλία μὲν ἐκεῖνα ἔρριπταί οἱ πρὸς τοῖς ποσίν, αὐτὴ δὲ ἐς κράνος ὁρᾷ κατέχουσα τῇ χειρὶ καὶ ἐπιτίθεσθαι τῇ κεφαλῇ μέλλουσα. ἦν δὲ ἡ Τελέσιλλα καὶ ἄλλως ἐν ταῖς γυναιξὶν εὐδόκιμος καὶ μᾶλλον ἐτιμᾶτο ἔτι ἐπὶ τῇ ποιήσει. συμβάντος δὲ Αργείοις ἀτυχῆσαι λόγου μειζόνως πρὸς Κλεομένην τὸν Αναξανδρίδου καὶ Λακεδαιμονίους, καὶ τῶν μὲν ἐν αὐτῇ πεπτωκότων τῇ μάχῃ, ὅσοι δὲ ἐς τὸ ἄλσος τοῦ Αργου κατέφευγον διαφθαρέντων καὶ τούτων, τὰ μὲν πρῶτα ἐξιόντων κατὰ ὁμολογίαν, ὡς δὲ ἔγνωσαν ἀπατώμενοι συγκατακαυθέντων τῷ ἄλσει τῶν λοιπῶν, οὕτω τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους Κλεομένης ἦγεν ἐπὶ ἔρημον ἀνδρῶν τὸ ῎Αργος. Τελέσιλλα δὲ οἰκέτας μὲν καὶ ὅσοι διὰ νεότητα ἢ γῆρας ὅπλα ἀδύνατοι φέρειν ἦσαν, τούτους μὲν πάντας ἀνεβίβασεν ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος, αὐτὴ δὲ ὁπόσα ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις ὑπελείπετο καὶ τὰ ἐκ τῶν ἱερῶν ὅπλα ἀθροίσασα τὰς ἀκμαζούσας ἡλικίᾳ τῶν γυναικῶν ὥπλιζεν, ὁπλίσασα δὲ ἔτασσε κατὰ τοῦτο ᾗ τοὺς πολεμίους προσιόντας ἠπίστατο. ὡς δὲ & ltἐγγὺς & gt ἐγίνοντο οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες οὔτε τῷ ἀλαλαγμῷ κατεπλάγησαν δεξάμεναί τε ἐμάχοντο ἐρρωμένως, ἐνταῦθα οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, φρονήσαντες ὡς καὶ διαφθείρασί σφισι τὰς γυναῖκας ἐπιφθόνως τὸ κατόρθωμα ἕξει καὶ σφαλεῖσι μετὰ ὀνειδῶν γενήσοιτο ἡ συμφορά, ὑπείκουσι ταῖς γυναιξί. πρότερον δὲ ἔτι τὸν ἀγῶνα τοῦτον προεσήμηνεν ἡ Πυθία, καὶ τὸ λόγιον εἴτε ἄλλως εἴτε κοδ ὡενεν

ἀλλ & # 8217 ὅταν ἡ θήλεια τὸν ἄρρενα νικήσασα
ἐξελάσῃ καὶ κῦδος ἐν ᾿Αργείοισιν ἄρηται,
πολλὰς ᾿Αργείων ἀμφιδρυφέας τότε θήσει.

τὰ μὲν ἐς τὸ ἔργον τῶν γυναικῶν ἔχοντα τοῦ χρησμοῦ ταῦτα ἦν ·

Plutarco, Sobre as virtudes das mulheres 245d-f6 relata uma versão desse conto que o Suda (s.v. Telesilla) provavelmente leva seu relato de Pausanias.

“Telesila, uma poetisa. Em uma estela, seus livros são jogados ao redor e ela colocou um capacete na cabeça. E quando os lakedaimonianos massacraram os argivos que haviam fugido para um santuário e se dirigiam à cidade para saqueá-lo, Telesila armou as mulheres da idade certa e as colocou contra o local onde estavam marchando. Quando os lakedaimonianos viram isso, eles voltaram porque acreditavam que era vergonhoso lutar contra mulheres que seria inglório conquistar, mas uma grande reprovação ser derrotado por & # 8230. ” [o oráculo é listado a seguir ”

