O machado de batalha

O machado de batalha

O machado de batalha foi a principal arma usada pelos housecarls do Rei Harold na Batalha de Hastings. Um machado de batalha era usado em combates corpo a corpo ou podia ser lançado como um míssil. O cabo de madeira pode ter até 150 cm (5 pés). A lâmina em forma de meia-lua media cerca de 25 cm (10 polegadas) entre os pontos superior e inferior de sua ampla lâmina de corte. Feito de aço, o machado de batalha era capaz de cortar um membro ou uma cabeça com um golpe. Durante o combate, o machado costumava ser empunhado com as duas mãos e, portanto, o guerreiro não conseguia carregar um escudo para se proteger do inimigo.


O Machado de Batalha - História

The Augustan, vol. XI, No.2, março-abril de 1968.

CONTINUIDADE DE ENCARGOS NOS BRAÇOS DE UM CLÃ ANTIGO

Por Capitão R. Mingo Sweeney
Illus. pelo Rev. Dom William W. Bayne, OSB, FAS

Suibhne foi traduzido em muitas variações, ou seja, Sween, MacSween, MacQueen, MacEwen em Scotlapd e Swiney, MacSwiney, Mac Sweeney, MacSwyny, MacSweyne e outros na Irlanda. Além disso, os rolamentos armorial dos Septs e Chieftain deste Clã alteraram consideravelmente ao longo dos séculos, mantendo ao longo, no entanto, as cargas básicas de javali e machado de batalha.

As armas originais e indiferenciadas não são verificadas historicamente, embora tenham sido brasonadas por Burke em seu Arsenal Geral como Or (ou argent) três javalis zibelina passante. Um selo foi usado pelos Senhores de Knapdale no século 13, mas nenhuma cópia deste ainda existe.

As primeiras armas registradas oficialmente foram carregadas por um certo Murragh Mac Sweeney, cuja entrada nos Anais dos Quatro Mestres diz:
Murragh Mac Sweeney foi feito prisioneiro em Umailia por Donnell, filho de Manus O'Conor, que o entregou ao Conde (de Burgh, Conde de Ulster) em cuja prisão ele morreu.
Isso é datado de The Age of Christ 1267. Seus braços estão registrados da seguinte forma: Mac Sweeney (Co. Donegal). Moragh Mac Sweeney, Chieftain 1267, Reg.Ulster's Office. Argent, um leão-chefe e um javali na base passam. gules.

Esta investida do leão é incomum e é repetida como veremos nos braços carregados pelo Rt. Exmo. Peter Paul MacSwiney, Lord Mayor de Dublin, que usou este escudo como base para o desenho do seu Grant. Este Morrogh tinha uma história pitoresca, e os anais da família o mencionam como "campeão do rei da Escócia", o que pode explicar o leão "corado".

De outro ramo deste Clã, um john de Sweyne era Capitão da Frota de Cinque Ports de Eduardo I, e seu pai tinha ligações estreitas com Durham, de onde os Balliols e Comyns possuíam terras. john também está listado como tendo terras lá, e muitos anos depois, durante uma visitação de William Flowery, Norroy King of Arms (1575), um monumento com as seguintes armas foi registrado:
SWYNE: Argent com cerdas de zibelina ou javali. (Observe que é virtualmente idêntico a Morrogh, sem o leão-chefe.)

Após a Batalha de Bannockburn (1314), o chefe e a linha superior da família estabeleceram-se no Castelo Rathmullan em Tyreconnell (atual Donegal). As armas deste chefe estão registradas no Castelo de Dublin como: Ou, um fess vert carregado com um réptil argent entre três javalis passantes zibelina. Pode-se notar a semelhança entre esses braços e os mencionados anteriormente por Burke como os braços "indiferenciados". A adição do fess verde e do réptil branco é interessante. Meu único pensamento sobre isso é que esses Senhores de Fanad introduziram os Carmelitas em Donegal e construíram um Priorado para eles em Rathmullan. Pelo que me lembro, um dos símbolos da Virgem Maria é um camaleão branco. isso poderia ser relevante?

