Ward, Artemas - História

Ward, Artemas - História

Ward, Artemas (1727-1800) General: Ward formou-se no Harvard College em 1748 e começou uma carreira política no governo provincial e local. Como coronel da milícia durante as guerras francesa e indiana, ele mostrou sua habilidade administrativa. Um anti-lealista ativo, ele foi nomeado general e comandante-chefe das forças de Massachusetts. Durante os primeiros meses do conflito, Ward foi o líder de fato do exército que sitiava Boston. Embora o Congresso tenha escolhido George Washington em vez dele para servir como comandante geral do Exército Continental, Ward tornou-se o major-general de mais alta patente. Depois que os britânicos evacuaram Boston, Ward ofereceu sua renúncia, mas manteve sua posição como chefe do Departamento Oriental até 1777. Depois de se aposentar da vida militar, Ward continuou ativo na política estadual e federal.

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Cerca de

Listado no Registro Nacional de Locais Históricos, o General Artemas Ward Museum foi a casa da família do Primeiro Comandante-em-Chefe da Revolução Americana. Fica na Old Post Road em Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, a 55 milhas a oeste de Boston.

A casa foi construída como uma pequena caixa de sal entre 1720 e 1730 no novo assentamento de Shrewsbury. Embora tenha sido construído para a Ala Nahum na fazenda que permaneceria na família da Ala por gerações, não era a casa da família. Serviu como casa de inquilino até Artemas Ward se mudar com sua família em 1763. Foi ampliado em 1785 e 1830 para acomodar duas famílias ao mesmo tempo, bem como trabalhadores agrícolas e empregadas domésticas.

A herdade também inclui uma série de edifícios anexos, incluindo o enorme celeiro, a casa do zelador e a casa de leite. Os anexos sofreram tantas alterações quanto a casa, com edifícios menores sendo combinados ou convertidos em diferentes usos.

O mais interessante é que o celeiro já foi dois celeiros separados. Em 1848, Thomas Walter Ward II teve esses celeiros movidos juntos e expandidos para trazer muitas das atividades da fazenda sob o mesmo teto. O processo foi continuado em 1850 com a adição de um antigo matadouro e uma loja reaproveitada como uma casa de milho e sala de vinagre.

O uso flexível e a reutilização desses edifícios ajudaram a família a acompanhar as diferentes condições de mercado ao longo dos anos. Mesmo assim, a fazenda deixou de ser lucrativa e quase foi vendida fora da família no final do século XIX. Felizmente para nós, a casa foi comprada por Henry Galbraith Ward e posteriormente mantida por uma série de mulheres da família de Ward.

Primeiro Elizabeth Ward e Harriet Ward, depois suas sobrinhas, Ella, Clara e Florence, serviram como zeladoras da casa. Ao fazer isso, essas mulheres gravaram ativamente as histórias familiares que cercam a casa e seu conteúdo, transformando-a de uma casa em um museu familiar.

Convidamos você a visitar a Casa do Bairro Artemas usando nosso tour virtual. Use a planta baixa para escolher entre vários quartos para ver. Clique em uma sala e você terá uma visão dessa sala, bem como uma seleção de objetos que podem ser encontrados lá. Saiba mais sobre objetos específicos clicando na miniatura da imagem.

Os interesses históricos dessas mulheres se estendiam além da própria casa e, em 1892, Elizabeth Ward publicou uma história completa da cidade de Shrewsbury, Old Times em Shrewsbury, Massachusetts: Gleanings from History and Tradition. Harriet foi a última Ward a morar na casa, e Florence foi a última a morar na propriedade, que foi doada à Universidade de Harvard em 1925.

Artemas Ward, bisneto do General Artemas Ward e magnata da publicidade, comprou a casa de Henry Galbraith Ward e construiu a casa do zelador para Florence morar. Ele revelou seu profundo interesse pela história de sua família ao publicar livros relacionados a a família e o sustento da casa após sua morte. Ele doou a casa junto com uma doação substancial nas condições para que Harvard mantivesse a casa como um “museu público patriótico” e esclarecesse os serviços do Major General Artemas Ward. O interesse duradouro da família Ward em sua própria herança garantiu a preservação desta peça única da história americana, mesmo quando ela saiu de suas mãos.


Nahum Ward

Nahum Ward (1684-1754) foi um dos fundadores de Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, em 1717. O Coronel Ward, como era chamado, tornou-se um fazendeiro moderadamente próspero e personagem central no governo local de Shrewsbury por muitos anos. Ele foi o primeiro selecionador da cidade, seu moderador e seu representante no Tribunal Geral. Mais tarde, ele serviu como juiz de paz para o condado de Worcester e, nos últimos nove anos de sua vida, como juiz do Tribunal de Apelações Comuns.

Artemas Ward

Artemas Ward nasceu em 26 de novembro de 1727, quinto filho e quarto filho de Nahum e Martha Ward de Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Depois de se formar em Harvard em 1748, ele ensinou na escola por um breve período, casou-se com Sarah Trowbridge em 1750 e abriu um pequeno armazém geral em Shrewsbury. Também em 1750, Ward foi nomeado ajudante-mor na milícia local. Ele se tornou juiz de paz no ano seguinte e logo foi eleito para vários cargos públicos. Em 1757, foi escolhido o representante de Shrewsbury no Tribunal Geral, cargo que ocuparia mais 15 vezes. Em 1762, ele começou seu mandato de 30 anos como juiz do Tribunal de Apelações Comuns do Condado de Worcester a partir de 1775, ele era o presidente da Suprema Corte.

Ward teve sua primeira experiência militar em 1755, durante a Guerra da França e da Índia. No verão de 1758, ele participou da expedição Fort Edward, que culminou na derrota em Ticonderoga do general britânico James Abercrombie (1706-1781). Foi promovido durante a expedição a tenente-coronel, mas teve poucas chances de exercer as responsabilidades de comando.

Quando voltou do serviço militar para o Tribunal Geral, Ward juntou-se à oposição Whig ao governador real Francis Bernard (1712-1779). Essa oposição, liderada por James Otis Jr. (1725-1783) e Samuel Adams (1722-1803), marcou o início de uma aliança entre Ward e Adams que duraria 20 anos. Ward serviu em um comitê para preparar uma resposta à mensagem de motim da Lei do Selo de Bernard. Por causa de seu apoio à causa patriota, Bernard revogou sua comissão militar em 1766. No entanto, a posição forte de Ward o tornou popular entre os Whigs e, dois anos depois, com a ajuda de seu amigo Adams, ele foi escolhido para o Conselho do Governador. o leal Thomas Hutchinson (1711-1780). Sua eleição foi vetada por Bernard. Poucos meses depois, Ward foi um dos "92 Gloriosos" que se recusou a rescindir a carta circular de Adams de 1768 se opondo à taxação sem representação e apelando aos colonos para se unirem contra o governo britânico. Em 1769, Ward foi eleito para o Conselho pela segunda vez, mas o governador novamente anulou os resultados da eleição. Quando Ward foi eleito pela terceira vez no ano seguinte com apenas dez votos divergentes em 125, o governador Hutchinson cedeu à pressão e permitiu que sua eleição fosse válida.

Por causa de sua popularidade com os colonos, Ward foi escolhido para servir nos três primeiros Congressos Provinciais e reintegrado ao seu antigo posto de milícia, segundo no comando depois de Jedediah Preble (1707-1784) e antes de Seth Pomeroy (1706-1777). Naquela época, ele tinha 47 anos, 20 anos mais jovem do que qualquer um de seus colegas comandantes. Em 19 de abril de 1775, o dia do "tiro ouvido em todo o mundo", Ward estava doente de cama, sofrendo com "a pedra", uma condição que o incomodaria durante a maior parte de sua vida adulta. No entanto, ele cavalgou para Cambridge no dia seguinte para assumir o comando das tropas americanas que sitiavam Boston, e lá ele manteve o primeiro conselho de guerra da Revolução. Os pretensos soldados, entretanto, ainda não haviam sido oficialmente alistados e classificados, e disciplina, salários, suprimentos, comida, uniformes e higiene eram preocupações críticas. Além disso, Ward foi confrontado com uma divisão no comando. O general John Thomas (1724-1776) tinha autonomia em Roxbury, e as forças de Connecticut e Rhode Island eram independentes do comando de Ward. No início de maio, as linhas de cerco estavam tão distendidas que o Congresso Provincial debateu uma retirada, mas Ward manteve sua posição e conseguiu manter seus homens juntos em torno de Boston. Quando a inteligência americana soube que os britânicos planejavam atacar Bunker Hill, Ward deu ordens para fortificar essa posição, preparando o cenário para a batalha de Bunker Hill em 17 de junho de 1775. No entanto, James Warren (1726-1808) e outros mais tarde criticou Ward por sua lentidão em reforçar as tropas americanas naquela batalha.