Τελέσιλλα, ποιήτρια. ἐπὶ στήλης τὰ μὲν βιβλία ἀπωνριπτε, κράνος δὲ τῇ κεφαλῇ περιέθηκε. καὶ γὰρ ὅτε Λακεδαιμόνιοι τοὺς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ τοῦ Αργους καταφυγόντας διέφθειρον καὶ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ᾔεσαν ὡς αἱρήσοντες, τότε Τελέσιλλα τὰς ἐν ἡλικίᾳ γυναῖκας ὁπλίσασα ὑπήντησεν οἷ προσῄεσαν. ὅπερ ἰδόντες οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἐς τοὐπίσω ὑπέστρεψαν, αἰσχρὸν νομίσαντες γυναιξὶ πολεμεῖν, ἃς καὶ τὸ νικᾶν ἄδοξον καὶ ἡττᾶσθαι μέγα ὄνειδος. ἐς τοῦτο καὶ ὁ χρησμὸς πεπλήρωτο, Αργείοις λέγων · ἀλλ & # 8217 ὅταν ἡ θήλεια τὸν ἄρρενα νικήσασα ἐξελάσῃ καὶ κῦδος Αργείοισιν ἄρηται, πολλὰς Αργείων ἀμφιδρυφέας τότε θήσει.

Os fragmentos existentes de Telesilla não são muito para trabalhar (cada linha é um fragmento separado:


Telesila: Mulher Argiva, Poeta Guerreira

“Além do teatro está o santuário de Afrodite. Na frente da fundação está uma estela na qual Telesila, uma poetisa lírica, é retratada. Seus livros são jogados perto de seus pés enquanto ela olha para o capacete que ela segura em sua mão quando ela está prestes a colocá-lo em sua cabeça. Telesila era famosa entre as mulheres e especialmente homenageada por sua poesia.

Mas uma história maior sobre ela vem de quando os argivos foram derrotados por Kleomenes, filho de Alexandrides e dos lakedaimonianos. Alguns argivos morreram durante a própria batalha e, no entanto, muitos fugiram para o bosque de Ares morreram lá também - a princípio eles deixaram o bosque sob um armistício, mas perceberam que foram enganados e foram queimados com o resto no bosque. Como resultado, Kleomenes levou os espartanos a um Argos privado de homens.

Mas Telesila postou na muralha da cidade todos os escravos que não podiam portar armas por causa da juventude ou velhice e, depois de coletar quantas armas haviam ficado nas casas ou nos santuários, ela armou todas as mulheres na idade mais forte e assim que ela se armou, eles assumiram os postos onde o exército iria atacar.

Quando os espartanos se aproximaram e as mulheres não ficaram maravilhadas com seu grito de guerra, mas esperaram e lutaram bravamente, então os espartanos, porque raciocinaram que se matassem as mulheres, a vitória seria mal divulgada, mesmo que sua própria derrota viria com grande insulto, rendeu-se às mulheres.

A sacerdotisa de Pítia previu esta disputa anteriormente na profecia transmitida por Heródoto, que pode ou não ter entendido (6.77):

Mas quando a fêmea conquista o macho
E o afasta e ganha glória para os argivos,
Isso fará com que muitas mulheres argivas rasguem o rosto.

Estas são as palavras do oráculo sobre a conquista das mulheres. ”

ὑπὲρ δὲ τὸ θέατρον Αφροδίτης ἐστὶν ἱερόν, ἔμπροσθεν δὲ τοῦ ἕδους Τελέσιλλα ἡ ποιήσασα τὰ ᾄσματα ἐπείργασται στήλῃ · καὶ βιβλία μὲν ἐκεῖνα ἔρριπταί οἱ πρὸς τοῖς ποσίν, αὐτὴ δὲ ἐς κράνος ὁρᾷ κατέχουσα τῇ χειρὶ καὶ ἐπιτίθεσθαι τῇ κεφαλῇ μέλλουσα. ἦν δὲ ἡ Τελέσιλλα καὶ ἄλλως ἐν ταῖς γυναιξὶν εὐδόκιμος καὶ μᾶλλον ἐτιμᾶτο ἔτι ἐπὶ τῇ ποιήσει. συμβάντος δὲ Αργείοις ἀτυχῆσαι λόγου μειζόνως πρὸς Κλεομένην τὸν Αναξανδρίδου καὶ Λακεδαιμονίους, καὶ τῶν μὲν ἐν αὐτῇ πεπτωκότων τῇ μάχῃ, ὅσοι δὲ ἐς τὸ ἄλσος τοῦ Αργου κατέφευγον διαφθαρέντων καὶ τούτων, τὰ μὲν πρῶτα ἐξιόντων κατὰ ὁμολογίαν, ὡς δὲ ἔγνωσαν ἀπατώμενοι συγκατακαυθέντων τῷ ἄλσει τῶν λοιπῶν, οὕτω τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους Κλεομένης ἦγεν ἐπὶ ἔρημον ἀνδρῶν τὸ ῎Αργος. Τελέσιλλα δὲ οἰκέτας μὲν καὶ ὅσοι διὰ νεότητα ἢ γῆρας ὅπλα ἀδύνατοι φέρειν ἦσαν, τούτους μὲν πάντας ἀνεβίβασεν ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος, αὐτὴ δὲ ὁπόσα ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις ὑπελείπετο καὶ τὰ ἐκ τῶν ἱερῶν ὅπλα ἀθροίσασα τὰς ἀκμαζούσας ἡλικίᾳ τῶν γυναικῶν ὥπλιζεν, ὁπλίσασα δὲ ἔτασσε κατὰ τοῦτο ᾗ τοὺς πολεμίους προσιόντας ἠπίστατο. ὡς δὲ & ltἐγγὺς & gt ἐγίνοντο οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες οὔτε τῷ ἀλαλαγμῷ κατεπλάγησαν δεξάμεναί τε ἐμάχοντο ἐρρωμένως, ἐνταῦθα οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, φρονήσαντες ὡς καὶ διαφθείρασί σφισι τὰς γυναῖκας ἐπιφθόνως τὸ κατόρθωμα ἕξει καὶ σφαλεῖσι μετὰ ὀνειδῶν γενήσοιτο ἡ συμφορά, ὑπείκουσι ταῖς γυναιξί. πρότερον δὲ ἔτι τὸν ἀγῶνα τοῦτον προεσήμηνεν ἡ Πυθία, καὶ τὸ λόγιον εἴτε ἄλλως εἴτε κοδ ὡενεν