A crista da linha superior compreendia a do Clã Neil, um braço em armadura com uma armadura que segurava um machado de batalha propriamente dito. Isso também parece estranho, exceto por uma tradição de que o Clã Sween é descendente do Clã Neil. No entanto, na Irlanda, eles apoiaram os O'Donnell, por muito tempo os amargos inimigos dos O'Neils.

Dois Cadet Septs da Câmara sênior rapidamente se espalharam por outras partes do principado de O'Donnell - o de na d'Tuath (ou na Doe como o inglês traduziu) no Castelo Doe perto de Creeslough e no ramo Banagh no Castelo Rathain na costa oeste . Essas duas seitas adotaram escudos de design semelhante, embora com tinturas diferentes:

Na d'Tuatha: Azure, dois javalis rampant combattant ou, em chefe dois machados de batalha em saltire do segundo.

Banagh: Ou, dois javalis rampant combattant sable, em um chefe do segundo dois machados de batalha em saltire do primeiro.

A crista do primeiro é um demi-grifo ou, segurando em sua garra dexter, um réptil vert. A crista deste último é Uma zibelina passante de javali.

É difícil saber por que essas duas Casas mudaram o projeto, exceto que o Mac Sweeney ficou conhecido como "o Clã do Machado de Batalha" e eles podem ter querido que essa carga figurasse com mais destaque em seus escudos. A designação veio por duas causas: O Battle-machado era a "ferramenta de seu comércio" do clã como guerreiros galloglass (ver o autor "The Galloglass," The Augustan, X, vi, 261) e a designação na d'Tuatha era o distritos) foi facilmente confundido com na d'Tuatha (do distrito) foi facilmente confundido com na d'Tua (do machado de batalha) Outro pensamento é que um chefe de na Tuatha foi nomeado cavaleiro no reinado da Rainha Elizabeth I, e este projeto alterado pode ter sido instituído naquela época.

Um ramo da Casa de Tuatha foi para o sul, onde se tornaram Altos Condestáveis ​​do McCarthy M r de Desmond, o ramo mais proeminente centralizado no Castelo de Mashanaglass. Este ramo deu continuidade a uma versão diferenciada dos braços Tuatha: Per Pale gules e azul, cada um carregado com um javali rampante contra-arminho combatente em um chefe ou dois machados de batalha em saltire argent. A crista é um demi-grifo ou carregado com uma flor-de-lis zibelina segurando em sua garra dexter um réptil vert.

É óbvio que a tintura do chefe viola as leis da heráldica. Como um representante desta linha foi criado um Marquês Romano hereditário, e as cores do Vaticano também violam a mesma regra (assim como o Reino de Jerusalém), alguma razão para isso pode ser buscada ali.

Menção prévia foi feita a Peter Paul MacSwiney, Lord Mayor de Dublin. Seus braços eram obviamente baseados nos do antigo Morrough, e são Argent, uma fess azul carregada com dois machados de batalha em saltire Ou entre em chefe um leão passant gules, e na base uma zibelina passant javali. Aqui ele trouxe todas as cargas conhecidas pela família, exceto o réptil, que ele inclui na crista: Um semigrifo ou, segurando em sua garra dexter, um vert de réptil. Então, para ter certeza de que ele carregou o grifo com machados de zibelina Cruzados.

Um ramo da Casa de Banagh tornou-se Altos Policiais para O'Conor Don e para os Butlers, Condes de Ormonde. Deste último descende o ramo armigerante que se estabeleceu na Ilha do Príncipe Eduardo, agora uma Província do Canadá. Seus braços seguem a antiga Casa de Fanad em tintura, embora o bend vert tenha sido substituído por dois flaunches vert carregados com coroas antigas que representam os antigos reinos gaélicos da Irlanda e da Escócia. Para uma crista eles usam um vert grifo, segurando um machado de batalha (dos braços Fanad novamente) e o réptil desapareceu. Esses braços podem ser brasonados Ou, três javalis em palito passante de zibelina, entre dois

Assim, as armas mudam ao longo dos séculos, mesmo na mesma família, mas permanecem semelhantes o suficiente para traçar seu desenvolvimento. Algumas das razões aqui dadas baseiam-se nas leis da probabilidade e outras hipóteses seriam bem-vindas.

