Vincent Dowling

Vincent Dowling

Após o estabelecimento do O observador em 1791, Vincent Dowling foi nomeado o primeiro repórter do jornal. Quando o jornal não conseguiu ganhar dinheiro para seu dono, W. S. Bourne, foram feitas tentativas de vendê-lo ao governo. Essa medida não teve sucesso, mas o governo concordou em ajudar a subsidiar o jornal em troca de influenciar seu conteúdo.

O Home Office também decidiu recrutar Dowling como espião do governo. Em 1815, Lord Sidmouth, o Ministro do Interior, ficou preocupado com as crescentes demandas por reforma parlamentar. Um grupo de radicais que causou preocupação especial foram os filantropos spenceanos. Embora o homem que inspirou o grupo, Thomas Spence, tenha morrido em 1814, isso não diminuiu o desejo de Spenc por uma mudança no sistema político. Sidmouth deu a John Stafford, secretário-chefe da Bow Street e supervisor dos espiões do Ministério do Interior, a tarefa de obter as evidências necessárias para destruir esse grupo. Stafford recrutou John Castle, um membro dos Spenceans, como espião. Ele também pediu a Dowling que obtivesse informações sobre o grupo.

Em dezembro de 1816, John Stafford pagou a Dowling para registrar o que foi dito em uma reunião política organizada pelos Spenceans. Os palestrantes da reunião em Spa Fields, Islington, incluíram Henry 'Orator' Hunt e James Watson. Os magistrados decidiram dispersar a reunião e enquanto Stafford e oitenta policiais faziam isso, um dos homens, Joseph Rhodes, foi esfaqueado. Os quatro líderes dos Spenceans, James Watson, Arthur Thistlewood, Thomas Preston e John Hopper foram presos e acusados ​​de alta traição.

Após a prisão dos líderes dos Filantropos Spencean, Dowling foi enviado para a Casa de Correção Coldbath Fields em Clerkenwell. Dowling usou sua habilidade de taquigrafia para registrar o que os prisioneiros diziam aos visitantes. Em um relatório que Vincent Dowling enviou a John Stafford, ele o advertiu de que James Watson pretendia usar muitas "citações das escrituras" em sua defesa.

James Watson foi o primeiro a ser julgado. As duas principais testemunhas de acusação eram dois espiões do governo: John Castle e Vincent Dowling. O conselho de defesa estava ciente disso e tentou arduamente minar o testemunho desses dois homens. Durante o interrogatório, o conselho de defesa foi capaz de mostrar que Castle tinha ficha criminal e estava agindo como um agente provocador (pessoa empregada para incitar pessoas suspeitas a alguma ação aberta que as tornará passíveis de punição).

A defesa também tentou mostrar que o testemunho de Dowling era suspeito. Foi sugerido que as informações que ele deu no tribunal não eram confiáveis, pois Dowling era um informante pago. Embora Dowling tenha admitido no tribunal que deu informações a John Becket, o subsecretário permanente do Ministério do Interior, ele negou ter recebido qualquer dinheiro por seus serviços.

Depois de ouvir todas as evidências, o júri concluiu que as informações fornecidas por John Castle e Vincent Dowling não eram confiáveis ​​e se recusou a condenar James Watson. Como o caso contra Watson havia fracassado, foi decidido libertar os outros três homens que deveriam ser julgados pelo mesmo crime.

Pergunta: Você já se candidatou a algum emprego no governo?

Vincent Dowling: Não, não.

Pergunta: De qualquer tipo?

Vincent Dowling: Não.

Pergunta: Quem gostaria que você comparecesse no dia 2 de dezembro?

Vincent Dowling: Assisti por desejo dos proprietários do jornal Observer.

Pergunta: Você recebeu alguma orientação de alguém do gabinete do Secretário de Estado ou de algum magistrado?

Vincent Dowling: Eu não tive, nem nunca tive qualquer comunicação anterior com eles.

Pergunta: Tendo feito esta nota no dia 2 de dezembro, a quem você deu a cópia quando a transcreveu de sua nota?

Vincent Dowling: Eu dei ao Sr. Beckett.

Pergunta: Sr. Beckett, o Subsecretário de Estado?

Vincent Dowling: Sim, entendo.

É impossível saber até que ponto os membros superiores do Governo estão envolvidos na culpa de seus agentes infernais. Mas isso é muito conhecido, que assim que toda a nação levantou sua voz para a reforma parlamentar, espiões partiram. Estes foram selecionados entre os mais desprezíveis e infames da humanidade e dispersos entre a multidão de trabalhadores famintos e analfabetos. Era seu trabalho encontrar vítimas, não importa se certas ou erradas.


Dowling, Vincent

Dowling, Vincent (1756-1825), repórter parlamentar e satírico, nasceu em Queen's Co. (Laois), não há detalhes de seus pais. Ele começou sua longa e bem-sucedida carreira jornalística em Dublin na década de 1780, onde se tornou um repórter parlamentar, memorizando discursos e escrevendo o texto para os jornais. Mudando-se temporariamente para Londres, ele retornou a Dublin na década de 1790. Em 1797 ele começou a biblioteca circulante Apollo em 13 Suffolk St., Dublin. Um bibliófilo de longa data, Dowling dirigiu a biblioteca por três anos, mais tarde no 5 College Green. Vigorosamente contrário à união legislativa da Grã-Bretanha e da Irlanda, ele aplicou sua considerável sagacidade e talento de redação para atacar a medida. Embora contra sua abolição, ele satirizou a casa dos comuns irlandeses em seu Procedimentos e Debates do Parlamento de Pimlico. Esta famosa publicação teve 28 edições (1799-1800) e zombou da "casa dos nobres" e das fraquezas dos políticos. Ele também publicou um periódico, O Olio, ou Miscelânea de Anythingarian. Desiludido após a morte do sindicato, ele deixou a Irlanda em 1801 e voltou para Londres, onde se tornou um livreiro e vendedor de remédios patenteados em suas instalações em 30 Lincoln's Inn Fields. Mais tarde, ele voltou ao jornalismo e trabalhou para Os tempos, mudança de casa para Salisbury Square.

Sua sagacidade e senso de humor malicioso foram conhecidos. Talvez sua partida mais significativa tenha ocorrido após a morte (1816) de Patrick Duigenan (qv), o polêmico advogado e político. Dowling escreveu um relato detalhado de ‘As circunstâncias melancólicas dos últimos momentos e da morte do Dr. Patrick Duigenan, MP’, que enviou ao seu afilhado em Dublin, que o publicou no Dublin Journal. O artigo especulava que Duigenan havia se convertido ao catolicismo em seu leito de morte, uma reviravolta extraordinária para o defensor extremista do protestantismo. A história era impossível de refutar, embora John Giffard (qv) negue veementemente.

Dowling viveu em Londres pelo resto de sua vida, em uma aposentadoria abastada em sua casa em Kentish Town. Ele morreu lá em 29 de março de 1825. Casou-se e teve dois filhos, os quais alcançaram alguma distinção na Inglaterra. Vincent George Dowling (1785-1852) foi um jornalista proeminente, autor de Fistiana, ou oráculo do ringue, uma história do boxe, e também foi editor da Vida de Bell, o jornal esportivo, de 1824 até sua morte. Ele estava presente na casa dos comuns em 11 de maio de 1812, quando John Bellingham atirou no primeiro-ministro, Spencer Perceval, e foi uma das primeiras pessoas a prender o assassino. O segundo filho, Sir James Dowling (1787-1844), também seguiu carreira no jornalismo, tornando-se repórter parlamentar em Londres, seguido por uma carreira de sucesso como juiz colonial.

R. R. Madden, História da literatura periódica irlandesa, ii (1867), 160-63 DNB (para filhos) O'Donoghue, Poetas da Irlanda A. Aspinall, Política e imprensa (1973) J. W. Philips, Impressão e venda de livros em Dublin, 1670-1800 (1998)


Dowling era meu pai, sua morte me entristece

Richard Boyd Barrett revelou que o renomado diretor de teatro Vincent Dowling, que morreu aos 83 anos, era seu pai biológico.

R ichard Boyd Barrett revelou que o renomado diretor de teatro Vincent Dowling, que morreu aos 83 anos, era seu pai biológico.

Falando da Alemanha, onde está participando de uma conferência organizada pelo Die Linke (o partido de esquerda), o People Before Profit TD disse: & quotEu posso confirmar que Vincent Dowling era meu pai biológico.