ἀλλ & # 8217 ὅταν ἡ θήλεια τὸν ἄρρενα νικήσασα
ἐξελάσῃ καὶ κῦδος ἐν ᾿Αργείοισιν ἄρηται,
πολλὰς ᾿Αργείων ἀμφιδρυφέας τότε θήσει.

τὰ μὲν ἐς τὸ ἔργον τῶν γυναικῶν ἔχοντα τοῦ χρησμοῦ ταῦτα ἦν ·

Plutarco, Sobre as virtudes das mulheres 245d-f6 relata uma versão deste conto que o Suda (s.v. Telesilla) provavelmente leva seu relato de Pausanias.

“Telesila, uma poetisa. Em uma estela, seus livros são jogados de um lado para outro e ela colocou um capacete na cabeça. E quando os lakedaimonianos massacraram os argivos que haviam fugido para um santuário e se dirigiam à cidade para saqueá-lo, então Telesila armou as mulheres da idade certa e as colocou contra o local onde estavam marchando. Quando os lakedaimonianos viram isso, eles voltaram porque acreditavam que era vergonhoso lutar contra mulheres que seria inglório conquistar, mas uma grande reprovação ser derrotado por & # 8230. ” [o oráculo é listado a seguir ”

Τελέσιλλα, ποιήτρια. ἐπὶ στήλης τὰ μὲν βιβλία ἀπωνριπτε, κράνος δὲ τῇ κεφαλῇ περιέθηκε. καὶ γὰρ ὅτε Λακεδαιμόνιοι τοὺς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ τοῦ ῎Αργους καταφυγόντας διέφθειρον καὶ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ᾔεσαν ὡς αἱρήσοντες, τότε Τελέσιλλα τὰς ἐν ἡλικίᾳ γυναῖκας ὁπλίσασα ὑπήντησεν οἷ προσῄεσαν. ὅπερ ἰδόντες οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἐς τοὐπίσω ὑπέστρεψαν, αἰσχρὸν νομίσαντες γυναιξὶ πολεμεῖν, ἃς καὶ τὸ νικᾶν ἄδοξον καὶ ἡττᾶσθαι μέγα ὄνειδος. ἐς τοῦτο καὶ ὁ χρησμὸς πεπλήρωτο, ᾿Αργείοις λέγων· ἀλλ’ ὅταν ἡ θήλεια τὸν ἄρρενα νικήσασα ἐξελάσῃ καὶ κῦδος ᾿Αργείοισιν ἄρηται, πολλὰς ᾿Αργείων ἀμφιδρυφέας τότε θήσει.

The extant fragments of Telesilla are not much to work with (each line is a separate fragment:


Telesilla, Warrior Poetess From Argos, Who Manned-Up On The Battlefield and Bedroom - History

This story is a reimagining of the historical battle between Cyrus the great and queen Tomyris which occurred in 530BC. In my story, King Cyrus is in his physical prime and so is queen Tomyris. Instead of meeting each other on the battlefield, queen Tomyris challenges king Cyrus to a one-on-one duel of strength in order to avenge her son s murder by Cyrus and his men. Tomyris physical appearance is primarily inspired by the painting by Mattia Preti, Tomyris Receiving the Head of Cyrus, 1670 72 as well as the Scythians physical description by various historical accounts.