A descrição dos braços ilustrados neste documento é a seguinte:


Sween de Knapdale: Ou três javalis de marta passante.


Mac Sweeney Fanad: Ou, em um fess vert entre três javalis zibelina passante, um lagarto argento.


Mac Sweeney Banagh: (Tuath) Ou, dois javalis rampante zibelina combativa, em um chefe do segundo dois machados de batalha em saltire do primeiro.


Moragh M r Mac Sweeney (1267): Argent, um leão-chefe e um javali na base, ambas passantgules.


Mac Sweeney na d'Tuatha (também Capitão Daniel Gorm Mac Sweeney de Donegal, 1638): Azure, dois javalis combatentes desenfreados ou, em chefe dois machados de batalha em saltire do último (ou).
Crista: Um demi-grifo rampante ou segurando na garra um lagarto propriamente dito.

MacSwiney de Mashanaglass: Por azul-claro e gules carregados com dois javalis contra-arminho, combatente desenfreado em um chefe ou dois machados de batalha em argent.


Crista (à direita): Um demi-grifo rampante ou segurando em sua garra dexter um lagarto apropriado, e carregado com uma zibelina flor-de-lis. Encimado por uma tiara de um marquês.


Peter Paul MacSwiney: Argent em um fess azul entre em chefe um leão passant gules e em base um javali passant sable, dois machados de batalha em saltire ou.
Crista: Um segreant ou demi-grifo, segurando um lagarto adequado, e carregado no peito com dois machados de batalha em zibelina. Lema:. Tuagha tulaig abu.


Sweeney de Bolger's Park Canada: Ou, três javalis de zibelina, gules lânguidos, em pálido passante entre dois flaunches vert, cada um carregado com uma coroa antiga do primeiro.
Crista: Um semi-grifo vert segurando em sua garra dexter um machado de batalha propriamente dito. Lema: Clann na d'Tua Abu.


As armas ilustradas para o Bispo de Kilmore (acima) e o Arcebispo de Toronto (abaixo) são as de suas respectivas Dioceses.


O bispo Sweeney de St. John escolheu como escudo um retrato da Virgem, com um halo de várias estrelas. (abaixo)


Armas do capitão Richard Patrick Fortier Mingo Sweeney, C.E.M., K.L.j., F.R.S.A., F.R.C.S., etc .:

Trimestralmente, 1 e 4: Ou, três javalis passantes em gules patê sable langued entre dois flaunches vert, cada um carregado com uma coroa antiga do lst, dentro de um borduregules 2 e 3, trimestralmente 1 e 4, Argent, seis estoilles gules 2 e 3, Gules, um leão desenfreado ou (para Mingo).

Crista: Um semi-grifo vert segurando em sua garra dexter um machado de batalha adequado.


Conteúdo

Editar origens

A cultura do Machado de Batalha surgiu no sul da Península Escandinava por volta de 2.800 aC. Foi um desdobramento da cultura da Mercadoria com Corda, que em si era em grande parte um desdobramento da cultura Yamnaya da estepe Pôntico-Cáspio. Estudos genéticos modernos mostram que seu surgimento foi acompanhado por migrações em grande escala e deslocamento genético. A cultura Battle Axe inicialmente absorveu a cultura Funnelbeaker agrícola. [1]

Edição de Distribuição

A concentração da cultura Battle Axe estava na Scania. Locais da cultura do Machado de Batalha foram encontrados nas áreas costeiras do sul da Escandinávia e sudoeste da Finlândia. [2] O litoral imediato foi, no entanto, ocupado pela cultura Pitted Ware. [2] Por volta de 2300 aC, a cultura do Machado de Batalha havia absorvido a cultura dos Mercadorias Pitted.