Na primavera de 1776, de acordo com John Adams, a maioria dos delegados ao Congresso Continental preferia Ward para o cargo de comandante-chefe. No entanto, em prol da unidade nacional, George Washington - um sulista - foi escolhido. Como resultado, o relacionamento de Ward com Washington nunca foi bom. Em 22 de março, devido em parte a problemas de saúde, Ward renunciou, embora tenha permanecido até que um substituto fosse encontrado para chefiar o Departamento Leste. No ano seguinte, o teatro de guerra se afastou da Nova Inglaterra, e a principal tarefa de Ward era a fortificação de Boston contra um suposto contra-ataque britânico. Em 20 de março de 1777, ele foi finalmente substituído pelo general William Heath (1737-1814).

Apesar do fim de sua carreira militar e de sua saúde debilitada, Ward continuou no serviço público. Em maio de 1776, foi eleito mais uma vez para o Conselho do Governador, onde atuou pelos três anos seguintes. Na maior parte desse tempo, ele foi presidente do Conselho e, portanto, efetivamente o chefe executivo de Massachusetts. Quando a nova constituição do estado foi adotada em setembro de 1780, Ward apoiou James Bowdoin (1726-1790) para governador contra John Hancock (1737-1793), com quem ele lutou no final de 1778 como Supervisor de Harvard pela alegada má gestão da faculdade pelo tesoureiro Hancock fundos. No entanto, Hancock venceu a eleição facilmente.

Ward foi escolhido como delegado ao Congresso Continental para a sessão de 1780. Ele foi reeleito no ano seguinte e novamente em 1782, mas recusou por causa de sua saúde. Em maio de 1782, ele foi eleito para a Casa de Massachusetts, onde serviu por quatro dos cinco anos seguintes (ele recusou a eleição em 1783), e ele era o presidente da Câmara na época da rebelião de Shays em 1786. Este cargo e sua posição como chefe de justiça do Worcester Court colocava Ward bem no meio do problema. Sua arenga à turba na escadaria do tribunal em 5 de setembro de 1786 é o incidente mais conhecido de sua vida.

Ward concorreu ao Primeiro Congresso, mas ficou em terceiro, atrás de seu antigo colega de classe, o leal Timothy Paine, e do vencedor, o coronel Jonathan Grout. Em sua segunda tentativa em novembro de 1790, Ward derrotou Grout em uma eleição de segundo turno. Ele serviu no Segundo e no Terceiro Congresso, apesar das frequentes indisposições por causa de suas doenças crônicas. Federalista obstinado, ele apoiou infalivelmente as políticas do presidente e rompeu com seu amigo de longa data Samuel Adams sobre a questão das relações franco-americanas. Em 1795, ele deixou a vida pública e voltou para sua casa em Shrewsbury, onde morreu em 28 de outubro de 1800, aos 73 anos.


O que é um "ataque da pedra"? Krupo 02:59, 27 de agosto de 2004 (UTC)

Cálculos biliares ou cálculos renais, talvez. Ele sofreu durante a Guerra Revolucionária.

Na verdade, o nome do prédio da American University é Ward Circle Building, portanto, é incorreto afirmar que o prédio foi nomeado em sua homenagem, mas sim devido à sua localização (no círculo da ala). - Comentário não assinado anterior adicionado por 72.75.122.195 () 19:38, 10 de janeiro de 2008 (UTC)

Minha mãe estudou bastante história da família. Vou fazer com que ela envie um e-mail com informações mais específicas sobre esse cara para mim, e ver como posso contribuir. Alguém mais relacionado a esse cara? É bom ver que ele tem uma página wiki. A última vez que verifiquei, há algum tempo, sempre estava vinculado a uma página em que seu nome era um pseudônimo de um autor. Pessoalmente, sinto-me um pouco decepcionado que um homem tão importante na história americana tenha tão pouca atenção dado a ele. Ha! Talvez eu deva escrever uma biografia. já existe algum lá fora? Ok, talvez eu deva apenas perguntar às boas pessoas da American University. - Comentário não assinado anterior adicionado por 110.164.173.245 () 04:50, 23 de fevereiro de 2011 (UTC)

Não está claro qual é a conexão entre Ward e a seção "Universidade Americana" na parte inferior desta subseção. A seção anterior é clara sobre o círculo em que fica a estátua e a propriedade do terreno pela escola. A menos que uma conexão específica possa ser feita entre a Divisão e a Universidade, esta subseção deve ser removida. Já existe um link para o artigo principal da Universidade, portanto, não há necessidade de repetir informações aqui. IPBiographer () 18:49, 15 de novembro de 2014 (UTC)

Procurando por membros desta família. Artemas Ward é meu 6 vezes bisavô. 3 de janeiro de 2016

O Edifício Ward Circle foi renomeado como Edifício Kirwin. - Comentário não assinado anterior adicionado por 147.9.25.10 () 21:04, 21 de setembro de 2017 (UTC)

O que exatamente Ward conseguiu?

Ward frequentou as escolas comuns, foi preparado para a faculdade por um professor particular e se formou no Harvard College (B.A. 1748, M.A. 1751). Como seu pai, ele ocupou um prolífico número de cargos públicos na cidade, no condado e no estado.

Ele foi nomeado Juiz de Paz em 1752, representante na Assembleia Geral Colonial por muitos mandatos e no conselho executivo, Tenente Coronel do Exército Provincial na Guerra da França e Índia e nomeado Brigadeiro-General pelo Congresso Provincial de Massachusetts em outubro 27, 1774.

Como as crises políticas provocaram uma Revolução Americana, Ward foi nomeado Comandante-em-Chefe das forças de Massachusetts em 19 de maio de 1775, nomeado pelo Congresso Continental para Major General em 17 de junho de 1775 (o segundo em antiguidade apenas para George Washington) e estava em comando das forças que sitiam Boston até a chegada de Washington a Cambridge em 2 de julho de 1775.

A Batalha de Bunker Hill ocorreu sob o comando geral de Ward. A fortificação de Dorchester Heights com canhões trazidos do Forte Ticonderoga pelo General Henry Knox ocorreu no setor sob o comando de Ward em março de 1776.

Logo depois que os britânicos evacuaram Boston, Ward voltou à vida civil, onde serviu em cargos exigentes e importantes. Ele foi Chefe de Justiça do Tribunal de Fundamentos Comuns do Condado de Worcester em 1776 e 1777. Ele serviu no Senado de Massachusetts como Presidente do Conselho Executivo por cerca de três anos. Nesta posição, Ward funcionou como chefe do Executivo de Massachusetts durante a guerra (1777-1779) no cargo que substituiu o Governador Real não mais reconhecido. Estátua

Foi membro do Congresso Continental de janeiro de 1780 a maio de 1782, quando renunciou, e mais tarde foi eleito Federalista para o 2º e o 3º Congressos (1791-1795).

Ele foi eleito presidente da Câmara de Massachusetts em 1786, o que tornou suas ações como juiz de paz do Tribunal de Worcester durante a rebelião de Shays de 1786 ainda mais significativas. Ele enfrentou os rebeldes na escadaria do tribunal, demonstrando sua influência popular e seu respeito pelo Estado de Direito.

Em dezembro de 1797, Ward concluiu sua longa carreira como juiz e passou seus últimos anos em uma aposentadoria tranquila em casa com sua família. Ele morreu em 28 de outubro de 1800 e está enterrado no cemitério de Mountain View em Shrewsbury Center.


Monumento da Ala General Artemas

Filho de Massachusetts Graduado do Harvard College Juiz e legislador Delegado 1780 & # 82111781 ao Congresso Continental Soldado de três guerras Primeiro comandante das forças patriotas.