After being informed of the death of her son by her men at the hands of Cyrus the great, Tomyris sent a formal challenge for one on one combat to king Cyrus in order to avenge her son s death. If she would lose, Cyrus would subjugate her people. If Cyrus lost, the Achaemenid empire would have to withdraw. Tomyris knew her people would never submit to Cyrus rule and would be massacred for fighting back, so her beating him this way would be the best way to save the lives of thousands. Upon hearing the news, Cyrus laughed, for he was in his prime and was gifted by god with immense strength. He had always fought in the front against rival armies and had always come out victorious. Not only was he a brilliant tactitian, but also an incredibly skilled warrior. No man had ever defeated him in combat. His six foot 3 inch frame was very muscular and it was clear to anyone that he had the strength of a lion. I will fight this Scythian queen and slay her he said. He did not seem the least bit worried about facing her.

Tomyris found out Cyrus had accepted her challenge so she started preparing for the duel. Born and raised in a warrior culture, Tomyris started learning how to fight shortly after birth. She was a beautiful woman with fair hair and deep blue eyes. She had the body of a goddess. Her Well toned arms and legs were unquestionably feminine yet stronger than the limbs of any other warrior in her army. Her thick thighs and amazing curves accompanied with her voluptuous breasts and beautiful, delicate face made it an honor for her to grace anyone s eyes by her mere presence. All her men idolised her strength, her power and determination and worshipped her beauty. Her intelligence was unrivaled, no man could outsmart her when it came to strategy both as an administrator and a military tactician. Any warrior who dared challenge her to a fight was quickly at the mercy of her divine strength. She was smarter, stronger and better in every way than any man in her kingdom. All men where in awe of her and they all desired her. No man could ever compare to her. Every man s dream was to have the honor and priviliege of falling to his knees and kissing Tomryris beautiful feet.

Cyrus was cocky before the battle. He could not believe why the Messagatae gave so much respect to this woman, for in his empire, he was the king of the universe and the greatest warrior. He would show these people the he was the one to be worshipped and not her.

The king and queen met each other and came face to face for the first time in the arena. Only strength of body and mind would determine the winner. So no weapons were allowed and neither were clothes for they could be used by the opponent to alter the course of the battle. Tomyris and Cyrus were both naked in consequence. Cyrus was expecting to be the center of attention, but the people in the crowd however, where not focused on Cyrus herculean physique. On the contrary, both men and women were fixated on Tomyris divine body and physique. All men and women in the crowd went weak in the knees when laying eyes on her. Her eyes were more majestic than the ocean, her hair flowing down her back like a river was better looking than any of nature s wonders. Her skin was soft and fair. Her lips were more beautiful than any rose. Her breasts, curves and overall figure made her the embodiment of the perfect woman, but her physique was clearly a match for Cyrus in a fight. She was as tall as Cyrus, standing 6 foot 3 inches herself. Her sweet feminine arms, shoulders body and back were as big and as well built as his, but it was her thighs which were thicker, more muscular and more sculpted than her rival s. Tomyris perfect feet were far more beautiful than any man s face. She was indeed a goddess.

Cyrus was frustrated by Tomyris getting more attention than him. He was already angry and stared at her with contempt. Tomyris remained calm and stared at him without fear. She was determined to avenge the death of her son and defend her people. She loved them more than anything and therefore she would protect them no matter what.

As soon as the fight started, Tomyris and Cyrus locked each other up with their arms, each pressing on the other's shoulders with their hands. Cyrus immediately starting turning red, his worthy female opponent was pushing him back with ease. He released his grip and tried to punch her, but Cyrus missed every single hit. She was too fast and too smart for him, predicting his every single move and moving out of the way in time. She then lifted her divine foot of the ground and landed a kick on Cyrus face, her sole landing directly on Cyrus mouth. He was knocked down to the ground for the first time in his life and, most impressively, from her first strike. He got up only to receive a kick to the torso and another to the face. He fired back with strikes, missing each one and receiving hard knees to the torso and kicks to the face in response from his female opponent. Cyrus torso was turning red and his face started bleeding. He tried to take Tomyris down in desperation, only for Tomyris to wrap her powerful arms around his waist and, with her beautiful right leg trapping his left, she lifted him of the ground and sent him crashing down. He tried to get up only to be taken down again and again by the queen. It was clear Tomyris was stronger than Cyrus. She was much stronger and faster than him. She was also outsmarting him since the beginning of the fight, predicting his every move and hurting him in response. The king had challenged a goddess and he was going to lose. Finally, Tomyris took him down one more time and got his back. She then wrapped her legs in a triangle, trapping his head and right arm between her powerful thighs. She started squeezing his neck and throat with her thighs and with the strength of her Amazonian arms and legs, she easily broke his herculean arm. Cyrus screamed his surrender as loudly as he could, pleading for her to release. Him. The tall, strong and beautiful woman had just made the arrogant man beg for mercy. The fight was over.