& quotFizemos contato há alguns anos. Ele entrou em contato comigo. Ele foi divulgado, não foi? E ele colocou dois e dois juntos. Ele me ligou. Eu não tenho certeza de quanto tempo atrás foi, minha memória sobre isso é um pouco vaga. Foi há cerca de três ou quatro anos.

“Ele morava na América, mas nós tínhamos um relacionamento e eu mantenho contato com minhas irmãs lá. Eu sabia que ele estava doente. Estou muito triste hoje e minhas irmãs estão muito tristes. & Quot

Em 2007, o Sr. Boyd Barrett teve um reencontro muito emocionante com sua mãe biológica, a atriz Sinead Cusack, da famosa dinastia teatral.

Ontem, Cusack também confirmou que Vincent Dowling era o pai biológico do Sr. Boyd Barrett & # 039.

Ela disse: & quotEu & # 039 simplesmente não vou falar sobre meu relacionamento com Vincent, exceto para dizer que estivemos na abadia juntos e eu tinha uma grande admiração por ele e um grande afeto por ele. & Quot

Dowling teve uma longa carreira como ator e diretor e teve uma longa associação com o Abbey Theatre.

Em um de seus principais momentos de carreira, Dowling apareceu na adaptação seminal de Frank McMahon & # 039 do romance autobiográfico de Brendan Behan & # 039, The Borstal Boy, em 1967.

Ele conheceu Sinead Cusack, uma estrela em ascensão no Abbey Theatre, nessa época. Havia uma diferença de idade de 19 anos entre eles.

O Sr. Boyd Barrett nasceu no mesmo ano, mas foi adotado e criado em Dun Laoghaire por seus pais adotivos Valerie e David Boyd Barrett, um arquiteto famoso.

O Sr. Boyd Barrett disse ontem que seu relacionamento com Dowling não era tão próximo quanto o que ele estabeleceu com Cusack.

“Ele morava na América - em Massachusetts - então não era possível ter um relacionamento tão próximo. E também era muito mais velho, então viajar era difícil para ele. Mas nos demos muito bem. & Quot

De acordo com o Sr. Boyd Barrett, Dowling não manteve uma amizade com Cusack.

& quotEu não acho que ele gostaria de entrar nisso de qualquer maneira, & quot, o Dun Laoghaire TD acrescentou. Questionado se ele está em contato com a esposa de Dowling & # 039s, Olwen O & # 039Herlihy, o Sr. Boyd Barrett respondeu: & quotNós nos conhecemos & quot;

Embora o Sr. Boyd Barrett estivesse curioso para conhecer sua mãe biológica, ele disse que "não tinha certeza" se teria procurado Dowling.

"Eu não gostaria de ter interferido em sua vida, mas essa decisão me salvou porque ele me contatou e tudo bem", disse ele.

Ele acrescentou que não percebeu se havia semelhanças entre ele e seu pai famoso.

"Deixarei isso para outras pessoas julgarem", disse ele.

O Sr. Boyd Barrett disse que estava em discussões familiares sobre ir ao funeral.

"Todos esses arranjos estão sendo discutidos e serão decididos nos próximos dias", acrescentou.

Cusack descreveu Dowling como um homem & quotespecial com talentos especiais que contribuiu muito para o teatro irlandês & quot.

Ao longo dos anos, Dowling dirigiu peças de Shaw, Synge e Oliver Goldsmith e recebeu o crédito pela descoberta do astro do cinema Tom Hanks depois de dar ao ator seu primeiro trabalho sindicalizado no Festival de Shakespeare dos Grandes Lagos em Ohio. Ele também ganhou um prestigioso Emmy Award por sua adaptação para a televisão de JM Synge & # 039s The Playboy Of The Western World.

O Sr. Boyd Barrett descreveu sua reunião de reunião de 2007 com Cusack, dizendo que eles se deram & quotmuito bem. funcionou muito positivamente para mim & quot.

Ele também estabeleceu um bom relacionamento com seus meio-irmãos, Sam e Max Irons, que Cusack teve com seu marido, o astro de cinema Jeremy Irons.

Cusack mais tarde fez campanha por seu filho biológico quando ele concorreu às Eleições Gerais de 2007. E em 2011, ela se juntou a ele no centro de contagem quando ele foi eleito para Dail Eireann pela primeira vez.

Descrevendo seu relacionamento com Cusack, o Sr. Boyd Barrett disse na época: “Foi uma experiência emocional, suponho. Meus amigos sempre pensaram que eu era o tipo de pessoa, talvez por causa da coisa política, que realmente não tinha emoções sobre esse tipo de coisa (e aquilo), as coisas me dominaram com bastante facilidade.

& quotMas acho que é claro que você sente, quando conhece alguém nessa situação. Você também tem um grande amor por sua família que o criou, que é sua família, então é interessante dessa forma. & Quot

O Dun Laoghaire TD prestou homenagem a seu pai biológico. & quotÉ um dia triste hoje. Vincent era um homem do teatro e acho que é assim que ele gostaria de ser lembrado.


Roots: The Dowlings

Em 1609, os poucos membros patrícios do clã Dowling foram transplantados de seu Laois nativo para a fronteira do norte de Kerry e do oeste de Limerick, dividindo a geografia do clã. Hoje, a maioria dos Dowlings ainda podem ser encontrados no leste da Irlanda, onde os novos proprietários de terras britânicos geralmente ignoravam os clãs leigos em seu território ao longo da margem oeste do Rio Barrow. Essa região, antigamente conhecida como Fearann ​​ua ​​n-Dunlaing, ou o país dos Dowlings, sugere a etimologia do nome, que teoricamente é um dos poucos sobrenomes "residenciais" em irlandês, vindo de pardo, forte e Laing, possivelmente uma corruptela do irlandês longo, significando navio.

Após o transplante dos líderes do clã, os remanescentes em Laois se espalharam para o leste e para o sul, descendo o rio Barrow, passando pelos condados de Carlow, Kilkenny e, finalmente, Wicklow. Na verdade, na área de Rathdrum de Wicklow, existem pelo menos quatro cidades chamadas Ballydowling. É desta área que surgiu o Dowling notável mais antigo: Thady Dowling (1544 - 1628), um analista e gramático de língua irlandesa.

Avançando nos séculos e do outro lado do lago, outro homem de aprendizagem foi Victor J. Dowling (1866 - 1934), juiz da Suprema Corte do Estado de Nova York e cavaleiro ativo em numerosas ordens cavalheirescas católicas, incluindo a Ordem de São Gregório o Grande, camareiro papal do Cabo e Espada. Outro homem da lei foi o oficial colonial nascido em Londres Sir James Dowling (1787 - 1844), cujo pai era de Laois. Este Dowling passou a ser o Chefe de Justiça da Suprema Corte de New South Wales e escreveu vários tratados influentes. Seu irmão, Vincent George Dowling (1785 - 1852), optou por ficar em Londres e se tornou uma editora de sucesso de revistas de esportes, incluindo Bell's Life e Fistiana, dedicadas ao boxe.

Continuando com os escritores, o poema do século 19 "The Brigade of Fontenoy" foi composto pelos nascidos em Kerry Bartholomew Dowling (1823 - 1863) em comemoração aos soldados irlandeses na derrota decisiva da França sobre a Grã-Bretanha na Batalha de Fontenoy do século 18.

A serviço do Exército Britânico na Índia, William Dowling (1825 - 1887), nascido em Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny, foi condecorado com a Victoria Cross por seus atos durante o motim indígena de 1857 no cerco de Lucknow. Na América, Richard W. Dowling (1838 - 1867) foi uma figura irlandesa chave no Exército Confederado (embora ele tenha nascido em Galway), alcançando o posto de tenente em uma unidade composta principalmente de estivadores irlandeses baseados em Houston.

Talvez a conexão mais estranha com o lado difícil da história seja o casamento de Dubliner em 1910 Bridget Dowling (1891 - 1969) para Alois Hitler, Jr., tornando sua cunhada para Adolf Hitler. Alois trabalhava como garçom no Shelbourne Hotel desde o final da década de 1890, embora fingisse ser um próspero empresário europeu quando conheceu Bridget. Eles fugiram em Londres e acabaram se mudando para Liverpool, onde Bridget teve um filho, William Patrick, em 1911. Três anos depois, no entanto, Alois abandonou a família, voltou para a Alemanha, casou-se ilegalmente e providenciou para que um recado fosse enviado a Bridget que ele estava morto. As autoridades alemãs eventualmente descobriram a bigamia ilegal, no entanto, e eles finalmente se divorciaram em 1929.

Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, Bridget e William Patrick se mudaram para os EUA, para onde William havia viajado anteriormente, dando palestras sobre seu infame tio. Eles se estabeleceram em Long Island e mudaram seu sobrenome para Stuart-Houston.

Também em Long Island fica o Dowling College, em homenagem a Robert W. Dowling (1895-1973). Nascido em Nova York, Robert foi um importante investidor imobiliário e filantropo e teve papéis importantes no desenvolvimento de Stuyvesant Town e Peter Cooper Village em Manhattan. Ele também ganhou um prêmio Tony em 1948 por sua contribuição para o desenvolvimento do teatro (ele possuía ou era parcialmente proprietário de pelo menos quatro teatros), e foi um dos produtores originais de O som da música.

Mais recentemente, no ramo do teatro é ator e diretor Vincent Dowling (1929 - 2013). Nascido em Dublin, o ator começou no Abbey Theatre antes de ser transplantado para Cleveland na década de 1970 para dirigir o Great Lakes Theatre Festival, onde foi o estímulo que transformou Tom Hanks de estagiário do festival em ator vencedor do Cleveland Critics Circle Award. Mais tarde, Vincent Dowling mudou-se para Massachusetts, fundou sua própria companhia de teatro e ganhou um Emmy por sua produção e direção do filme da PBS Playboy of the Western World de John Millington Synge.

Finalmente, por acaso, quem teria um doutorado honorário do Dowling College, mas o palestrante principal da Business 100 deste ano, o nativo de Limerick Michael J. Dowling? Leia mais sobre ele em sua entrevista principal.


O assassinato de John Francis Dowling e o massacre de 300 aborígines.

Escrevendo em 1888, Charles F Maxwell observou que Vincent Dowling:

Embora exposto a ataques frequentes dos negros, ele escapou sem ferimentos, mas não sem se barbear, já que em uma ocasião ele teve uma lança enfiada em seu chapéu e em outra um bumerangue lançado por um homem selvagem cortou as costelas da égua ele estava cavalgando. No entanto, ele não retaliou, e somente em 1865, quando seu irmão John foi assassinado pelos negros, ele derramou uma gota de sangue do companheiro negro.

É lamentável que o Sr. Maxwell, que sem dúvida foi um cavalheiro honrado, seja responsável por colocar pensamentos ruins e informações erradas nas mentes dos cavaleiros errantes digitais de hoje, que atacam os moinhos de vento da história colonial australiana com os iludidos crença de que estão corrigindo os erros do passado. A afirmação acima de Maxwell está errada e sem fundamento de qualquer tipo. Cito o diário de Vincent James Dowling:

22 de junho de 1863. Quando desci do cavalo examinando pegadas pretas frescas para determinar sua idade enquanto me abaixava, fiquei bastante surpreso ao ver uma lança atravessar meu chapéu do lado oposto do riacho e prendê-lo no chão, sem tempo para refletir antes que eu foi saudado com quatro bumerangues, nenhum dos quais surtiu efeito, exceto o último que atingiu a sela e o cavalo, arrancando a aba da sela e cortando-a quase como uma faca. Peguei o bumerangue 3 e a lança com meu chapéu no topo dele disparou. Tive uma saída estreita dez centímetros mais baixa e a lança, uma fina e farpada, teria perfurado minha têmpora esquerda. Sempre usarei chapéus americanos longos. Os Blacks devem ter pensado que eu tinha uma cabeça longa, o que não estou pensando e, portanto, meu chapéu me salvou. Nunca deve deixar o acampamento sem armas novamente. Depois de me recuperar da minha surpresa, voltei e subi o riacho um pouco e encontrei bons buracos de água. Retornou pelo riacho mantendo-se afastado das margens. Parei por uma hora 3 milhas acima de onde bati no riacho, alimentei meu cavalo, freio na mão, muito perto dos darkies. Reuniu três negros ao voltar para casa e descobriu que o nome do riacho era Coocara. Teve alguma dificuldade em deter esses cavalheiros. Eles não parariam até que eu tocasse um deles com a ponta da minha lança. (…) Voltei ao acampamento em Sundown e encontrei o velho Tom bem, pobre sujeito. Estou feliz por ter escapado por causa dele, ele estaria em uma situação terrível. Não preciso dizer como me sinto grato à Providence por minha fuga. A morte muitas vezes está mais perto de nós do que pensamos.
29 de junho ... Dirigindo pelo riacho (Cutha Paroo) encontrei um velho negro e seu gin em cerca de 7 milhas, eles me convidaram para passar a noite com eles. Aceitei o convite, fizeram-me uma fogueira e colheram erva para a minha cama, foram extremamente atenciosos e educados, no geral passaram uma noite bastante agradável. Quão pouco satisfaz alguém, se apenas se pudesse acreditar nisso. Ingenuas dedicisse fidelibus notes et cet. [Eu acho que Vincent quer dizer: A nota de amor é gentil e ardente da raiva, alta e turbulenta.]
30 de junho. Começou minha anfitriã Kitty, acho que é o nome dela, para os cavalos ao amanhecer. Ela os trouxe e agradeceu sua recompensa na forma de meio figo de tabaco. Constatou-se durante as conversas que se tratava de Cooinoo ontem à noite (e) que há uma nascente perto da margem direita de Birrewarra e que existem várias entre Paroo e Cutha Paroo. Dei adeus aos meus anfitriões desde muito cedo, tendo-lhes feito um convite urgente para visitarem o curral de ovelhas no Irara, que eles dispensaram (sic).

No final de dezembro de 1922, EO Hobkirk entregou a William Gall, subsecretário do Departamento de Home Secretary & # 8217s de Brisbane, dois manuscritos buscando vendê-los por 10 / -. Gall descreveu Hobkirk para o comprador anônimo como "uma velha identidade do sudoeste de Queensland". O manuscrito relevante é chamado de The Murder of Mr John Dowling. Locality, Bulloo River Queensland e é um documento manuscrito de aproximadamente 1.700 palavras escrito em 1922 sobre um evento que "aconteceu em 1865, 57 anos atrás". O artigo completo pode ser visto no Apêndice F. A estrutura do documento está na forma de uma narrativa, começando com uma declaração de princípio de que os aborígines preferem a morte à deslealdade. Eles nunca traem seus próprios homens de tribo. Hobkirk então descreve o que levou ao desaparecimento de John Dowling, a busca por ele, a descoberta de seus restos mortais e, em seguida, a investigação de sua morte, culminando no massacre dos aborígines Bulloo por causa de sua insolência muda em relação a um homem branco em busca de respostas para o problema de um homem branco que efetivamente prova o ponto de que os aborígines não entregam seus homens de tribo à autoridade branca. Durante a narrativa, Hobkirk confessa ter participado da matança dos aborígines, mas apenas sob as ordens de um superior e que na verdade ele não matou nenhum aborígene. Sendo uma testemunha ocular da matança dos aborígines por seu princípio de firmeza e firmeza, ele efetivamente mata dois pássaros com uma pedra. Ele prova sua observação de que a lealdade à tribo é fundamental para os aborígines e também testemunhou um ocupante líder, um pilar da sociedade, um magistrado, sujar as mãos com atos criminosos, retratando assim sua hipocrisia. A segunda parte da história é como Hobkirk resolveu o assassinato de John Dowling, capturou o culpado Pimpilly e o entregou com relutância ao supervisor de Vincent Dowling e nunca mais se ouviu falar dele. A história termina com Hobkirk não recebendo nenhum reconhecimento ou recompensa pelos serviços prestados a Vincent Dowling. A questão é, em primeiro lugar, este documento é uma fonte histórica válida e, em caso afirmativo, que peso deve ser dado à versão dos eventos apresentada no documento?
Também anexado à nota Gall acima estava um manuscrito escrito à mão intitulado Impersonating an Aboriginal. Esta é a história de Hobkirk em 1867, disfarçando-se de aborígene e juntando-se a um corroborado:

Enegrecemos com carvão uma camiseta branca e fina e uma cueca e, em seguida, pintamos a frente da camiseta com listras vermelhas e brancas. Os negros pintam a pele com ocre vermelho e branco, também um par de meias pretas, que havíamos conseguido obter do meu capacete consistia em uma peruca, feita de crina de cavalo, decorada com ema e penas brancas de papagaio cacatua. Isso completou a maquiagem.