Ao longo de sua existência, a cultura do Machado de Batalha parece ter se expandido para a costa da Noruega, acompanhada por mudanças culturais dramáticas. [2] Einar Østmo relata locais da cultura Battle Axe dentro do Círculo Ártico norueguês em Lofoten, e tão ao norte quanto a atual cidade de Tromsø. [3]

Sucessores Editar

A cultura Battle Axe terminou por volta de 2300 AC. Ele acabou sendo sucedido pela Idade do Bronze Nórdica, que parece ser uma fusão de elementos da cultura Battle Axe e da cultura Pitted Ware. [4]

Editar enterros

A cultura Battle Axe é mais conhecida por seus enterros. Cerca de 250 túmulos de Battle Axe foram encontrados na Suécia. Eles são bastante diferentes daqueles encontrados na cultura do Túmulo Único da Dinamarca. [2]

Na cultura Battle Axe, os falecidos geralmente eram colocados em uma única cova plana sem carrinho de mão. Os túmulos eram tipicamente orientados de norte a sul, com o corpo em posição fletida voltado para o leste. Os homens foram colocados do lado esquerdo, enquanto as mulheres foram colocadas do lado direito. Tanto no que diz respeito aos objetos quanto à localização, os bens fúnebres são bastante padronizados. Machados de sílex são encontrados em sepulturas masculinas e femininas. Os machados de batalha são colocados com os machos perto da cabeça. [2] Esses machados de batalha parecem ter sido símbolos de status, e é a partir deles que a cultura é nomeada. Cerca de 3.000 machados de batalha foram encontrados, em locais distribuídos por toda a Escandinávia, mas eles são esparsos em Norrland e no norte da Noruega. [ citação necessária Os machados de sílex polidos da cultura Battle Axe e Pitted Ware têm uma origem comum no sudoeste da Scania e na Dinamarca. Cerâmicas com cordões também eram bens comuns em sepulturas de Battle Axe. Eles geralmente eram colocados perto da cabeça ou dos pés. Outros bens graves incluem pontas de flechas, armas de chifre, contas de âmbar e machados e cinzéis de sílex polido. Restos de fauna de sepulturas incluem veados, ovelhas e cabras. [2]

Um novo aspecto foi dado à cultura Battle Axe em 1993, quando um casa da morte em Turinge, em Södermanland foi escavado. Ao longo das paredes outrora pesadas de madeira foram encontrados os restos de cerca de vinte vasos de barro, seis machados de trabalho e um machado de batalha, que vieram todos do último período da cultura. Havia também os restos mortais cremados de pelo menos seis pessoas. É a primeira descoberta de cremação na Escandinávia e mostra contatos estreitos com a Europa Central. [ citação necessária ]

Edição de assentamentos

Poucos assentamentos da cultura Battle Axe foram descobertos. A maioria deles está localizada no interior, mas alguns estão localizados em áreas costeiras. Os assentamentos culturais de Battle Axe, entretanto, não estão localizados diretamente no litoral, que era bastante ocupado pela cultura Pitted Ware. [2] Menos de 100 assentamentos são conhecidos, e seus restos são insignificantes, pois estão localizados em terras agrícolas continuamente usadas e, conseqüentemente, foram arados.

Vestígios arqueológicos do sul da Suécia revelam estreitas relações espaciais entre casas e túmulos, indicando que as fazendas eram fundamentais para a atividade social e econômica na cultura do Machado de Batalha. [2]

Edição de cerâmica

Cerâmica de machado de batalha tem sido encontrada com freqüência em assentamentos de mercadorias com poço. Alguns assentamentos até exibem fusões dos estilos de cerâmica da cultura Battle Axe e da cultura Pitted Ware. A relação entre as duas culturas é controversa e não é bem compreendida. [2]

Cultura Editar

O sistema social da cultura do Battle Axe era marcadamente diferente daquele da cultura do Funnelbeaker, mostrado pelo fato de que a cultura do Funnelbeaker tinha sepulturas megalíticas coletivas, cada uma contendo vários sacrifícios, enquanto a cultura do Battle Axe tinha sepulturas individuais, com um único sacrifício cada . O individualismo parece ter desempenhado um papel muito mais proeminente na cultura do Battle Axe do que entre seus predecessores. [2] [5]

Economia Editar

A cultura Battle Axe foi baseada nas mesmas práticas agrícolas da cultura Funnelbeaker anterior. [ citação necessária A cultura Battle Axe parece ter enfatizado o pastoreio de gado, o que explica a aparente natureza móvel da cultura. [2] Eles também parecem ter se envolvido no comércio com as populações ao norte, trocando produtos animais por bens materiais. [6]