Tomryris released him from her legs and wrapped her feet around his neck and squeezed his throat, forcing him to confirm his submission, which he did. She got up while he layed flat on his back, humiliated and in pain. She put her right foot over his mouth and he immediately started kissing it passionately and caressing the top of her foot with his left hand, fearing her wrath.

In a powerful tone, Tomyris said the following: You can defeat any man but you lost the moment you challenged a mother. Deep down, a woman is stronger, smarter, more brave and more powerful than any man. Injure her child and she will destroy you. A woman protecting the ones she loves has a strength greater than a hundred men. I will protect the men and women of my country with my life and you will pay for killing my son. My son shall be avenged and all shall remember the day you crossed paths with the wrong queen.

No please, I now accept that my rightful place is beneath your beautiful feet! Cyrus cried. He then got to his knees and gently kissed both of her feet, but Tomyris would not let him escape justice by begging.

Tomyris locked her arms around Cyrus and lifted him in the air one last time. When he crashed to the ground, he screamed in fear, but she silenced him by trapping his neck between her powerful thighs and pinning his left arm with her beautiful hands. He squealed as she broke his other arm. She now squeezed him with all her might between her powerful thighs until his breathing ceased and he lay dead on the ground.Tomryris released her hold and got up with Cyrus laying dead at her feet.

All the men in the crowd, both Achaemenid and Messagatae got to their knees and put their hands together in a sign of worship towards the queen. The women also also put their hands together and started praying to the queen. With her wisdom and strength, Tomyris had prevented a fullscale war and saved the lives of both her people and the achaemenids. The elite of the Achaemenid dynasty now idolised Tomyris. They pronounced her the new queen of the Achaemenid empire. Tomyris now had a vast empire under her rule as well as more subjects she now swore to serve and protect. She became a benevolent ruler and under her guidance, her kingdom prospered. She would soon bring Egypt, carthage, Rome and more land to the East of the Scythian Steppes under her rule. Starting with her, the empire would be ruled exclusively by strong, brave, intelligent, powerful and beautiful queens who protected and took care of their people. The age of the godesses had begun.

Together all her subjects from the four corners of the world would sing in praise:
All hail queen Tomyris, queen of the universe, queen of kings.

Hope you enjoyed the story! Please leave a comment if you want too (this is my first story, I tried my best) and have a great day!

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The Queen of Kings, part 2

This story is based on the battle between Telesilla of Argos and King Cleomenes of Sparta in 494 BC. I recently learned about the amazing true historical event which inspired this story from the writings of the historian Plutarch. It turns out the Spartan warriors’ most formidable opponent in history was an army of women who took up arms to defend their city!