Erguido em 1938 por um ex-aluno de Harvard.

Tópicos Este monumento histórico está listado nesta lista de tópicos: Guerra, Revolucionário dos EUA. Um ano histórico significativo para esta entrada é 1781.

Localização. 38 e 56.275 & # 8242 N, 77 & deg 5.155 & # 8242 W. Marker está localizado em American University Park em Washington, Distrito de Columbia. O marcador está na interseção de Ward Circle Northwest e Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, no canteiro central de Ward Circle Northwest. Toque para ver o mapa. O marcador está neste endereço postal ou próximo a este: 4401 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington DC 20016, Estados Unidos da América. Toque para obter instruções.

Outros marcadores próximos. Pelo menos 8 outros marcadores estão a uma curta distância deste marcador. American University (a uma curta distância deste marcador) Memorial do 11 de Setembro (cerca de 600 pés de distância, medido em uma linha direta) Escola de Descarte de Bombas da Marinha dos EUA (cerca de 600 pés de distância) John Fletcher Hurst (cerca de 600 pés de distância) Battelle Memorial Building (cerca de 700 pés de distância) Cerejeiras coreanas (cerca de 700 pés de distância) Jeju Dolhareubang (cerca de 700 pés de distância) Memorial da Segunda Guerra Mundial (aproximadamente 0,2 milhas de distância).

Mais sobre este monumento. Ward Circle foi construído para conter este monumento. Do Catálogo de Inventários de Arte do Smithsonian American Art Museum: & # 8220O artista, Leonard Crunelle, modelou seu retrato a partir de uma pintura a óleo de Ward de Charles Willson Peale. Crunelle também usou a capa militar usada por Ward como modelo. & # 8221

Veja também . . . Artemas Ward. Entrada da Wikipedia. & # 8220 No geral

Esta estátua de 1936 por Leonard Crunelle foi inaugurada pela Sra. Lewis Wesley Feick, um descendente direto de Artemas Ward, em 3 de novembro de 1938 e paga com uma bolsa do bisneto de Wards & # 8220Artemis Ward da Sétima Geração & # 8221, a Ex-aluno de Harvard.

& # 8220O General Ward é alto, magro e de aparência majestosa, com um ar de comando definido que, sem dúvida, se projeta sobre uma rotatória especialmente projetada em Washington. Isso é curioso, considerando que a maioria das fontes descreve o General Ward como redondo e atarracado. A versão de bronze é, portanto, um pólo oposto. No entanto, um General Ward baixo e gordo não serviria se o objetivo fosse criar um ícone, adequado pelos padrões da Artemas Ward da Sétima Geração, para representar a família e sua própria posteridade. & # 8221 & # 8212 Rebecca Anne Goetz, Ala General Artemas: Um revolucionário esquecido lembrado e reinventado


Para a Ala Major General Artemas

Minha carta da noite passada iria informá-lo de que os Oficiais Genl neste lugar acharam perigoso atrasar a tomada de Post em Dorchester Hills, pelo menos eles deveriam ser possuídos antes de nós pelo Inimigo e, portanto, nos Envolva em dificuldades que não deveríamos saber como nos livrarmos dessa opinião, eles estavam inclinados a adotar de uma crença, na verdade quase um certo conhecimento, de que os inimigos eram avaliados por seus projetos dessa maneira.

Você deve escolher alguns bons regimentos para ir na manhã após o posto ser tomado, sob o comando do general Thomas, o número de homens que você julgar necessário para este alívio pode ser ordenado - devo pensar de dois a três mil, conforme as circunstâncias exigirem, seria o suficiente. Enviarei você a partir de dois regimentos, para estar em Roxbury na manhã de terça-feira para fortalecer suas linhas, e devo enviá-lo amanhã à noite duas companhias de fuzileiros, que com os três agora podem fazer parte do alívio para continuar com Genl Thomas.1 essas Cinco Companhias podem ser colocadas sob os cuidados do Capitão Hugh Stephenson, sujeitas ao Comando do Oficial de Comando no Posto (Dorchester). eles serão, eu acho, capazes de matar o Inimigo dolorosamente em sua marcha de seus barcos e amp em Landg.

Um Blind ao longo do Causey deve ser lançado, se possível, enquanto o outro trabalho é especialmente sobre o lado Dorchester, já que é o mais próximo das armas do Inimigo, e mais exposto.3 Calculamos, eu acho, que 800 homens fariam o todo Causey com grande facilidade em uma noite, se o pântano não piorou para o trabalho de novo e a maré não dá grande interrupção 4-250 homens com machados que eu acho que logo cairiam das árvores pelos Abettes, mas que número pode levar para chegar eles, os fascinos, lustres e ampca no lugar, eu não sei - 750 homens (o Grupo de Trabalho carregando suas armas), creio eu, seriam suficientes para um Partido de Cobertura. estes serão colocados em Nuke-Hill. na pequena colina em frente à 2ª colina, olhando para a baía de Boston - e perto do ponto oposto ao castelo. Sentinelas devem ser mantidas entre as partes, e algumas na parte traseira, olhando para Squantum.

Como tenho uma opinião muito elevada sobre a defesa que pode ser feita com Barris de qualquer uma das Colinas, gostaria que você mandasse um número - talvez Barris únicos fosse melhor do que uni-los, sendo menos responsáveis a acidentes - os aros devem estar bem, Naild, ou então eles voarão em breve e os barris cairão em pedaços.

Você deve tomar cuidado para que a notificação necessária seja dada à milícia de acordo com o plano estabelecido com o general Thomas.6 Desejo que o Colo. Gridley e o Colo. Knox estejam lá amanhã para apresentar a Obra - não me recordo de mais nada no momento para Mencionei que você resolverá as questões com os Oficiais com você, visto que o que ouvi dizer tem a intenção de transmitir minhas idéias em geral, do que desejar que elas sejam seguidas estritamente. Estou com estima e ampca Sir Yr Most Obedt Servt

1 Veja Pedidos Gerais, nesta data. A força de alívio era defender as novas linhas em Dorchester Neck contra qualquer ataque que os britânicos pudessem fazer contra eles de Boston.

2 GW escreveu “gald” no manuscrito, mas colocou um til acima da palavra para indicar que a grafia deveria ser corrigida.

3 Rufus Putnam propôs a construção desta cortina em sua carta a GW de 11 de fevereiro de 1776.

4 GW inadvertidamente escreveu “tade” em vez de “tide” no manuscrito. A grama estava sendo cortada dos pântanos para uso na construção de fortificações e outras obras. Em 24 de fevereiro de 1776, Robert Hanson Harrison escreveu a Ward: “Recebi a ordem de Sua Excelência para informá-lo de que Genl [Israel] Putnam disse a ele que tinha feito uma festa para cortar relva do pântano hoje e que eles fizeram isso com muito pouca dificuldade onde a maré havia fluído - isso ele deseja que você dê ao Colo. [Rufus] Putnam avisá-lo e diga-lhe que, se ele descobrir que pode ser feito, é melhor usar a relva o mais rápido que puder ser cortada ”(MHi : Papéis da ala).

5 “Fileiras de barris cheios de terra foram colocadas em volta da fábrica”, diz William Heath em suas Memórias. “Eles apresentavam apenas a aparência de reforço das obras, mas o verdadeiro objetivo era, caso o inimigo fizesse um ataque, tê-los rolado morro abaixo. Eles teriam descido com velocidade crescente, o que deve ter lançado os atacantes na maior confusão, e matado e ferido um grande número. Este projeto foi sugerido pelo Sr. William Davis, comerciante, de Boston, ao nosso General [Heath], que imediatamente o comunicou ao Comandante em Chefe, que o aprovou, assim como todos os outros oficiais ”(Wilson, Heath's Memoirs a descrição começa com Rufus Rockwell Wilson, ed. Heath's Memoirs of the American War. 1798. Reimpressão. Nova York, 1904. a descrição termina, 49 ver também Dandridge, Shepherdstown a descrição começa com Danske Dandridge. Histórico Shepherdstown. Charlottesville, Va., 1910. descrição termina , 129).