Este artigo apareceu no Queenslander de 12 de maio de 1923. O artigo sobre o assassinato de John Dowling não apareceu na imprensa, mas formava uma pequena parte de um artigo chamado Aboriginal Characteristics publicado pelo Daily Mail de 6 de janeiro de 1923 da seguinte forma:

Outra característica estranha é que os nativos raramente traem sua própria raça. O Sr. John Dowling foi cruelmente assassinado por seu menino negro de estimação no distrito de Bulloo River quando acamparam juntos, mas isso só foi provado muitos meses depois. Embora toda a tribo, ou muitos da tribo soubessem tudo sobre isso, eles não trairiam o assassino, então, em conseqüência, sacrificaram suas próprias vidas.

Pode-se inferir do fato de que, uma vez que os artigos acima foram escritos para publicação na imprensa popular e, como conseqüência, nunca foram apresentados pelos editores ou pelo autor como declarações de fato como alguém pode encontrar em depoimentos ou outro documento de que a natureza ou em trabalhos acadêmicos de história ou ciência, que os artigos foram escritos apenas para fins de lazer, entretenimento e recreação?
A próxima versão é fornecida por J St. Pierie, que em 1969 compilou Algumas Informações sobre a História de South West Qld:

Vincent Dowling foi morto pelos nativos enquanto reunia gado na região dos montes de areia no que hoje é a Estação Wongatta e foi enterrado perto do antigo cruzamento de Thargomindah perto da propriedade rural de Thargomindah. Como represália, os soldados que encontraram a tribo acampados no lado leste do rio, cerca de trinta milhas rio abaixo (perto da atual propriedade de Thyangra), perseguiram-nos em direção às colinas, atirando-os para baixo enquanto corriam. Até dez ou doze anos atrás, não era incomum encontrar crânios aborígines naquela área. Os relatórios são de que toda a tribo de quase 300 foi exterminada. Em 1911, havia um velho aborígene em Norely que afirmava ser o único sobrevivente do massacre. Um piccaninny na época, sua mãe o escondera sob a casca de um buraco no chão da gunyah. Os soldados queimaram o acampamento, incluindo os gunyahs, sobre sua cabeça, mas ele ficou lá e rastejou para fora mais tarde. (Informações do Sr. G Gooch, que foi para Norley como guarda-livros em 1911). A data do massacre é incerta, mas provavelmente foi em 1872 ou antes, já que em 1872 Frederick W Armytage comprou as estações Thargomindah e Norely pagando £ 170.000 pela primeira e £ 110.000 pela última.

Agora, esta versão é ainda mais ultrajante do que a de Hobkirk. Nem mesmo se refere a John Dowling, mas a Vincent, que morreu pacificamente em sua cama em Rylstone, NSW em 1903, mas sejamos generosos e digamos que é um erro tipográfico, e em vez de ‘Vincent’ deveria ler ‘John’. Ainda não faz sentido. Quando você compara e contrasta Hobkirk e Gooch / St. Pierie entre si e com as reportagens da imprensa de 1865, a inconsistência e a disparidade estão além de qualquer dúvida e reconciliação. Além disso, os relatos da imprensa de 1865 destroem completamente a credibilidade do Hobkirk e do Gooch / St. Versões de Pierie tornando-as fontes não confiáveis ​​e desacreditadas.

Incidente 1865 Versão 1922 Hobkirk 1969 J St. Pierie
Falecido John Dowling John Dowling Vincent Dowling
Ponto de partida Caiwarroo Paroo Thouringowa Bulloo N / A
Guia Waddy Galo Pimpilly N / A
Motivo da viagem Cortando uma estrada Agrupamento de exploração
Destino Monte Murchison Menindee N / A
Duração da viagem Quatro dias inteiros Não esclarecido / não declarado N / A
Pesquisar festa Podmore e amp Hall Sams e amp stockman N / A
Duração da pesquisa Viajou 30 ou 40 milhas de Paroo 2 dias 60 milhas de Cheshunt Bulloo N / A
Local da Morte Paroo River Queensland Estação Bulloo River Queensland Wongatta
Data da morte 13 de junho de 1865 Não está claro / não declarado 1872
Meio ambiente Trilha do país sem água, perdido O país bom não conseguiu localizar água no país de Sandhill
Maneira da morte Um único golpe na cabeça, esmagando o crânio Golpe na cabeça, luta, em seguida, vários golpes no crânio Não declarado
Motivo da morte desconhecido Para evitar mais espancamentos Não declarado
Cena do crime Local do acampamento não perturbado Local do acampamento saqueado Não declarado
Perpetrador desconhecido Pimpilly Tribe of Blacks
Cavalos não encontrados nas proximidades gordura lamacenta bastante água boa alimentação Não declarado

Talvez o primeiro cruzado pós-11 de novembro de 1975 a lidar com a morte de John Dowling foi Bobbie Hardy em seu livro Lament of the Barkindji:

Quando o corpo de John Dowling foi encontrado algumas semanas após seu assassinato no Paroo em 1865, nada no acampamento foi tocado, nem rações, cobertores, selas, pistolas nem as roupas do homem morto. O agressor era considerado um membro da tribo Wadikali, longe de sua casa no Bulloo, que estava ajudando Dowling a inspecionar uma trilha do Monte Murchison ao Paroo. Por que ele se sentiu impelido a bater com o peso no crânio era um mistério, mas não algo que os amigos de Dowling considerassem digno de muita reflexão. O fato fundamental é que outro homem branco havia sido morto pelos “negros”, e cabia aos seus compatriotas se vingarem.

Para este evento, Hardy citou o Sydney Mail, 2 de setembro de 1865. O tratamento de Hardy dos fatos parece justo, mas seus comentários são emocionantes e inflamados. Não há prova de que algum homem branco se vingou da tribo Wadiklai ou de qualquer outra tribo pela morte de John Dowling.
A próxima a lidar com o assunto foi Hazel McKellar, em Matyu-mundu, onde ela relata o Gooch / St. Versão Pierie:

Tal como acontece com outros grupos, os Kullilla sofreram nas mãos do rifle do companheiro branco. O massacre mais notável ocorreu por volta de 1872. Vincent Dowling, o proprietário da estação Thargomindah, foi morto, de acordo com a história dos brancos, por aborígenes enquanto reunia ações na região de Sandhill. Como represália, os soldados encontraram a tribo acampada no lado leste do rio, perseguiram-nos em direção às colinas, atirando neles enquanto corriam. Foi relatado que quase 300 pessoas morreram neste incidente. Alguns brancos dizem que essas pessoas pertenciam à tribo “Bitharra”, mas Peter Hood, um descendente dos Kullilla, tem certeza de que eram seu povo. Ele diz que o local do massacre foi mais ao sul, em direção a Bulloo Downs.

No entanto, ela não reconhece Gooch / St. Pierie como fonte não há citações. McKellar não tenta uma análise crítica do material de origem. Ela não faz comentários sobre a identidade do falecido. É Vincent Dowling ou John Dowling, ou apenas outro homem branco? Sugerindo, pode ser irrelevante, uma vez que é história dos brancos. Ela diz que a história dos brancos está errada quanto à tribo massacrada, já que foram os Kullilla e não o Bitharra e o local indicado para o massacre foi mais ao sul de Bulloo Downs sob a autoridade de Peter Hood, um descendente dos Kullilla. Novamente, nenhuma citação ou autoridade é dada para essas declarações categóricas de fato. Isso talvez sugira que a história dos brancos é irrelevante, mas onde corrobora uma história tribal (história oral), então, deriva algum valor histórico para a cultura koori, mas, fora isso, é um negócio sem sentido do homem branco. O problema para McKellar é que as pessoas das tribos Kullilla foram mortas sem desculpa ou justificativa no rio Bulloo ao sul de Bulloo Downs por soldados em 1872 e não pela família Dowling ou seus agentes ou servos. Onde os livros do gênero McKellar se situam no mundo da pesquisa acadêmica, não posso dizer, mas imagino que haja um lugar para eles na biblioteca de justiça social.
Talvez a próxima tentativa de lidar com o incidente de John Francis Dowling seja por Jonathon Richards, que concluiu uma tese de doutorado em filosofia chamada, A Question of Necessity: The Native Police in Queensland, Griffith University, março de 2005. Cito a tese de Richards:

One credible account of a killing perpetrated by squatters and their employees, is found in the reminiscences of Edward Hobkirk, an employee at Dowling’s Station on the Bulloo River.107 According to Hobkirk, grazier John (‘Jack’) Dowling was killed in 1864 by his ‘pet blackboy’ and Dowling’s brother wrote to the nearest Native Police (probably Bungil Creek near Roma) about the murder. Hobkirk said Dowling was told to ‘take what measures he thought best to revenge the murder,’ so ‘all the men in the neighbourhood’ were assembled and ‘armed with revolvers and rifles’ before the local Aboriginal people were mustered.108 Hobkirk admitted he helped bury the bodies that Dowling and others shot at several camps.
107 EO Hobkirk, Original Reminiscences of South West Queensland, NLA, MS 3460, Vol 2. It is unclear when Hobkirk actually wrote this account, but the other records in the file cover the period from 1870 to 1923. Hobkirk gave his manuscript to William Gall at the Home Secretary’s Office in 1922.
108 Hobkirk, Original Reminiscences. The Dowling brothers were the nephews of Sir James Dowling, A New South Wales judge, and related to other leading squatter families. See a family tree of the Dowling family in David Denholm, The Colonial Australians (Melbourne: Penguin, 1979), 177, and a list of their relatives (including James Morisset) in Anthony Dowling (editor), Reminiscences of a Colonial Judge: James Sheen Dowling (Sydney: The Federation Press, 1996), 202. John Dowling’s death was confirmed in the Brisbane Courier (4 June 1864), and the repercussions are mentioned in Bobbie Hardy, Lament for the Barkindji: the vanished tribes of the Darling River region (Adelaide: Rigby, 1976), 116.
109 One source says Vincent Dowling ‘subsequently became a terror to the black’ Charles F Maxwell, Australian men of Mark 1788 – 1888 1 (Sydney: Charles F Maxwell, no date), 385.

Richards relies entirely on Hobkirk for his description of the John Dowling incident. He describes Hobkirk as a credible witness. Richards says “Hobkirk says John D was killed in 1864” and that Hobkirk was “an employee at Dowling’s Station on the Bulloo River”. Hobkirk in fact says 1865 and clearly states, “… Mr Sams of Cheshunt cattle station, where I was employed.” Richards further quotes Hobkirk, “helped bury the bodies” Hobkirk in fact said, “I helped first to burn the bodies and then to bury them.” These errors and omissions are critical and reflect a lack of attention to detail when accuracy is critically required. Where do the examiners of this work stand? In footnote 108, Richards says “John Dowling’s death was confirmed in the Brisbane Courier (4 June 1864).” This statement is blatantly wrong. If Richards had searched the Queensland Register of Deaths, he would have found that John Dowling died on 13 June 1865 on the Paroo River, Queensland. Moreover, if he had checked Bobbie Hardy’s footnote at page 116 of Hardy’s above book, Richards would have been referred to an article at page 2 of the Sydney Mail of 2 September 1865 which, if Richards doctoral thesis is to be treated seriously as a work of scholarship, he would have then found a version totally different to Hobkirk’s drivel. In other words, he would have been duty bound to explore and bring to light what the newspapers of the day had to say. This he failed to do again, where do the examiners of this work stand? There is no scholarly analysis of the incident just the familiar vapid, insular mould of university historians of the leftist genre who, when they’re on a good thing, stick to it don’t muddy the water with clarity and honesty or a contrary source that may destroy the leftist plot.
The next text to deal with the death of John Dowling is One Hour More Daylight by Mark Copland, Jonathan Richards and Andrew Walker first published in 2006 but republished in 2010 at page 78:

A chilling account of the killing of Aboriginal people in the far southwest can be found in the reminiscences of E. O. Hobkirk, a man described as “an old identity of South Western Queensland.” In 1861 Vincent Dowling ‘took up’ stations on the Paroo River an attack in 1863 was supposed to have been averted by his ‘long American hat’, which deflected a spear.228 In 1865 his brother John Dowling, manager of ‘Thouringowa’ station on the Bulloo River, was reported as having been killed by his ‘pet black boy’. Vincent Dowling gathered the white men in the neighbourhood and started on a search for the alleged culprit ‘Pimpilly’. Hobkirk described Dowling’s revenge:
Mr V Dowling, who could talk the blacks’ lingo pretty well asked several of them ‘who killed white fellah? Brother belonging to me’. They one and all answered ‘they knew nothing about the murder’. He also enquired ‘where Pimpilly?’ this they also confessed that they knew nothing whatever about him. Mr Dowling then said, ‘If you do not tell me, I will shoot the lot of yous’. Still they all remained silent. Mr Dowling and the others then set to work and put an end to many of them, not touching the ‘Gins’ and young fry. This I know is true as I helped first to burn the bodies and then to bury them. A most unpleasant undertaking! But as I was only a ‘Jackaroo’ on ‘Cheshunt’ station at the time, I had to do what I was told.229
A similar massacre took place on a neighbouring station later on the same day. Eventually Pimpilly was captured and killed. He had killed Dowling after receiving a vicious beating for not providing his master and horse with water.230
228 Australian Dictionary of Biography (1972), Vol. 4, p. 99.
229 Queensland historical manuscripts – Vol 2 ‘Original Reminiscences of South West Queensland’ by E.O. Hobkirk, NLA, MS 3460.
230 ibid.

The authors introduce their scholarly work as follows, “This book represents a condensation of over two years of systematic research of manuscripts, newspapers and government documents. It is based on a selection from a wide range of archival records, … However, this is the most comprehensive effort to date in drawing together historical material relating to dispossession in the region.” Not satisfied with that overdrawn statement, these learned gentlemen go on to make this breathtaking gasconade, “One Hour More Daylight provides far too much evidence to sustain an argument that there has been a ‘fabrication of aboriginal history’.”
The first aspect of this publication to note is that Jonathan Richards is one of the three authors. Turning to the above quote of Hobkirk’s, Copland et al use the word ‘Gins’ the manuscript says ‘lubras’. It is an error perhaps, it was a typographical error? There is no analysis of the source material or the incident. It appears in their book as a recital might be found in a deed, pleadings, lineage, or a Norse saga. The authors seem to treat it as folklore, thus beyond scrutiny even when it may be a false or unsubstantiated belief by Hobkirk. They say they made a systemic search of newspapers but do not refer to the numerous reportages of the incident that appeared in the newspapers of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Does this raise for the querist the suggestion that one, they did not search the relevant newspapers or two, that they did but repressed the information as it was inconsistent with the leftist genre of writing anti-settler history or three, was it to protect Jonathan Richards’ thesis or four, they were incompetent as researchers?
In 2008, the University of Queensland Press published a book called The Secret War by Jonathon Richards which appears to be based on his above thesis of 2005. The book was reprinted in 2017. The relevant section is quoted as follows:

One credible account of a killing perpetrated by squatters and their employees, is found in the reminiscences of Edward Hobkirk, an employee at Dowling’s Station on the Bulloo River. It is unclear when Hobkirk actually wrote this account, but the other records in the file cover the period from 1870 to 1923 and he gave his manuscript to William Gall at the Home Secretary’s Office in 1922.47 According to Hobkirk, grazier Vincent Dowling’s reported in writing to the nearest Native Police (probably Bungil Creek near Roma) after his brother John (‘Jack’) Dowling was killed in 1864 by his ‘pet blackboy’. Hobkirk said Dowling was told to ‘take what measures he thought best to revenge the murder,’ so ‘all the men in the neighbourhood’ were assembled and ‘armed with revolvers and rifles’ before the local Aboriginal tribe was mustered at gunpoint. Hobkirk admitted he helped bury the bodies that Dowling and others shot at several camps. One source says Vincent Dowling ‘subsequently became a terror to the blacks’.48
47 E.O. Hobkirk, Original Reminiscences of South West Queensland, National Library of Australia, Manuscript MS 3460, Volume 2.
48 Charles F Maxwell, Australian men of Mark 1788 – 1888 1 (Sydney: Charles F Maxwell, no date), 385.