Einar Østmo enfatiza que as regiões costeiras do Mar do Norte e do Atlântico na Escandinávia, e as áreas circunvizinhas do Báltico [7] foram unidas por uma economia marítima vigorosa, permitindo uma expansão geográfica muito mais ampla e uma unidade cultural mais próxima do que as culturas continentais interiores poderiam atingir. Ele aponta para o número de gravuras rupestres amplamente divulgadas atribuídas à época, que exibem "milhares" de navios. Para essas culturas marítimas, o mar é uma estrada e não um divisor. [3]

Acredita-se que a cultura do Battle Axe trouxe as línguas indo-européias e a cultura indo-européia para o sul da Escandinávia. A fusão da cultura do Machado de Batalha com as culturas nativas agrícolas e caçadoras-coletoras da região deu origem à Idade do Bronze Nórdica, considerada a civilização ancestral dos povos germânicos. [8]

O tipo físico do povo Battle Axe era diferente do tipo físico do povo Funnelbeaker anterior do sul da Escandinávia. [9]

Um estudo genético publicado em Natureza em junho de 2015 examinou os restos mortais de um homem Battle Axe enterrado em Viby, Suécia ca. 2621-2472 AC. [10] [11] Ele foi considerado portador do haplogrupo paterno R1a1a1 e do haplogrupo materno K1a2a. [11] Descobriu-se que as pessoas das culturas do Neolítico final e da Idade do Bronze da Escandinávia eram pessoas intimamente relacionadas da cultura Corded Ware, cultura Bell Beaker e cultura Unetice, todas as quais compartilhavam afinidade genética com a cultura Yamnaya. A cultura Sintashta e a cultura Andronovo da Ásia Central também exibiram estreitas relações genéticas com a cultura dos artigos com corda. [12]

Um estudo genético publicado em Nature Communications em janeiro de 2018 examinou um homem enterrado em Ölsund no norte da Suécia ca. 2570–2140. Embora enterrado sem artefatos, ele foi encontrado perto de um sítio arqueológico contendo tanto artefatos de caçadores-coletores quanto de mercadorias com fio. [13] Ele foi considerado portador do haplogrupo paterno R1a1a1b e do haplogrupo materno U4c2a. [14] Ele foi geneticamente semelhante aos povos da cultura Battle Axe, carregando uma grande quantidade de ancestralidade relacionada às estepes. [15] [16] O haplogrupo paterno R1a1a1b também foi considerado a linhagem predominante entre mercadorias com corda e homens da Idade do Bronze do Báltico oriental. [14]

Um estudo genético publicado em Anais da Royal Society B examinou os restos mortais de 2 indivíduos Battle Axe enterrados em Bergsgraven, no centro da Suécia. O macho carregava o haplogrupo paterno R1a-Z283 e o haplogrupo materno U4c1a, enquanto a fêmea carregava o haplogrupo materno N1a1a1a1. [17] O haplogrupo R1a é o haplogrupo paterno mais comum entre os machos de outras culturas do horizonte Corded Ware, e foi anteriormente encontrado entre os caçadores-coletores orientais (EHGs). Curiosamente, a cultura Yamnaya é, por outro lado, dominada pelo haplogrupo paterno R1b. [18] Os dois indivíduos do Machado de Batalha examinados foram encontrados para ser intimamente relacionados com povos de outras partes do horizonte de Corded Ware. Eles eram principalmente descendentes de Western Steppe Herder (WSH), embora com uma ligeira mistura de Western Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) e Early European Farmer (EEF). A mistura parece ter ocorrido através do acasalamento de machos WSH com fêmeas EEF e WHG. A ancestralidade dos indivíduos Battle Axe era marcadamente diferente daquela das populações neolíticas anteriores, sugerindo estratificação entre os grupos culturais. A ancestralidade do WSH não foi detectada entre as populações anteriores da área. Os resultados reforçaram ainda mais a noção de que a cultura do Machado de Batalha surgiu como resultado de migrações do sudeste do Báltico. [19] O estudo também examinou uma mulher enterrada em um megálito Funnelbeaker em Öllsjö, Suécia c. 2860–2500 aC, durante o qual a área fazia parte da cultura do Machado de Batalha. Ela carregava o haplogrupo materno H6a1b3, [20] e foi considerada geneticamente próxima de outras pessoas da cultura Battle Axe. [21] Dois indivíduos enterrados no mesmo megálito durante o Neolítico Superior eram igualmente aparentados de perto com povos da cultura Mercadorias Cordadas. [21]