6 Na noite de 3 de março, Robert Hanson Harrison escreveu a Ward: "Recebi a ordem de Sua Excelência para informá-lo de que se o vento que vem do Leste esta noite deve Ocasionar que a maré estará bastante alta amanhã, e ali deveria haver uma probabilidade de continuar assim por algum tempo, que ele não teria você para chamar a milícia até ouvir mais dele - já que a propriedade de chamá-los depende das circunstâncias da maré você será capaz de formar um julgamento adequado das aparências. Amanhã - Sua Excelência deseja que você esteja particularmente atento aos movimentos do Inimigo e use todas as precauções ao seu alcance para descobrir onde eles têm quaisquer planos de Tomar posse de Dorchester Heights , já que ele de forma alguma os faria cumprir ”(MHi: Ward Papers).


Da Ala Major General Artemas

No décimo terceiro instante da noite, ordenei quinhentos homens com oficiais adequados, um destacamento do trem com um morteiro de 13 polegadas, dois canhões de dezoito libras e alguns canhões pequenos, sob o comando do coronel Whetcomb, para assumir o posto em Long Island para incomodar os Navios do Inimigo, as obras necessárias foram feitas durante a Noite e na manhã seguinte nosso Canhão e Morteiro começaram a jogar contra os Piratas, o que logo os expulsou do Porto.2 A frota consistia em treze, o Renome de cinquenta canhões, vários navios de guerra menores e alguns transportes com Highlanders a bordo, pelo que pudemos julgar, havia cerca de oitocentos soldados a bordo dos transportes. Eles explodiram o Farol ao partirem e, em seguida, puseram-se no mar com sua frota. Acho que é provável que deixem algumas fragatas para caçar na baía.

Uma série de tropas da Colônia e milícias deveriam ter lançado uma bateria na mesma noite na Ilha Petticks, e na cabeça de Nantasket, 3 mas por algumas obstruções imprevistas, eles não conseguiram preparar seu Canhão a tempo, no entanto, deram ao Inimigo uma série de disparado quando os navios passaram pelo canal. Nosso tiro cortou alguns de seus estaleiros e cordames, e vários foram para os lados do navio, mas os projéteis do morteiro os aterrorizaram muito, eles retornaram alguns tiros do navio do comodoro sem qualquer efeito, e zarparam com toda a expedição.

Propus ao Tribunal Geral ancorar um navio chamariz onde jazia o homem de guerra, com um pendente largo, a fim de atrair os Transportes que possam vir para cá.

Ainda não chegou nenhum tesoureiro nem dinheiro para as tropas estacionadas aqui, o que causou grande dificuldade, pois agora há mais de três meses de pagamento devido aos homens que tentei pedir emprestado o dinheiro do Tribunal Geral, mas não consegui, o O Tesouro está quase esgotado por grandes demandas. Eu sou Vossa Excelência o Servo Humilde e Obediente

P.S. Vários Inválidos pertencentes aos regimentos em marcha solicitaram que eu fosse entregue a outros regimentos, visto que não podiam marchar, mas não me considerava autorizado a cumprir o seu pedido. Dei alta a três ou quatro que provavelmente não serviriam senão um fardo para o continente.

P.S. 17 de junho. Acabo de receber informações de que os corsários continentais levaram e trouxeram para Nantasket neste porto um navio e um brigadeiro de Glasgow com duzentos e dez soldados das Terras Altas a bordo, com sua bagagem o navio montou seis canhões de carruagem e lutou os corsários algum tempo antes de ela atacar, nós tínhamos quatro homens feridos, o Inimigo tinha três soldados mortos e um major, e oito ou dez homens feridos. Os prisioneiros estão vindo para a cidade, entre os quais está um coronel. Quaisquer outros detalhes que possam ser importantes, eu irei encaminhá-los assim que puder aprendê-los.4

1 “Fui comandado por sua Excy”, escreveu Robert Hanson Harrison a Ward em 10 de junho, “para solicitar que você envie imediatamente a este lugar o Tenente [Thomas] Machin do Trem, desde que ele não pertença a nenhuma das Companhias Artilly, em Boston — Se ele não o fizer, ele virá com toda a rapidez possível ”(DLC: GW).

2 A força do coronel Asa Whitcomb ocupou uma posição em Long Island, com vista para a Nantasket Road, o principal ancoradouro no porto externo de Boston.

3 Peddocks Island e Nantasket Head também têm vista para Nantasket Road.

4 Os transportes britânicos George e Annabella foram capturados no porto de Boston em 16 de junho por seis navios armados americanos assistidos por uma tripulação de arma de Massachusetts em Point Alderton, no lado sul do porto. Para um relato completo desse envolvimento, consulte Clark, a descrição da Marinha de George Washington começa com William Bell Clark. Marinha de George Washington sendo uma conta da frota de Sua Excelência nas águas da Nova Inglaterra. Baton Rouge, La., 1960. termina a descrição, 160-64. Cada transporte levava uma companhia de tropas do 2º Batalhão do 71º Regimento de Pé (Fraser’s Highlanders). O major Menzies, que foi morto a bordo do George, foi enterrado com honras militares em Boston em 18 de junho (ver William Gordon para GW, 19–20 de junho e nota 9).

Archibald Campbell (1739-1791), membro do Parlamento e tenente-coronel do 2 ° Batalhão do 71º Regimento, foi capturado a bordo do George. Para seu relato do noivado, veja sua carta para William Howe de 19 de junho de 1776 em Clark e Morgan, a descrição de Naval Documents começa com William Bell Clark et al., Eds. Documentos Navais da Revolução Americana. 12 vols. Até a presente data. Washington, D.C., 1964–. termina a descrição, 5: 619–21. Campbell, que era um engenheiro militar muito respeitado, entrou no exército britânico em 1757 como tenente no 63º Regimento de Pé e dois anos depois tornou-se subengenheiro do Royal Engineers. Promovido a engenheiro extraordinário com o posto de capitão-tenente em 1763, Campbell foi destacado do exército em 1768 para servir como engenheiro-chefe da Companhia das Índias Orientais em Bengala. Ele retornou à Inglaterra em 1773 com uma grande fortuna, que usou no ano seguinte para garantir uma cadeira no Parlamento dos burgos de Stirling. Em novembro de 1775, Campbell foi nomeado para comandar o 2º Batalhão do novo regimento das Terras Altas de Simon Fraser, e em 29 de abril de 1776 ele partiu com o regimento de Greenock, na Escócia. Embora Campbell tenha recebido liberdade condicional logo após sua captura em Boston, ele não foi trocado até maio de 1778. Em outubro de 1778, o general Henry Clinton o nomeou para liderar uma expedição contra Savannah. Após a queda da cidade em janeiro de 1779, Campbell voltou para a Inglaterra, onde foi promovido a coronel. Ele serviu como vice-governador da Jamaica de 1781 a 1782 e como governador da colônia de 1782 a 1784. Em 1785 ele foi nomeado cavaleiro e governador de Madras.


Nasce a General Artemas Ward

Neste dia da história, 26 de novembro de 1727, nasce a Ala General Artemas. Artemas Ward foi uma figura proeminente na política de Massachusetts durante e após a Revolução Americana. Ward nasceu em Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, e se formou em Harvard em 1748. Ele abriu um armazém em Shrewsbury em 1750, mas em 1751, aos 24 anos, ele começou uma vida política. O primeiro trabalho de Ward & # 8217s no governo foi como assessor municipal do Condado de Worcester. Ele se tornou juiz de paz em 1752 e começou o primeiro de muitos anos de serviço como representante na Assembleia Geral da Colônia.

Em 1755, durante a guerra francesa e indiana, Ward tornou-se major na milícia do condado de Worcester. Ele não viu o serviço militar ativo, no entanto, até dois anos depois, quando os britânicos atacaram o forte francês Ticonderoga. Ward tornou-se juiz do Tribunal de Fundamentos Comuns em 1762, posição que ocuparia por décadas. Na Assembleia Geral, ele serviu ao lado de figuras como James Otis, John Hancock e Samuel Adams. Ward ficou tão conhecido por se manifestar contra as políticas britânicas na Assembleia que o governador Francis Bernard retirou sua comissão militar e anulou os resultados das eleições do Condado de Worcester em 1768 para manter Ward fora da Assembleia.