At birth, Telesilla was a frail and sickly little girl. She lived in a world ruled by men, but she aspired to becoming a benevolent queen, who would save all men and women from pain and suffering. She wanted to be a hero. Unfortunately, her gender and physical limitations stopped her from ascending the social ladder, but nevertheless, she was determined to achieve glory.
However, not all women in her native city of Argos shared her resolve. They feared the wrath of their husbands and kept their talents to themselves to not hurt their male egos. Nevertheless, one day, Telesilla found herself a role model in the field of queendom. One day, she heard of the tale of Queen Tomyris, the woman revered as a deity in the empire on the other side of the sea. Tomyris easily vanquished Cyrus, the king of the universe, Saving her people and the empire from a bloody war. Ever since Telesilla heard the story of Tomyris, she aspired to be like Tomyris one day. So, she started training to be a warrior, she ate healthy food and took good care of her body and developed a rigorous work ethic. Her discipline, work ethic and healthy habits (she made herself a strict eating diet to stay healthy and have good nutrition) gave her a healthy body. She signed up in the Argos army, pretending to be a man. When she was discovered and removed from the army of Argos, she enlisted in numerous armies across numerous city-states until she completed her training. She also prioritised her education, taking academia very seriously and becoming a renowned poetess.
However, the men in all armies she enlisted in removed her as soon as they found out she was a woman. Despite this, Telesilla had reached adulthood and had become a champion of a woman. She was an incredibly beautiful woman, 6𔃾’’ in height, with blond hair, brown eyes, and soft, fair skin. Her Thighs, legs, arms, and body were sculpted like those of a divine warrior woman. No poet could compare to her genius in writing, she was the prodigy of literature of her time and for all times to come. Her strength was unparalleled. Any man who challenged her to a fight, she easily beat. Olympic male champions in boxing, pankration and wrestling challenged her in their respective sports and she defeated them all. If she were not barred from participating in the ancient Olympics because of her gender, she would be the champion in all sports, the male body being incapable of comparing to her female strength and power. She was smarter, stronger, and superior in every way to any man. However, Telesilla wanted other women to unlock their full potential like she did and create a society where women would be free to express themselves and demonstrate their true strength, power, and talents, for the women were capable of doing things far greater than any man could achieve. So, using her divine intelligence as well as the fame and wealth she accumulated through her poetry, Telesilla recruited numerous women to enroll in an undercover training regimen made up exclusively of women. To avoid being discovered, Telesilla and her associates used a new form of coded poetry Telesilla created and taught to her female friends to communicate with each other, schedule meetings and recruit more women. Telesilla had eventually created a female army more disciplined and more powerful than any male army. The daughters of the first women who joined Telesilla and were raised and educated alongside her army, had grown up, through excellent training and nutrition, to be taller, stronger, and more intelligent than any men. However, Telesilla’s army remained undercover, the reasons being they did not want to take power by force and begin senseless bloodshed. Also, even if they were to leave the city of Argos and start their own matriarchal society, they would have the whole world of men attack and attempt to destroy them, for the men living outside of the empire ruled by Tomyris and her female society would not stand the appearance of another society dominated by women in their own backyard. The patriarchs of Argos and other neighboring cities were already afraid and felt threatened by the powerful queens who ruled the empire next door. So, Telesilla and her women scholars and warriors were awaiting the right moment to rise from the shadows.
And one day, on the year 494 BC, that moment came. Cleomenes, the king of Sparta, was now at war with Argos. For centuries, the spartans had dominated ancient warfare. One spartan warrior was said to be equal to several soldiers from another city-state. Once Cleomenes met the men of Argos on the battlefield, he massacred them, exterminating all men of Argos and was now heading for the city from were them men came from in order to enslave the free women and children and kill who opposed them or who they deemed unworthy of life. The people of Argos were expected to experience a form of brutality the likes of which they had never seen before. Telesilla and the women grieved the death of their men, for even though they had oppressed their women, it was still their fathers, husbands and sons who had died, and the men and women of Argos had deeply loved each other regardless of the circumstances. However, their tears had to be wiped away quickly and their sorrow had to be set aside too, for the Spartan army was coming. Telesilla took the opportunity to free all the slaves of Argos and she told them: ‘’You are free now, flee the city and escape the bloodshed to come. We, the women of this city shall defend this place with our lives, and we shall never let the Spartans lay a hand on you!
Tears fell from the eyes of the slaves for this goddess who had freed them and who was protecting them from violence and they all fell to their knees in front of Telesilla to pray for her success and triumph over the Spartans. Telesilla thanked them for their kind words and wished them good luck on their escape.
Once the Spartan army arrived in Argos, they were surprised to see tall strong women atop the roofs of Argos blocking the entrances of the city. Cleomenes took the time to analyse his foe and realised his army was not in a good position. The spartans were experts in battle on an open field, but they were not trained for urban warfare. They would be especially vulnerable to projectiles thrown from the rooftops by the women.
To the women’s surprise as well as to his soldiers, Cleomenes put his weapons down and applauded the women. ‘’I salute you, brave warrior women. Your excellent strategy has left us in a standstill. My men cannot enter the city because of your impeccable defenses. However, us Spartans never surrender, we will encircle this city and lay siege to your home, starving your people. Once the siege becomes unbearable and most of you have died of hunger, we will enter the city and massacre you. However, I have a proposition for you. Send your best warrior and if I am to defeat her, I will take the city and spare its citizens. If she vanquishes me, We will leave the city and return to Sparta. If you refuse my proposition, the siege will proceed,’’ said Cleomenes.