When you compare and contrast his thesis with the above quote from 2017 reprint, you will find that he has rearranged the text slightly. However, he still maintains that John Dowling was killed in 1864 and Hobkirk was an employee of Vincent Dowling notwithstanding, the contradictory statements made by Richards in his 2006 collaborative work on One Hour More Daylight. Authors who collaborate are jointly and severally liable for the integrity of their published work. So, the blatant errors of the thesis and the lack of critical analysis of the source material are transferred into Richards’ published work, The Secret War. So much for authentic, accurate, and honest scholarship and tight professional editorial control alleged by university publishing houses. Richards is primarily writing about the Queensland Native Police and you only need to note this bold statement, ‘… the infamous force created to kill Aboriginal and Torres Strait people in Queensland’. So, a simplistic take on why Richards would include John Dowling’s death is that if the Native Police cannot do the job, then the squatter can make application for a licence to kill and he will be authorised as Vincent Dowling was, to carry out the extermination policy. The sheer preposterousness of the statement is beyond belief and not a shred of evidence is offered to prove that the Queensland Government ever authorised and directed Vincent Dowling to kill Bulloo River Blacks or that the Native Police were a state-run extralegal organisation killing Aborigines. Aborigines were killed and so were settlers and police in the many collisions that occurred on the Queensland frontier. What I said about Richards’s thesis applies equally to his published work by University of Queensland Press.
Raymond Evans in 2010, contributing to Passionate histories: myth, memory and Indigenous Australia at Part One: massacres, with, 1. The country has another past: Queensland and the History Wars also draws upon the Titus Oates of Australian history, EO Hobkirk, who should be called Hobkirk the Liar, with the old familiar refrain:

In 1865, for instance, EO Hobkirk, ‘an old identity of South Western Queensland’ was present at a mass killing of Aborigines on the Bulloo River after an Aboriginal worker, described as a ‘pet black boy’, murdered John Dowling, the manager of Thouringowa Station. His brother, Vincent gathered a white posse to secure the culprit, but when local Aborigines would not provide information – to quote Hobkirk: Mr. Dowling then said, ‘if you do not tell me I will shoot the lot of yous’. Still they remained silent. Mr. Dowling and the others then set to work and put an end to many of them, not touching the ‘gins’ and young fry. This I know to be true as I helped first to burn the bodies and then to bury them. A most unpleasant undertaking! But as I was only a ‘Jackaroo’ on ‘Cheshunt’ station at the time, I had to do what I was told.43 Vincent Dowling had earlier been a pioneering cattleman on the Upper Darling River in 1859. His head stockman, John Edward Kelly later provided graphic descriptions of atrocities visited by white settlers on the local Aboriginal peoples. ‘We feel perfectly certain that we have not exaggerated one single statement we have made’, Kelly concluded his account: ‘We have seen the bones’.44
43 Copland et al 2006: 77–78 Richards 2008: 67.
44 The Stockwhip, 22 April 1876 Maryborough Chronicle, 9 May 1876 Evans, R 2009: 10.

Evans trots out the same old hackneyed source uncritically. Hobkirk is an inappropriate source. No attempt is made to address the other material that is available. He adopts a studious ardour to avoid any material that might question or threaten the leftist view that a white man massacred Aborigines. What is of interest though, is Evans’ novel attempt to baluster Hobkirk’s credibility by the juxtaposition of a totally irrelevant quote from Vincent Dowling’s head stockman, JE Kelly. It is a variation of the guilt by association technique. Kelly says he had heard reports of atrocities against Aborigines and then gives a general description of these activities. I fail to see the relevance of Kelly’s statement, since John Dowling was killed in 1865 long after the period Kelly is describing and he further says that whilst he was in the area working for Vincent Dowling no atrocities were committed by Dowling or his staff. However, if a quote has to be given perhaps the following might be fair and adequate:

We are speaking (says the writer) of the year 1859. The blacks on the Darling had been most barbarously murdered by our early predecessors, hunted like kangaroos or wild dogs, wherever they were known to exist. … driving him home, and there “stretching” and flogging him as already described. This was about the extent of the punishment inflicted upon the blacks when we first took up our abode on the Darling — that is by the sheep-men. … Although we never saw a black shot or “stretched” — for the simple reason that no man living dare do such a thing in our presence — still we feel perfectly certain that we have not exaggerated one single statement that we have made. We have seen ”the bones”

The next attempt at dealing with the murder of John Dowling may be found in Timothy Bottoms’ book Conspiracy of Silence published in 2013. His portrayal of the incident is as follows:

In 1864, Jones, Sullivan and Molesworth Greene established Bulloo Downs Station (c. 113 kilometres south-west of the future Thargomindah, and 20 kilometres north of the NSW border). The following year, the owner of Fort Bourke Station on the Darling River, Captain John (Jack) Dowling, formed Ardock Station and not long afterwards, his brother, Vincent James Dowling, took up Thargomindah Station.13 Later in 1865, while managing his brother’s station, John Dowling was out on the run mustering, and was beaten to death with a waddy while sleeping beside his campfire. His ‘tame black boy’, ‘Pimpilly’, had sought revenge for a beating he received from Dowling for not promptly bringing water to his ‘master’ and his horse when so ordered. A Kooma descendant, Hazel McKellar, recalled: ’As a reprisal … [they] found the tribe camped on the eastern side of the river, chased them towards the hills [Grey Range], shooting them down as they ran.’14 This occurred at Thouringowa Waterhole on the Bulloo River (rough halfway, south-west, between Thargomindah and Bulloo Downs). EO Hobkirk was in Vincent Dowling’s white posse that went in search of the alleged perpetrator. He described how they had corralled a camp of Kullilli, and Dowling had demanded to know who had killed his brother, but the Kullilli confessed that they knew nothing about the murder, to which Dowling responded:
‘If you do not tell me, I will shoot the lot of yous’. Still they all remained silent. Mr Dowling and the others then set to work and put an end to many of them not touching the lubras and young fry. This I know is true as I helped first to burn the bodies and then to bury them. A most unpleasant undertaking! but as I was only a ‘Jackaroo’ on Cheshunt station at the time, I had to do what I was told. Later in the day the party went to another camp of blacks, about 20 miles down the river and there again shot about the same number.15
Dowling continued to terrorise the Aboriginal population to avenge his brother’s murder, while employing Aboriginal labour.16 The bookkeeper at Norley Station (c.30 kilometres north of Thargomindah) recalled that in 1911, there was an old Aboriginal there who: … claimed to be the sole survivor of the massacre. A piccaninny at the time, his mother had hidden him under bark in a hole in the floor of the gunyah. The troopers had burnt the camp there and crawled out later.17
It was reported later that nearly 300 people were killed in this incident. Although the numbers may well have been an exaggeration, it was nevertheless a sizeable killing spree.
13 J St Pierie, ’18. Some Information on the History of South West Qld,’ in Warrego and South West Queensland Historical Society Collection of Papers, Cunnamulla and District, Vol.1, 1969, p.2 (of paper).
14 H McKellar, Matya-mundu: a history of the Aboriginal people of South West Queensland, Cunnamulla Australian Native Welfare Association, 1984, p.57.
15 E O Hobkirk, Queensland historical manuscripts―Vol.2 ‘Original Reminiscences of South West Queensland’, NLA MS3460, (1922) pp. 3-4. Cheshunt Station is located 20 kilometres south-west of Taro, or c.100 kilometres west of Dalby.
16 Hobkirk, NLA MS3460. Hobkirk noted: ‘We found it hard to prevent the few that were employed on the station from … [running away into the ranges] … as they were so scared at what had taken place that we had to lock them up in the Hut―that was used as a store[,] for a short time.’ p.4.
17 G Cooch (bookkeeper at Norley in 1911) cited by St Pierie, History of South West Queensland,’ in Warrego and South West Queensland Historical Society Collection of Papers, Cunnamulla and District, Vol.1, 1969, p.3 (of paper).