À medida que as tensões com a Inglaterra aumentaram, todo o 3º Regimento do Condado de Worcester renunciou a sua posição sob o comando britânico e foi para Shrewsbury, onde informaram ao coronel Ward que agora estavam a seu serviço. After Governor Bernard dissolved the Assembly in October, 1774, the cities of Massachusetts set up a new government under the "Committee of Safety," placing Ward as General over the whole colony’s militia.

Ward’s first job as general was to get the British out of Boston. He organized the defenses on Bunker Hill and at the Siege of Boston. When the newly appointed General George Washington arrived, Ward helped integrate the Massachusetts militia into the Continental Army. Ward was made a Major General, second in command of the Continental Army only to George Washington. General Ward remained in command of the Eastern Department after the British left Boston and held this position until March 20, 1777, when he resigned for health reasons.

Ward continued to serve as a judge during and after the war. As President of the Executive Council, he ran the government of Massachusetts for three years during the war. After this, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress for a year and in the Massachusetts House of Representatives for six years, including one term as Speaker of the House in 1786. While concurrently serving as Speaker of the House and as a Justice of the Peace, Ward faced down rebels on the steps of the Worcester County Courthouse during Shay’s Rebellion, a rebellion over taxes and government policies. Ward served two terms as a Federalist member of the US House of Representatives when the government under the new Constitution was formed.

Artemas Ward finally retired as a judge and from a long life of public service in December, 1797, at the age of 70. He passed away on October 28, 1800 and was buried at Mountain View Cemetery in Shrewsbury. His legacy includes several accomplished authors and the well preserved Artemas Ward House, which is now owned and managed by Harvard University.

National Society Sons of the American Revolution

"I often note with equal pleasure that God gave this one connected country to one united people — a people descended from the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in manners and customs, who by their joint counsels, arms, and efforts, fighting side by side through a long bloody war, have nobly established general liberty and independence."
John Jay (1787)

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Prelude to revolution [ edit | editar fonte]

By 1762 Ward had completely returned to Shrewsbury and was named to the Court of Common Pleas. In the General Court he was placed on the taxation committee along with Samuel Adams and John Hancock. On the floor, he was second only to James Otis in speaking out against the acts of parliament. His prominence in these debates prompted the Royal Governor Francis Bernard to revoke his military commission in 1767. At the next election in 1768, Bernard voided the election results for Worcester and banned Ward from the assembly, but this didn't silence him.

In the growing sentiment favoring rebellion, the 3rd Regiment resigned en masse from British service on October 3, 1774. They then marched on Shrewsbury to inform Colonel Ward that they had unanimously elected him their leader. Later that month the governor abolished the assembly. The towns of Massachusetts responded by setting up a colony-wide Committee of Safety. One of the first actions of the Committee was to name Ward as general and commander-in-chief of the colony's militia.


Gen. Artemas Ward

Artemas Ward (November 26, 1727 – October 28, 1800) was an American major general in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts. President John Adams described him as ". universally esteemed, beloved and confided in by his army and his country." He was considered an effective political leader.

Artemas was born at Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, in 1727 to Nahum (1684�) and Martha (Howe) Ward. He was the sixth of seven children. His father had broad and successful career interests as a sea captain, merchant, land developer, farmer, lawyer and jurist. As a child he attended the common schools and shared a tutor with his brothers and sisters. He graduated from Harvard in 1748 and taught there briefly.

On July 31, 1750, he married Sarah Trowbridge (December 3, 1724 – December 13, 1788), the daughter of Reverend Caleb Trowbridge and Hannah Trowbridge of Groton, Massachusetts. The young couple returned to Shrewsbury where Artemas opened a general store. In the next fifteen years they would have eight children: Ithamar in 1752, Nahum (1754), Sara (1756), Thomas (1758), Artemas Jr. (1762), Henry Dana (1768), Martha (1760) and Maria (1764).

The next year, 1751, he was named a township assessor for Worcester County. This was the first of many public offices he was to fill. Artemas was elected a justice of the peace in 1752 and also served the first of his many terms in the Massachusetts Bay Colony's assembly, or "general court."

In 1755 the militia was restructured for the war, and Artemas Ward was made a major in the 3rd Regiment which mainly came from Worcester County. They served as garrison forces along the frontier in western Massachusetts. This duty called him at intervals between 1755 and 1757, and alternated with his attendance at the General Court. In 1757 he was made the colonel of the 3rd Regiment or the militia of Middlesex and "Worchester" Counties. In 1758 the regiment marched with Abercrombie's force to Fort Ticonderoga. Ward himself was sidelined during the battle by an "attack of the stone."

By 1762 Ward had completely returned to Shrewsbury and was named to the Court of Common Pleas. In the General Court he was placed on the taxation committee along with Samuel Adams and John Hancock. On the floor, he was second only to James Otis in speaking out against the acts of parliament. His prominence in these debates prompted the Royal Governor Francis Bernard to revoke his military commission in 1767. At the next election in 1768, Bernard voided the election results for Worcester and banned Ward from the assembly, but this didn't silence him.

In the growing sentiment favoring rebellion, the 3rd Regiment resigned en masse from British service on October 3, 1774. They then marched on Shrewsbury to inform Colonel Ward that they had unanimously elected him their leader. Later that month the governor abolished the assembly. The towns of Massachusetts responded by setting up a colony-wide Committee of Safety. One of the first actions of the Committee was to name Ward as general and commander-in-chief of the colony's militia.

Following the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the rebels followed the British back to Boston and started the siege of the city. At first Ward directed his forces from his sickbed, but later moved his headquarters to Cambridge. Soon, the New Hampshire and Connecticut provisional governments both named him head of their forces participating in the siege. Most of his efforts during this time were devoted to organization and supply problems.

Additional British forces arrived in May, and in June Ward learned of their plan to attack Bunker Hill. He gave orders to fortify the point, setting the stage for the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775. Command during the battle devolved upon General Israel Putnam and Colonel William Prescott. While General Ward received national recognition for the heroic stand made that day, his principal contribution was a failure to supply enough ammunition to hold the position.

Meanwhile, the Continental Congress was creating a Continental Army. On June 16 they named Artemas Ward a major general, and second in command to George Washington. Over the next nine months he helped convert the assembled militia units into the Continental Army.

After the British evacuation on March 17, 1776, Washington led the main army to New York City. Ward took command of the Eastern Department on April 4, 1776. He held that post until March 20, 1777, when his health forced his resignation from the army.

Even during his military service, Artemas served as a state court justice in 1776 and 1777. He was President of the state's Executive Council from 1777�, which effectively made him the governor before the 1780 ratification of the Massachusetts Constitution. He was continuously elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives for each year from 1779 through 1785. He also served as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1780 and 1781. Ward was the Speaker of the Massachusetts House in 1785. He was elected twice to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1791 to 1795.

Artemas died at his home in Shrewsbury on October 28, 1800, and is buried with Sarah in Mountain View Cemetery. His great-grandson, Artemas Ward wrote The Grocer's Encyclopedia (published in 1911).

Artemas's lifelong home had been built by his father, Nahum, about the time Artemas was born. The home is now known as the Artemas Ward House and is a museum preserved by Harvard University. Located at 786 Main Street in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts it is open to the public for limited hours during the summer months.

Ward Circle is a traffic circle at the intersection of Nebraska Avenue and Massachusetts Avenue in Northwest Washington, D.C.. The land on three sides of Ward Circle is owned by American University. The circle contains a statue of Artemas Ward.

The great-grandson of Artemas Ward gave over four million dollars to Harvard University on the condition that they erect a statue in honor of Ward, and maintain his home in Shrewsbury. Harvard’s initial offer in 1927 of $50,000 toward the statue was enough for a statue, but inadequate to provide the general with a horse.

The statue was completed in 1938. Although there is no pedestrian access to the circle, the base of the statue bears this inscription:

ARTEMAS WARD, 1727-1800, SON OF MASSACHUSETTS, GRADUATE OF HARVARD COLLEGE, JUDGE AND LEGISLATOR, DELEGATE 1780-1781 TO THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, SOLDIER OF THREE WARS, FIRST COMMANDER OF THE PATRIOT FORCES

American University named the home of the American University School of Public Affairs, being the closest building at the time to Ward Circle in honor of Artemas Ward.