The women were flattered and surprised that for once, they were being complemented for their skills in combat and strategy, something which their men would never do. However, Spartan men were different. They valued bravery and strength above anything else. Their women had relatively more freedom than other city states like Athens for example. Cleomenes’ demeanor made Telesilla respect him, and she responded to his challenge:
‘’I will fight you,’’ said Telesilla.
Telesilla came out of the city, removed her armor and clothes and so did Cleomenes, both preparing for the match. Her perfect body was visible to all men and women. She was beautiful in every way and none of the Spartans muscular bodies could compare to her divine physique. To everyone’s shock, she was even taller than Cleomenes himself. Every part of her body was even more muscular and better built than Cleomene’s own, even though every part of Telesilla’s body remained feminine in appearance in every aspect. It was hard for both men or women to even stay focused on the battle, her feminine attributes being so well made with her beautiful breasts being like two golden globes and her heart shaped ass being sculpted to perfection like her powerful, feminine, and strong thighs. Some inner instinct made the men want to bow down and kiss Telesilla’s magnificent feet. The Spartans tried very hard to resist this urge and stay focused on the duel.
‘’Telesilla, your incredible physique demonstrates the effort and dedication you have put into your training over the years. It is my honor to fight you as an equal.’’ Said Cleomenes.
‘’Likewise,’’ said Telesilla.
Telesilla surprised Cleomenes’ with her strength and resolve from the start. He could not even react before she landed a powerful right cross to his face, dropping him. He got up, but he might as well have stayed down. Telesilla landed her beautiful feet on his face, torso, and leg multiple times. When he closed the distance, she landed elbows and punches to his face which rocked him. He was now a bloody mess. she then wrapped her powerful arms around his waist and tripped him to the floor. She got his back and applied a rear-naked choke, making his lose consciousness. He came to his senses in a few seconds only to find Telesilla applying a perfect armbar on him while putting her beautiul feet on his face. Cleomenes could no longer resist the urge to kiss her divine feet anymore while having the soft skin of her perfect soles over his mouth. He gently kissed her feet, making Telesilla realise what Tomyris must have realised years ago while fighting Cyrus: No matter the man, may he be king or not, every male has an inner urge to submit, worship and venerate the woman he desires. She felt pity for Cleomenes, who had been the first man to acknowledge her talents, but nevertheless, this was a fight, and she was determined to finish him. She then proceeded to break his arm. She allowed him to get up and through a punch, only for her to easily dodge it and through a powerful kick to his face, sending him falling to the ground. While unconscious, she broke each of his legs with a powerful leg lock for him to wake up to extreme pain. She then decided to honor her idol Tomyris by taking the same position as her to kill Cleomenes. She wrapped her powerful thighs around his head and neck and began crushing him while breaking his other arm. After breaking his arm, she noticed something that changed her mind: His manhood was fully erect. She also noticed that her sweet female genitalia had become wet because of the dual. Telesilla wanted to thank Cleomenes for being the first man to acknowledge her strength. Knowing she had to kill him, she wanted him to go with all the pleasure in the world. She positioned him with his back to the floor and wrapped her powerful legs around the back of his head with her feet reaching his penis. She began stroking gently and lovingly his penis with her perfect feet while partially suffocating him, but not enough for It to kill him. The partial lack of oxygen because of her magnificent thighs squeezing his head and neck combined with her perfect feet caressing his genitals brought an incredible feeling of ecstasy within Cleomenes. His limbs were broken, and he could do nothing to stop her, not that he wanted to. He was completely helpless and at her mercy and he loved it. Faster and faster, she stroked with her feet until white cream gushed out of his penis and a massive shock of pleasure filled his body. She had made him completely forget about the pain and given him the greatest pleasure of his life with her legs and feet. She released him, got on top of him, and wiped the blood from his face with her beautiful hand and gently kissed his lips. She then began to slide her tongue into his mouth and they both had a moment of passion through this. It was an oasis of joy in between all the violence.

‘’Go in peace, Cleomenes’’ Said Telesilla.
She remained on top him, putting her vagina on his mouth, while wrapping her thighs around his head for the last time. Before dying, he would have the honor of licking the angelic genitalia of this goddess. He kissed and licked the lips of her vagina before sliding his tongue into her beautiful vagina while be crushed by her. He licked faster and faster until she became a waterfall. He swallowed all her divine juices, enjoying the experience and loving being trapped between her thighs, until he stopped breathing and lost consciousness for the last time.

Telesilla got up. She had defeated the king of the Spartans and given him the greatest death a man could ever hope to have. The Spartans honored their king’s last wish and returned home for now. The women Cheered the victory of Telesilla and crowned her as their new queen. Telesilla now founded the matriarchy of Argos and achieved her dream of becoming a queen and a hero, just like her idol, Tomyris. Tomyris’ daughter, now the queen of Tomyris’ empire Tomyris had renamed the empire of the Goddess, in honor of the women who ruled it, sent a formal letter congratulating Telesilla for her many valiant deeds. Most men who had learned of Telesilla’s exploits either envied her or despised her out of an inferiority complex, but many men, out of veneration for Telesilla and her female warriors, joined the city and submitted to their female heroes. The women chose the men they wished to take as a husband and many children were born out of the marriages. After her victory, Telesilla proceeded to build schools for all the children and medical/healing facilities for the sick and the wounded. Her society flourished.
While returning home, the leaders of Sparta, learning of the defeat of their army, felt humiliated. The new king of Sparta did not want to honor Cleomenes’ last wish and emphasised on the city’s rule of no surrender and no retreat and all Spartans prepared the largest army they had ever assembled to destroy the matriarchy of Argos. All city states of the region joined Sparta as allies out of their hatred for the independent women.
Telesilla’s battles had only just begun. The alliance determined on destroying her new queendom outnumbered her army more than ten to one, but she was more determined than ever to show the world the true power of a woman.