Timothy Bottoms holds a degree of Doctor of Philosophy and is a professional historian. As an historian his first step should have been to consult the Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB) and he would have found an entry for Vincent James Dowling which would have alerted him to the inaccuracy of the St. Pierie’s version because it would have shown that John Dowling was not the owner of Fort Bourke. His failure to acknowledge the ADB, which is a touchstone for any researcher venturing into Australian history, is bordering on professional incompetence or negligence, if not that, then at least it is not a fair and honest investigation. The above extract from Bottoms’ book is a melange of two sources (St. Pierie and Hobkirk) cherry-picked to invent a credible historical event that never occurred. It contains errors and omissions woven in a way to breath a fictional dimension to a past event such as John Dowling’s murder. The first and by far the greatest omission is the failure to identify the press reports of 1865 of John Dowling’s death and to make an appraisal of them. The second is his failure to critically assess the source material he finally acted on. For instance, the Gooch/St. Pierie version, was first written down by J St. Pierie in 1969 who got it from Gooch, a bookkeeper, who only arrived at Norely station, which is near Thargomindah, in 1911, 46 years after the event. Gooch was not an eyewitness. He can only have acquired his version by hearsay, local gossip. Gooch said Vincent Dowling was killed while mustering. Hobkirk said John Dowling was killed while exploring a route to the Darling. Gooch had no qualifications other than bookkeeping skills and appears to have been a collector of tall stories and squatting yarns of doubtful authenticity. Bottoms then adds some pepper and salt by saying that: “A Kooma descendant, Hazel McKellar, recalled: ’As a reprisal … [they] found the tribe …’.’’ Hazel McKellar was not an eye witness. The use of the word ‘recalled’ suggests she brought (a fact, event, or situation) back into her mind remember it. She wrote a book that quoted Gooch/St. Pierie and failed to give any citation for the quote. Her work can only be viewed as a very poor secondary source of doubtful veracity and honesty. Bottoms further distorts the sources by adding, “Dowling continued to terrorise the Aboriginal population to avenge his brother’s murder, while employing Aboriginal labour.” Hobkirk was an employee of the Messrs Sams on the Cheshunt station. He did not work for Vincent Dowling and therefore, would not know what labour problems Vincent had, if indeed he had any. Furthermore, Bottoms says, “Cheshunt Station is located 20 kilometres south-west of Taro, or c.100 kilometres west of Dalby”. There is no town called Taro it is Tara Qld 4421. Circa 100 kilometres west of Dalby would equate with the town of Moonie. This makes Bottoms’ version even more absurd. The only integrity that Hobkirk’s version has and it is very little, is that Cheshunt Station was a neighbouring station to VJ Dowling’s Thuringowa Station, not approximately 700 kilometres from Thargomindah as Moonie is. That appears to be the total historical treatment of the murder of John Dowling and the aftermath by professional historians.
I just want to end this chapter with a quick overview of the above analysis of the academic treatment of John Francis Dowling’s murder by one or more Aborigines. As I opined in the Preface to this book, some will see it as just another brick hurled in the History Wars squabble I do not. The point I am trying to make is that the writing of history is simply a matter of honesty and accuracy on the part of the historian who is further duty bound to discover and bring to notice any and all sources of knowledge relating to the historical event under study. Furthermore, the information or evidence must be initially assessed as to its worthiness or probity by an agreed set of rules for evaluating its admissibility. These sorts of ground rules should be above concepts of conformity to prevailing political or fashionable standards. I have always thought that was the case. But it seems that history somehow or other ends up being the plaything of newly emerging groups in society who seem to demand the right to tell their story in their own way. Well may they say, we have that right and who would deny them their campfire songs and stories. However, a society or a nation is not just a bunch of social media jerks, who have emerged from the chrysalis of social justice, flimflamming on their cell phones. Standards of academic excellence must be preserved and maintained even in the face of the social justice warrior. If you want to write a history from the point of view of a political or social belief then say so.


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As a child in Dublin she trained as a dancer but also worked as an actress from an early age.

Beginning her film career in 1963 in Francis Ford Copolla’s first feature film Demential 13, she later became well known for her work as Josie Tracy in one of Ireland’s longest running television series, The Riordans.

She arrived in America in 1977 to work at The Great Lakes Shakespeare Festival in Cleveland Ohio, where Vincent Dowling served as Artistic Director. She played in numerous Shakespeare and classical productions including the American Premiere of Nicholas Nickleby.

Equally at home in comedy or drama, her breadth of characterizations from Peg in Peg O’ My Heart,to Ophelia, Beatrice, and Pegeen Mike in the Emmy Award winning Playboy of the Western World, among others, remain forever in the hearts of her audiences and the actors with whom she worked.

On Broadway Bairbre played Mary Tate in Hugh Leonard’s DA. She also worked regularly Off-Broadway and in regional theatres.

Filmwork includes John Boorman’s Zardoz, John Huston’s The Dead, among others.

She was married to Irish actor Colm Meaney between 1982-1994. They have one daughter, actress Brenda Meaney.

A talented writer, Bairbre is known to her friends for her humorous and lyrical stories about growing up in Dublin.

An ardent Actors Equity and SAG- AFTRA member, she was a fierce defender of unions and the working class– particularly artists.

"Though she appeared in both film and television her first love was always the theatre," he sister Val Dowling told Independent.ie.

"American theatre audiences and all the many actors and directors she worked with were greatly blessed by the endearing, enduring presence of the Irish beauty."

Bairbre is survived by her daughter, Brenda Meaney of Manhattan, sisters Valerie Dowling of Los Angeles, Rachael Dowling of Dublin, brothers Cian Dowling and Richard Boyd Barrett, stepmother Olwen Dowling, and beloved nieces and nephews –Emmett and Aine O’Regan Saoirse, William and Aodhan Hinksmon and Rowan Dowling-Mahoney.

She is pre-deceased by Louise Dowling, Vincent Dowling and Brenda Doyle.

The funeral for Bairbre Dowling will be held Friday, January 29th at 10:45 am at Greenwich Village Funeral Home, 199 Bleecker Street, NYC 10012.

In lieu of flowers Memorial Donations can be made to: The Actors Fund, 729 Seventh Avenue, 10th floor, New York, NY 10019 or the Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (CJD) Foundation , 341 W. 38th Street, Suite 501, New York, NY 10018


Dowling, Christopher Vincent (1789–1873)

This article was published in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4, (MUP), 1972

Christopher Vincent Dowling (1789-1873), Catholic priest, was born on 24 September 1789 in Dublin, and went at an early age to the famous Dominican College of Corpo-Santo in Lisbon, Portugal. There he joined the Dominican order, returned to Dublin in 1814 and was ordained by Archbishop Daniel Murray. During his eleven years in Dublin he was guardian of the Dominican Charity School in 1821 and sub-prior of the Dublin priory. In 1825, because of ill health, he was sent to France where he became pastor of Salignac in the Bordeaux diocese. Next year he was elected prior of the Dublin priory but did not return to Ireland to take up the office. In 1829 Dr Bramston, the Catholic vicar apostolic of London, appointed him to Newport in the Isle of Wight. After ten months he went to London and was ministering there, when at a request of the Colonial Office Bramston nominated him to go to New South Wales to replace the only official Catholic chaplain, Daniel Power, who had died in March 1830. Dowling arrived at Sydney on 17 September 1831 in the Mary Ann, accompanied by his sister, Mary Theresa on 8 May 1832 she married David Chambers, a solicitor. Dowling was referred to as an eloquent preacher, an able linguist, speaking French and Portuguese fluently, a good classical scholar and a frequent contributor to the press.

In Sydney he lived at Charlotte Place because John Joseph Therry, who had been dismissed from the official chaplaincy by Governor (Sir) Ralph Darling, refused to vacate the Chapel House at Hyde Park. Dowling secured government funds for the education of Catholic children and gained widespread support. But a bitter encounter between Dowling and Therry, in the course of which Dowling was assaulted, robbed and frequently insulted, continued until John McEncroe arrived in August 1832. Appointed chaplain for the Hawkesbury by Governor (Sir) Richard Bourke, Dowling went to Windsor. There he established a school and won the friendship of John Macarthur who gave the ground and some money for a Catholic chapel at Camden. Dowling performed the first Catholic marriage ceremony and baptism at Windsor on 1 January 1835. In September Bishop John Bede Polding appointed him to Maitland.

In August 1836 Dowling became the only resident priest north of Sydney. His parish covered the whole Hunter River district and extended north indefinitely. He met with mixed official receptions, the commandant at Harper's Hill in Maitland being particularly obstructive, but he maintained good relations with officials in Sydney and when the King died in 1837 signed appropriate letters to Queen Adelaide and Queen Victoria. On 27 February 1838 he attended the Government House levee after Governor Sir George Gipps was sworn in.

Ill health made his duties in the huge Maitland area most difficult and in March 1838 Polding informed Gipps that, as Dowling wished to have a 'less arduous situation', he hoped that the priest would take up the Catholic chaplaincy on Norfolk Island. However, in September Dowling moved to Newcastle as its first resident priest. He lived in a cottage on the Sandhills but for seven years said Mass and ran a school in Croasdill's Long Room above four dwellings in Newcomen Street. Catholic soldiers rented and furnished it for him. When it had to be vacated in 1845, the services took place in his house which had been the first hospital in Newcastle and was close to the old gaol. He regularly attended executions to console the condemned. His Newcastle parish extended from Lake Macquarie to Myall Lakes and included Raymond Terrace and Clarence Town. Owning no means of transport he either travelled by boat or walked. Later he lost the use of his legs and was carried by parishioners to call on sick or dying Catholics. In 1849 he began saying Mass in a government store-room in Watt Street, Newcastle. In 1852 the first Catholic Church of St Mary was built, a temporary structure, in Church Street it was the only church Dowling built in an era of church builders.