WARD, Artemas, soldier, born in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, in 1727 died there, 28 October, 1800. He was graduated at Harvard in 1748, entered public life at an early age as a representative to the general assembly, and was afterward chosen to the executive council. In 1752 he was a justice of the peace in his native town. In 1755 he served as major in Colonel Abraham Williams's regiment, and in 1758 he was major in the one that was commanded by William Williams. He accompanied the expedition under Gem James Abercrombie against the French and Indians, attaining the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and succeeded to the command of the 3d regiment. Afterward he represented his native town in the legislature, where he took an active part in the controversies between the colonial governors and the house of representatives and was one of the regularly chosen members that were displaced by the "mandamus councillors" in 1774. On 27 October, 1774, he was appointed a brigadier-general by the Provincial congress of Massachusetts, to which he was a delegate, and on 19 May, 1775, he was made commander-in-chief of the Massachusetts forces. He was in nominal command at the battle of Bunker Hill, though he remained at headquarters in Cambridge and had no share in determining the events of that day. On 17 June he was appointed by the Continental congress first on the list of major-generals, and he was in command of the forces besieging Boston until the arrival of General Washington, after which he was second in command, being stationed with the right wing on Rexbury heights. In consequence of impaired health he resigned his commission in April, 1776, but at the request of General Washington he continued to act until the end of May. He was elected chief justice of the court of common pleas of Worcester county in 1776, was president of the Massachusetts executive council in 1777, and a member of the legislature for sixteen years, serving as speaker in 1785. In 1779 he was appointed a delegate to the Continental congress, but, owing to failing health, did not take his seat. Being afterward elected to congress as a Federalist, he served from 4 October, 1791, till 3 March, 1795. He possessed integrity and unyielding principles, and his judicial conduct, especially during Shays's rebellion in 1786, was highly commended.--His son, Artemas, jurist, born in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, 9 January, 1762 died in Boston, Massachusetts, 7 October, 1847, was graduated at Harvard in 1783, studied law. was admitted to the bar, and practised in Shrewsbury until 1809, when he removed to Boston. He served in the legislature, was a member of the council, and was elected to the 13th congress as a peace candidate, serving from 24 May, 1813, till 3 March, 1817. From 1.820 till 1839 he was chief justice of the court of common pleas. Harvard gave him the degree of LL.D. in 1842.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

SEE THIS ALSO: http://www.masshist.org/findingaids/doc.cfm?fa=fa0255 Adde by Elwin Nickerson II about my ancestor -See Citations Below- ARTEMAS WARD FIRST COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 274. ARTEMUS WARD, born November 26, 1727, in Shrewsbury, Mass., died October 28, 1800, in Shrewsbury. He married July 31, 1750, in Groton, Mass., SARAH TROWBRIDGE, born December 3, 1724, in Groton, died December 13, 1788, in Shrewsbury, daughter of the Reverend Caleb and Hannah (Walter) Trowbridge and of direct maternal descent from Increase Mather and John Cotton. This great-grandson of William Ward of Sudbury became his most famous descendant, taking an active part on the patriot side in the decade preceding the Revolution and serving as the first Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary forces. His career is fully in the companion volume to this work, his biography, "The Life of Artemas Ward." His birthplace was the house that later achieved local fame as the Baldwin Tavern (see reference under his father, Nahum Ward). He graduated from Harvard College, B.A., 1748, M.A., 1751, and early became prominent in his community, holding numerous town offices. In 1757 he was elected for the first of many terms as Shrewbury's representative in the General Court. The following year he was commissioned as major in William Williams's regiment, raised for the Ticonderoga campaign against the French, winning promotion to lieutenant-colonel, and upon his return being appointed colonel of his militia regiment. In 1762 he was made a judge of the Court of Common Pleas. During these first years following his marriage he lived the "Yellow House," or "Old Sumner House," its site a few feet to the south of the present Sumner House. In 1763 he bought the now famous old "Artemas Ward House" from his brother Elisha and made it his home thenceforth. His activity on the patriot side of the political controversy with England commenced with the Stamp Act agitation and was speedily followed by Governor Bernard's revocation of his commission as colonel-- for which Ward returned his "compliments to the Governor," saying that he considered himself "twice honored, but more in being superseded, than in having been commissioned," and that he thanked him for the letter of dismissal . "since the motive that dictated it is evidence that I am, what he is not, a friend of my country." Two years later (1768) he was elected to the Council in a contest with Lieutenant-Governor Hutchinson, but was promptly vetoed by Bernard. Hutchinson's letter to ex-Governor Pownall, one of several on the subject, describes Ward as "a very sulky fellow, who I thought I could bring over by giving him a commission in the provincial forces after you left the government, but I was mistaken." Ward was elected again in 1769 and again vetoed. On his third election in 1770 he was accepted. He had been marked for slaughter a third time, but Hutchinson (then acting-governor) decided to accept him for fear that a new refusal would "increase the bad spirit in the House and through the province." He was prominent in the Worcester County conventions of 1774, which declared that Massachusetts owed no obedience to the English Parliament, closed the courts, and planned measures in the event of "an invasion, or danger of an invasion" of the county by English troops. He was a delegate to both provincial congresses called to succeed the General Court and was by both named as Second General Officer to command the militia in the event of its being called out by the newly formed Committee of Safety. His old militia regiment meantime reelected him colonel. With the province aroused to this degree, the first overt act meant civil war. This came with the firing at Lexington and the fight at Concord Bridge.

General Ward was ill in bed when the express rider reached Shrewsbury with news of the clash with the British troops, but the next morning at daybreak he was on his way to join the militiamen who had driven the redcoats back to Boston and encamped around the town. So developed the most important and most critical period of General Ward's life. As Jedediah Preble, First General Officer, did not act upon his election, Ward assumed the chief command of the forces surrounding Boston, both those of Massachusetts and those that came in from other New England states. With no rank except that accorded by an informal provincial congress, with no authority to enlist men, without adequate supplies, he took the dangerous post of head of an armed rebellion against one of the world's greatest powers. There was, quite naturally under the circumstances, a good deal of laxity and disorder in the camps, and much restlessness among the men who had left their farms and families at a moment's notice--ready to fight but totally unprepared for a protracted siege and bedeviled by half-patriots subtly poisoning minds and creating dissensions. The conditions stimulated a flood a criticism. Ward was considered overlenient to offenders, and it was charged that he held the reins too loosely. His peculiarly constituted army nevertheless achieved its purpose--it protected the province from the English troops by keeping the province from the English troops by keeping them besieged within the town. Other men were urged for the command, but "both friend and enemy among the leaders of Massachusetts realized that to put another in his place might overnight destroy the province." (This quotation and those following in this brief sketch of General Ward are from "The Life of Artemas Ward, the first Commander-in-Chief of the American Revolution). Ward indeed "filled his most difficult post with so substantial a degree of dexterity that even his most bitter detractor--James Warren of Plymouth--feared the result of making a change and . testified 'we dare not supersede him here.'" Ward was at that time a man of forty-seven years of medium height clean shaven, of prominent features and somewhat corpulent. One may picture him "dressed in the manner of the times--hair in a powdered wig a long coat with silver buttons a figured neckcloth surmounting a ruffled shirt a long waistcoat with big pockets knee-breeches, and riding-boots. A 'God-fearing' man, strongly believing in and living up to the religion he professed quiet, thoughtful, and rather overstern in demeanor somewhat slow in speech and with a biblical turn to his conversation inflexible in his ideas, and fully convinced that the Massachusetts Bay Colony was the land most approved by Providence, and that those of Massachusetts were the Chosen People." The first weeks of the War of the Revolution were punctuated by many alarms, culminating with the third week of June in well authenticated reports that the reenforced English army had determined to raise the siege. To prevent this movement the Committee of Safety made its session of June 15 historic by passing a resolution recommending the Council of War to seize "Bunker's Hill" and suggesting that "some one hill or hills on Dorchester Neck be likewise secured"--those two positions commanding the peninsulas to the north and south of the peninsula of Boston. All histories prior to "The Life of Artemas Ward" have it "that the result of the action of the council of war on this resolution of the Committee of Safety was Ward's order to fortify Bunker Hill--and the resolution and order have been variously interpreted: as a step of almost blind recklessness, a desperate hazard, occasioned by the urgent necessity to do something to check the British plans to raise the siege as a move to offset the British intention to take Dorchester Neck as an act of defiance calculated to bring on a general engagement as the first step in the contemplated expulsion of the English from Boston. "But the determination at which the council of war of June 15 actually arrived was of a character much bolder--no less than a sudden tightening of the lines around the British forces by the simultaneous fortification of both Bunker Hill and Dorchester Neck."