Flying Poison and Death on the Wind

Besides arrows designed to slice flesh and punch through armor came those that whistled and delivered poison. Many Mongol arrows had a hollow bone container. The container was placed beneath the arrowhead, had two oval-shaped holes, and produced a whistle upon being fired. The size of the barrel or biconical container was between 2.8 and 7.5 cm (one inch to three inches). The length of the container was directly related to the size of the arrowhead. The function of this arrow is disputed. Some think it was to frighten or was just a luxury or novelty item among the Mongols. When looking at its function from a military viewpoint, it could be proposed that the whistling arrow had a dual purpose: one, to have a psychological impact upon the enemy army and for scaring their horses, and two, for signaling nearby Mongol units to maneuver and attack.

Another projectile used by the Mongols was the poison arrow. The poison used on the arrow was called khoron. One type of poison was plant-based. Mongols smeared their arrows with what may have been the aconite (Aconitum napellus, or monks-hood). Aconite is a toxic plant of “perennial herbs of the genus Aconitum, having tuberous roots, palmately lobed leaves, blue or white flowers with large hoodlike upper sepals, and an aggregate of follicles.” The Mongols may have used the Aconitum ferox found in Tibet or of a related species. To make a lethal dose, the Mongols would have used three to six grams of the dried Aconitum and mixed it with ganja.

This c. 1280 painting depicts an archer shooting a traditional Mongol bow from horseback [left] (Public Domain)

The other type of poison used was called mogain khoran, and was extracted from the steppe viper or adder. The Mongols, like their nomadic ancestors, inhabited a land that was home to a number of snakes from which they drew venom. Such snakes inhabiting the area included the steppe viper, Caucasus viper, European adder, and the long-nose/sand viper. The Mongols had a vast arsenal of snake venoms at their disposal. To get an idea how the Mongols went about producing this poison, one must look to the ancient Scythians and those who wrote about them.

Vipera ursinii, venomous viper and a very widespread species from France to China. (Public Domain)

According to the book titled, “On Marvelous Things Heard,” by Pseudo-Aristotle, which was a work written by his followers if not written in part by Aristotle himself, mentions the Scythian handling of snakes and how to extract their poison:

They say that the Scythian poison, in which that people dips its arrows, is procured from the viper. The Scythians, it would appear, watch those that are just bringing forth young, and take them, and allow them to putrefy for some days.

After several days passed, the Scythian shaman would then take the venom and mix it with other ingredients. One of these concoctions required human blood:

But when the whole mass appears to them to have become sufficiently rotten, they pour human blood into a little pot, and, after covering it with a lid, bury it in a dung-hill. And when this likewise has putrefied, they mix that which settles on the top, which is of a watery nature, with the corrupted blood of the viper, and thus make it a deadly poison.

The Roman author Aelian also mentions this process, saying, “The Scythians are even said to mix serum from the human body with the poison that they smear upon their arrows.” Both accounts show the Scythians were able to excite the blood in order to separate it from the yellow, watery plasma. Once the mixture of blood and dung had putrefied, the shaman would take the serum and excrement and mix it in with the next ingredient, venom, along with the decomposed viper. Once the process was complete, the Scythians would place their arrowheads into this deadly mixture ready for use. The historian Strabo mentions a second use of this deadly poison:

The Soanes use poison of an extraordinary kind for the points of their weapons even the odor of this poison is a cause of suffering to those who are wounded by arrows thus prepared.

Overall, it would not be farfetched to imagine the Mongols were going about the same procedures when it came to the manufacturing of poison using snake venom.


Bigger and Better

Mehmed ficou tão satisfeito com o canhão que quis outro com o dobro do tamanho! Orban voltou para sua fundição em Edirne (Adrianópolis) adquirindo mais madeira e bronze, e em três meses ele produziu um monstro de vinte e sete pés de comprimento que tinha um diâmetro de 2,5 a três pés (76,2 a 91,44 cm) e podia disparar um projétil de pedra pesando entre 1440-1500 libras (653 - 680 kg).

Vista do focinho do Grande Canhão Bombardeiro Turco (Simon Cope /CC BY-SA 2.0)

Além disso, para garantir que essa arma dispare corretamente sem explodir, o cano foi revestido com 20 cm de bronze sólido para absorver a força da explosão. Esta arma enorme foi terminada em janeiro de 1453. Os cidadãos foram advertidos nas áreas circundantes para não entrarem em pânico se ouvissem um estrondo alto:

Em janeiro [o sultão] decidiu testar o canhão que o húngaro havia feito ...

Imagem superior: Pintura moderna de Mehmed e o Exército Otomano se aproximando de Constantinopla com uma bomba gigante, de Fausto Zonaro (Domínio público)


Assista o vídeo: Mytomaníacas: Palas Atena, a Dama de Ferro