His health continued to fail and despite assistant priests Dowling finally gave up his active ministry in 1863 and retired to his Sandhills cottage. Visited and revered by Catholics and others, he became a living legend in the district. When he died on 14 December 1873 men of all persuasions joined in mourning him. Crowds attended the lying-in-state in St Mary's. All ships in Newcastle Harbour flew their flags at half-mast and many shops closed when, at his own request, he was buried in St Joseph's Churchyard, East Maitland. He was one of the first ten Catholic priests, the fourth official Catholic chaplain and the first member of a religious order, to minister in Australia.

Select Bibliography

  • P. F. Moran, History of the Catholic Church in Australasia (Syd, 1895)
  • E. M. O'Brien, Life and Letters of Archpriest John Joseph Therry, vols 1-2 (Syd, 1922)
  • M. A. O'Hanlon, Dominican Pioneers in New South Wales (Syd, 1949)
  • H. Campbell, The Diocese of Maitland 1866-1966 (Maitland, 1966)
  • J. J. McGovern, ‘John Bede Polding’, Australasian Catholic Record, vol 11, no 4, 1934, pp 291-305
  • J. O'Brien (P. J. Hartigan), ‘In diebus illis’, Australasian Catholic Record, 20-21 (1943-44)
  • Sydney Gazette, 20 Sept 1831
  • Australian, 23 Sept 1831, 17 Feb, 20 Apr 1832
  • Freeman's Journal (Sydney), 20 Dec 1873, 3 Jan 1874
  • Catholic Weekly (Sydney), 28 Aug 1952.

Citation details

J. A. Morley, 'Dowling, Christopher Vincent (1789–1873)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/dowling-christopher-vincent-3435/text5231, published first in hardcopy 1972, accessed online 30 June 2021.

This article was first published in hardcopy in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4, (MUP), 1972


Dowling, Vincent James (1835–1903)

This article was published in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4, (MUP), 1972

Vincent James Dowling (1835-1903), explorer and pastoralist, was born on 11 January 1835 at Flinton, South Head Road, near Sydney, the eldest son of James Willoughby Dowling and his wife Lillias, née Dickson. His father was a nephew and associate of Sir James Dowling. Vincent was educated by Rev. J. Wilkinson at Meads, Ashfield, until 1849 and then at Clapham, near London. He returned to New South Wales in 1851 and, after experience at Pomeroy, near Goulburn, held a New England run for about three years. He then bought mobs of sheep and cattle from the Richmond and Clarence Rivers and overlanded them to Victorian markets. His last trip in the 1858 drought was 'sufficient to sicken' him of overland work.

Early in 1859 Dowling drove 1200 Hereford heifers to establish a station on the Darling, which became known as Fort Bourke. When yards and living quarters had been erected, he started a garden. In 1860 he became a justice of the peace for New South Wales and in 1862 for Queensland. He sat on the bench at Bourke, Mudgee, Bathurst and Sofala. He soon found the Darling 'too civilized' and began exploring to the north and west with an Aboriginal guide he traced the Paroo and Bulloo to their sources. He founded Caiwarroo and Eulo stations on the Paroo in 1861 and others on the Warrego and Cuttaburra Rivers, and Yantabulla and Birrawarra in New South Wales. About 1863 he went into partnership with George Cox by 1867 they had leased over 1300 square miles (3367 km²) in the Warrego district of Queensland. Dowling was the active manager. In 1863 he had been saved by his 'long American hat' from an Aboriginal spear in his head and in 1865 his brother John was murdered by natives. To such dangers were added arduous labour and intense loneliness, relieved only by books and the writing of bad poetry. 'God knows how it is all to end', he wrote in December 1865, 'but if this weather continues much longer, we must all go to the wall together'.

On 4 May 1866 at St Peter's Church of England, Cook's River, Dowling married Frances Emily, the fifth daughter of Thomas Breillat he had courted her for eight years. Their first child was born in 1867 and Fanny went with Dowling to Thargomindah on the Bulloo she was the first white woman in the area and he the farthest-out magistrate. He built up a fine herd of Herefords which he thought withstood drought better than Shorthorns. When Thargomindah was auctioned in 1874 it had a frontage of eighty miles (129 km) on the Bulloo and nearly 1000 square miles (2590 km²) of grassed mulga ridges and salt-bush plains. By 1875 Cox & Dowling had sold out in Queensland. In August 1876 Dowling left Sydney to tour the East, America and England where, despite ill health, he followed such famous hounds as those of the Pytchley Hunt.

He returned to Sydney in July 1877, bought Lue, Rylstone, from Dr James Cox, and settled down as a stud breeder. By 1884 Dowling had fenced Lue's 23,000 acres (9308 ha) and subdivided it into about forty paddocks. With 1500 acres (607 ha) of lucerne and much prairie grass he raised the carrying capacity to 21,000 sheep and about 500 cattle. By 1891 he had 33,771 sheep on Lue and Slapdash. The Lue merino stud was famed for its wool which won many prizes. Dowling bought several rams from Edward Cox at Rawdon and the 'champion ram' at the 1879 International Exhibition in Sydney. He continued to breed Herefords mainly with stock from Cressy, Tasmania. Bulls bred at Lue were later sent to his Queensland stations. He also bred carriage horses and Clydesdales.

In 1880 for £9500 he bought Gummin Gummin in the Warrumbungles where he ran sheep and cattle and bred 'walers' for the Indian Army. He later acquired Walla Walla, near Gilgandra, but never lost faith in Queensland. In the 1880s Cox & Dowling bought Connemara, north of Cooper's Creek, and were joined by Septimus Stephen by 1896 the station had 25,000 cattle on 3000 square miles (7770 km²). The partners also acquired Pillicawarrina on the Macquarie River. On 19 September 1890, during the maritime strike, Dowling was one of six men who drove their wool to the Sydney wharves under police escort the resulting turmoil led to the reading of the Riot Act. Dowling's last decade was clouded by anxiety over his muddled finances before the 1902 drought ended large sums had to be borrowed to keep Connemara going, and selections on Pillicawarrina led to many complicated court cases.

Known as 'V.J.D.' Dowling loved all forms of sport: in his exploring days he hunted kangaroos and other game a lover of horses, he was keen on racing and rode in steeplechases in Sydney. He owned racehorses and his four-in-hand was famous in Mudgee. He became vice-president of the Australian Jockey Club, the Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales and the Stockowners Association, was a councillor of the Tax Payers Union and a member of the Bathurst Anglican Synod. He was not only widely read but had 'wonderful vitality' and great humour. He died from heart disease on 5 November 1903 at Neotsfield, Singleton, the home of his son-in-law, R. H. Dangar, and was buried in the Anglican cemetery at Mudgee. He was survived by his wife, two of his four sons and three daughters, to whom he left over £47,000.

Select Bibliography

  • C. McIvor, History and Development of Sheep Farming from Antiquity to Modern Times (Syd, 1893)
  • Sydney Mail, 24 Nov 1884
  • Australasian, 4 July 1885
  • Sydney Morning Herald, 6 Nov 1903
  • Pastoral Review, 17 Nov 1903
  • G. H. Cox cash book and letters to George Stewart (privately held)
  • V. J. Dowling diaries and letters (State Library of New South Wales)
  • S. A. and C. C. Stephen letter-books (privately held).

Related Entries in NCB Sites

    (wife) (daughter) (daughter) (son) (son-in-law) (son-in-law) (mother) (father) (father-in-law) (brother) (uncle) (uncle) (uncle) (aunt by marriage) (aunt by marriage) (grandmother) (grandfather) (business partner) (business partner)

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

BOOKS

Dowling, Vincent Astride the Moon: A Theatrical Life, Wolfhound Press (Dublin, Ireland), 2000.

PERIODICALS

Irish Literary Supplement, spring, 2002, David Krause, review of Astride the Moon: A Theatrical Life, p. 13.

New York Times, February 15, 1987, James W. Flannery, "An Irish Rover Comes Home to the Abbey," section 2, pp. 5, 31.

School Library Journal, September, 1997, Edward T. Sullivan, review of Sons of Derry, p. 163.

Times Literary Supplement, May 11, 2001, C.L. Dallat, review of Astride the Moon.

Variety, August 8, 1990, Markland Taylor, "Mass[achussetts] Director Makes Mini Theater," p. 56 September 24, 1990, review of Playboy of the Western World, p. 94.


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