The Dorchester Neck project was set aside because General Thomas, in command of the right wing, did not feel that his division was strong enough to defend such a possession, but on the following day Ward issued his orders for the seizure and fortification of Bunker Hill. Then followed the famous "Battle of Bunker Hill"--the English troops winning the position but at such heavy cost that their generals forthwith renounced all plans for breaking through the American lines. Thus was the Siege of Boston maintained under Ward until the arrival on July 2 of George Washington of Virginia, elected Commander-in-Chief by the Continental Congress in the well-founded hope of uniting the colonies in a common cause against the English government. On Washington's assumption of the chief post, Ward accepted the command of the right wing, with headquarters at Roxbury. Eight months later his division carried through his long cherished object--the seizure and fortification of Dorchester Peninsula. This compelled the evacuation of Boston by the British--who never again, except as prisoners of war, set foot within the present boundaries of Massachusetts. In the following month Washington marched for New York, and Ward took command of the Eastern Department with headquarters in Boston, remaining in that post until March 20, 1777, on the repeated requests of the Continental Congress and Washington, despite serious ill health. Following his resignation, he was active as a state executive: much of the time as president of the Executive Council on a secret committee on Tory movements as president of the Court of Inquiry on the first Rhode Island expedition as president of the Committee of Investigation of the failure of the Penobscot expedition, etc. In 1779 he was elected to the Continental Congress for the year 1780 and became a member of the Continental Board of War. He was reelected for 1781 and 1782, but was compelled to decline the third term because of ill health. His most important service was with Samuel Adams and Nathaniel Gorham on the committee to check the unrest in Hampshire County fomented by Tory agitators. He was again in the General Court as Speaker of the House during the says of Shays' Rebellion. In his other role as a chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, his determined stand against the insurgents in front of the Worcester courthouse is one of the most dramatic incidents in the history of the county. He was a representative in the second and third United States Congresses, aligning with the federalists and supporting many Washington policies despite the fact that he and Washington never liked each other. "By the summer of 1797 General Ward had begun to feel that his strength was unequal to his judicial duties. On June 12, writing to his daughter Maria and her husband, Dr. Ebenezer Tracy, he says: 'the lawyers in the general court are endeavoring to demolish the Courts of Common Pleas in this Commonwealth & to establish a circuit court in lieu thereof, and it is probable they will effect it. It don't affect me much for I shall soon leave that Court and confine myself at home. I am old & infirm, it is time for me to quit the theatre of action, and while I remain here live a domestic life.' "He sat in court for the last time during the session of December, 1797, and soon after terminated his long career as a judge." He spent the remaining two years of his life in quiet retirement. "His letters show him, in his old age, as in his younger years, full of kindly love for his children and the members of their families--condoling with them in their afflictions, and rejoicing in their happiness, always keeping in the foreground the God he had served so conscientiously all his life, and inculcating the same reliance in, and acceptance of, divine decrees. For himself, he was expecting the end and praying that he might be 'prepared.'"

He died on October 28, 1800. "A long procession of carriages formed his funeral cortege and an impressive address marked the last rites. "Thus closed the career of Artemas Ward, one of the worthiest of Massachusetts' many noble sons. He had played a prominent part in the generation which founded the great republic of the United States. He had stood in the forefront of revolution when the challenge was thrown down to the might of the British Empire, and had held equally resolute against the wrath of compatriots when it ran counter to the best interests of the state or nation. His had been a character of strength and stability which could be swayed neither by favor nor by fear and a life of continuous industry from youth to old age. A character and a life well deserving a high place in the annals of Massachusetts."

The most important recent memorials to General Ward are cited in the Introduction to this volume. The "Artemas Ward House," Shrewsbury, Mass., his home for thirty-seven years, is open to the public every week-day during the summer months. It is a prominent feature of the state road between Boston and Worcester. Its historical associations and it's store of early colonial and revolutionary relics attract many visitors--students, historical writers, and others, in addition to members of the family. His manuscript letters and orders, etc., are widely held. The largest collection is in the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, donated by Artemas Ward, 2722, and containing additions from the collections of Catherine Maria (Ward) Barrell, 1340 Roxa Sprague (Dix) Southard, daughter of 2731 Sarah Elizabeth (Dix) Fisher, 2732 Florence Grosvenor Ward, 4403 Josephine Lewis Danforth and Antoinette (Danforth) Smith, 4368 and 4369 and Gertrude Carruth (Washburn) Weeks, daughter of 4348. Also in the Massachusetts Historical Society are his commission as Massachusetts Commander-in-Chief, presented by Catherine Maria (Ward) Barrell, 1340, and reproduced in "The Life of Artemas Ward" his Order Book, donated by Rebuke Langdon (Prince) Lamson, 2738 his sword, the gift of Charles (Carlos) Thomas Atherton Ward, 4418 his own copy of the diary he kept during the Ticonderoga Expedition of 1758, donated by Florence Grosvenor Ward, 4403 and some additional letters bound on the Heath, Pickering, and Thomas MSS. A second important group of manuscripts is in the Massachusetts Archives, Boston. There are two contemporary portraits of General Ward. The better known, that by Charles Willson Peale, in 1794 or 1795, hangs in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Copies of it are in the Old and New State Houses, Boston the Artemas Ward Annex to the Howe Memorial Library, Shrewsbury the Courthouse, Worcester, Mass. and the homes of Artemas Ward, 2722, Judge Henry Galbraith Ward, 2723, and Agnes (Ward) White, 4385. Mrs. White's copy is a free rendering by Thomas Sully. The photogravure opposite page 106 is, as noted, from the Independence Hall original. The second portrait, by Raphaelle Peale in 1795, is in the Artemas Ward House. A copy is owned by Mrs. C. A. Page (page 156, footnote). There are also numerous heirlooms of General Ward, other than letters, owned by descendants. The gavel that he used as Speaker of the Massachusetts House is in the Old State House, Boston, and the Shrewsbury Congregational Church cherishes the silver communion cups that he gave it in 1769.

THE PRECEDING NUMBERS AND REFERENCES TO PAGES RELATE TO THE ORIGINAL WILLIAM WARD GENEALOGY PUBLISHED IN 1925.

GEDCOM Note

!Service: was an American Revolutionary War commander under George Washington, the first commander-in-chief of the American Revolution.

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts In office March 4, 1791 – March 3, 1795

Artemas Ward (November 26, 1727 – October 28, 1800) was an American major general in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts. He was considered an effective political leader, President John Adams describing him as "universally esteemed, beloved and confided in by his army and his country."

Early life and career Artemas Ward was born at Shrewsbury in the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1727 to Nahum Ward (1684�) and Martha (Howe) Ward.He was the sixth of seven children. His father had broad and successful career interests as a sea captain, merchant, land developer, farmer, lawyer and jurist. As a child he attended the common schools and shared a tutor with his brothers and sisters. He graduated from Harvard in 1748 and taught there briefly.

On July 31, 1750, he married Sarah Trowbridge (December 3, 1724 – December 13, 1788), the daughter of Reverend Caleb Trowbridge and Hannah Trowbridge of Groton. The young couple returned to Shrewsbury where Artemas opened a general store. In the next fifteen years they would have eight children: Ithamar in 1752, Nahum (1754), Sara (1756), Thomas (1758), Artemas Jr. (1762), Henry Dana (1768), Martha (1760), and Maria (1764).

In 1751, at age 23 or 24, he was named a township assessor for Worcester County, the first of many public offices he was to fill.In 1752 he was elected a justice of the peace and to the first of many terms in the Massachusetts provincial assembly, or "general court."

French and Indian War (1754�) In 1755 the Massachusetts militia was restructured for the war Ward was made a major in the 3rd Regiment which drew its company mainly from Worcester County. The 3rd primarily served as a garrison force along the frontier in western Massachusetts. Between 1755 and 1757 Ward was called to active duty at intervals that alternated with his attendance at the General Court. In 1757 he was promoted to regimental colonel of the 3rd Regiment of the militias of Middlesex and Worcester counties. In 1758 the regiment marched with Abercrombie's force to sortie on Fort Ticonderoga, but Ward was sidelined during the campaign by an "attack of the stone."

Between the wars By 1762, Ward returned to Shrewsbury permanently and was named to the Court of Common Pleas. In the General Court (the provincial assembly) he, with Samuel Adams and John Hancock, was appointed to the taxation committee. On the floor, he was second only to James Otis in speaking out against the acts of parliament in London. His prominence in these debates prompted the Royal Governor Francis Bernard to revoke his military commission in 1767. At the next election in 1768, Bernard voided the election results for Worcester and banned Ward from the assembly, but this didn't silence him.

In the growing sentiment favoring rebellion, the 3rd Regiment resigned en masse from British service on October 3, 1774. They then marched on Shrewsbury to inform Ward that they had unanimously elected him their leader. Later that month the governor abolished the assembly. The towns of Massachusetts responded by setting up a colony-wide Committee of Safety. One of the first actions of the Committee was to name Ward as general and commander-in-chief of the colony's militia

American Revolution (1775�) Following the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the rebel (colonial) forces followed the British troops back to Boston and deployed to start the Siege of Boston, cutting all land access to the city. At first Ward directed his forces from his sickbed (in Schrewsbury), later moving his headquarters to Cambridge. Soon, both the New Hampshire and Connecticut provisional governments named him commander of their forces participating in the siege. Most of his efforts during this time were devoted to organization and supply problems.

Additional British forces arrived, overwater, in May and in June, Ward learned of their plan to attack Bunker Hill. He gave orders to fortify the point, setting the stage for the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775. Command during the battle devolved upon General Israel Putnam and Colonel William Prescott.

Meanwhile, the Continental Congress was creating the Continental Army. On June 17 they commissioned Ward a major general, and appointed him second in command to General George Washington. (Ward was one of the original four major generals in the Continental Army along with Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler and Israel Putnam.)Over the next nine months he helped convert the assembled militia units into the Continental Army.

After the British evacuation of Boston on March 17, 1776, Washington led the main body of the army to New York City. Ward took command of the Eastern Department and held that post until March 1777, when ill health forced his resignation from the army.

Post-war and death Even during his military service, Ward also served as a state court justice in 1776 and 1777. From 1777 to 1779, as President of the state's Executive Council, he effectively served as governor before the ratification of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780. He was continuously elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1779 through 1785, leading it as Speaker in 1785.

He was appointed a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1780 and 1781,[21]and from 1791 to 1795 was elected twice to the United States House of Representatives.

Ward died at his home in Shrewsbury on October 28, 1800 and was buried with Sarah in the town's Mountain View Cemetery(His great-grandson Artemas Ward wrote The Grocer's Encyclopedia, published in 1911.)

Legacy Town of Ward The Town of Ward, Massachusetts was incorporated in 1778 in honor of Artemas Ward. In 1837 the town was renamed to Auburn, Massachusetts after complaints from the U.S. postal service that the name Ward was too similar to the nearby town of Ware

Artemas Ward House Wards's lifelong home had been built by his father, Nahum, about the time Artemas was born. The home is now known as the Artemas Ward House and is a museum preserved by Harvard University. Located at 786 Main Street in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts it is open to the public for limited hours during the summer months.

Statue of Artemas Ward at Ward Circle, Washington, D.C. Main article: Ward Circle Ward Circle is a traffic circle at the intersection of Nebraska and Massachusetts Avenues in Northwest Washington, D.C. The land on three sides of Ward Circle is owned by American University. The circle contains a statue of Ward.

The great-grandson of Ward gave over four million dollars to Harvard University on the condition that they erect a statue in honor of Ward, and maintain his home in Shrewsbury.[28] Harvard's initial offer in 1927 of $50,000 toward the statue was enough for a statue, but inadequate to provide the general with a horse.

The statue was unveiled on November 3, 1938[30] by Maj. Gen. Ward's great-great-great-granddaughter, Mrs. Lewis Wesley Feick.Although there are no crosswalks for pedestrian access to the circle, the base of the statue bears this inscription:

ARTEMAS WARD 1727� SON OF MASSACHUSETTS GRADUATE OF HARVARD COLLEGE JUDGE AND LEGISLATOR DELEGATE 1780� TO THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS SOLDIER OF THREE WARS FIRST COMMANDER OF THE PATRIOT FORCES

American University American University named the Ward Circle Building, home of the American University School of Public Affairs, in honor of Artemas Ward, as it was the closest building at the time to Ward Circle. However, it was renamed to Kerwin Hall after their former president Cornelius M. Kerwin in June 2017.[33][34]

  • Residence: Massachusetts
  • Military service: Massachusetts, United States
  • Military service: Aug 18 1775 - Massachusetts, USA
  • Residence: USA - Between 1789 and 1853
  • Residence: Shrewsbury, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States - 1790
  • Military service: 1812 - United States
  • Residence: Chester, Windsor, Vermont, USA - 1840
    • Reference: MyHeritage Family Trees - SmartCopy: Jan 28 2021, 23:51:14 UTC

    Revolutionary War Continental Major General, Continental Congressman, US Congressman. When the American Revolutionary War started in April 1775 with the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Artemas Ward was given command of the militia forces that besieged the British forces in Boston, Massachusetts following the engagement. When the Continental Congress formed the Continental Army in June 1775, he was commissioned Major General in the new army and was named second in command to General George Washington. During the Boston Siege he worked on enlisting the militia members in the the Continental Army, and was given command of the Eastern Military District after the British evacuated Boston in March 1776. He resigned in commission in March 1777 due to ill health. He subsequently served as a delegate in the Continental Congress, and later in his life represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1791 to 1795.


    Artemus Ward

    Artemus Ward was the pen name of Charles Farrar Browne, who was born in Waterford, Maine. The son of a surveyor, storekeeper, and farmer, at 13 he was apprenticed to a printer. He set type for several newspapers in New England before a Boston printshop hired him in 1851. His first humorous sketches, signed "Chub," appeared in the Boston Carpet-bag. During the next 2 years he was a printer in several Ohio towns. In 1853 he became an editor on the Toledo Commercial between 1857 and 1861 he was an editor of the Cleveland Plain Dealer.

    In 1858 Browne wrote a humorous letter purportedly from a traveling showman, Artemus Ward, for the Plain Dealer. Similar pieces appeared in this paper and then in Vanity Fair. He soon became a regular contributor to that comic magazine, moved to New York, and became an editor, serving until 1862. His writings were collected in Artemus Ward: His Book (1862), Artemus Ward: His Travels (1865), and Artemus Ward in London (1867). Ward used many of the procedures employed by a large group of very popular American humorists in the post-Civil War period: he assumed the role of a humorless ignoramus whose writings were studded with malapropisms, misspellings, grammatical errors, and strangely constructed sentences. In time, though, Ward dropped the assumed character and illiterate touches without discontinuing his use of the humor of diction. Helped by tricks of language, he wrote many burlesques and parodies, as well as sketches and travel accounts. Among his many readers was Abraham Lincoln, who read one of Ward's pieces to his Cabinet the day he presented his Emancipation Proclamation.

    Ward profited not only from writings but also from his lectures between 1860 and 1867. In a period when lecturers—on science, philosophy, literature, mesmerism, travel, and other topics—were appearing throughout the nation, Ward traveled through the East, the Midwest, and the Far West burlesquing these solemn and instructive lecturers. Wearing a funereal expression, he pleased audiences by solemnly saying the most absurd things. He was giving a very popular series of comic lectures in London in 1867 when illness forced him to discontinue he died there on March 9.

    Ward was important to a number of humorous writers, notably Mark Twain. Besides being responsible for the publication of Twain's first big success, his "Jumping Frog" story, in an eastern magazine in 1865, Ward provided an invaluable model for comic lecturing, as Twain himself acknowledged.


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