Malmström et al. (2020) examinou indivíduos da cultura Pitted Ware de Gotland. Vários de seus enterros continham artefatos típicos de Machado de Batalha. No entanto, nenhum desses indivíduos abrigou qualquer mistura da cultura Battle Axe, sugerindo que os povos das duas culturas interagiam sem cruzar. [22] Descobriu-se que os europeus do norte modernos ainda são geneticamente próximos às pessoas da cultura do Machado de Batalha. [23]


3. Cota de malha

Crédito: DeAgostini / Getty Images

Tribos bárbaras às vezes eram conhecidas por correr para a batalha nuas para intimidar seus inimigos, mas também possuíam uma ampla variedade de escudos e armaduras. Entre as mais eficazes estava a cota de malha, que pode ter sido inventada na Europa pelos celtas gauleses no século III a.C. A maior parte da cota de malha gaulesa assumia a forma de uma camisa de mangas curtas ou colete feito de uma malha entrelaçada de pequenos anéis de metal. Isso proporcionava flexibilidade ao mesmo tempo em que protegia o usuário de golpes cortantes de espadas e adagas, que simplesmente desprezariam sua superfície externa dura. A cota de malha era extremamente trabalhosa para fazer & # x2014 um colete único pode incluir dezenas de milhares de anéis & # x2014, portanto, tendia a ser usado por chefes bárbaros e aristocratas em vez de soldados rasos. No entanto, sua eficácia em combate o tornou altamente valorizado entre os romanos, que eventualmente adotaram uma camisa de malha semelhante conhecida como & # x201Clorica hamata & # x201D para suas legiões.


Machado ruim, batalha de

Esta pintura de paisagem de Samuel Marsden Brookes e Thomas H. Stevenson retrata uma visão ampla da confluência dos rios Bad Axe e Mississippi, local da batalha final da Guerra do Falcão Negro de 1832. Veja o documento original: WHI 2531

A Batalha de Bad Axe em 1 de agosto de 1832 foi a batalha final da Guerra Black Hawk.

Depois de conter os perseguidores na Batalha de Wisconsin Heights (localizada a cerca de 1,5 milhas ao sul da atual cidade de Sauk, Wisconsin), o chefe Black Hawk conduziu seu povo por uma região desconhecida e acidentada em direção ao rio Mississippi. Nesse ínterim, o Exército dos EUA alertou as autoridades em Fort Crawford em Prairie du Chien.

O chefe Black Hawk e seus seguidores Sauk, agora reduzidos a cerca de 400 homens, mulheres e crianças famintos, chegaram ao Mississippi na foz do rio Bad Axe em 1º de agosto. Eles imediatamente começaram a trabalhar na fabricação de jangadas e canoas. Cerca de 1.300 infantaria e milícia dos EUA estavam a apenas um dia de viagem e eles tinham que atravessar agora ou ficariam presos nas margens do rio.

Só então, o barco a vapor "Guerreiro" chegou. Black Hawk fez sua terceira tentativa honesta de se render [a primeira sendo em Stillman's Run e a segunda após a Batalha de Wisconsin Heights]. A tripulação e os soldados do barco a vapor suspeitaram que fosse um truque e abriram fogo, matando 25 dos guerreiros de Black Hawk e custando-lhes um tempo valioso.

Quando a noite caiu sobre a banda desesperada, eles estavam divididos sobre o que fazer a seguir. A maioria queria cruzar o Mississippi o mais rápido possível, mas Black Hawk e Waubakeeshik queriam seguir para o norte a pé e refugiar-se entre Ho-Chunk e Ojibwe.

Apesar de seu desejo de apoiar sua banda no Bad Axe, no final Black Hawk, Wabokieshiek e suas famílias escaparam para o norte a pé e se esconderam perto da moderna Tomah, Wisconsin. Eles permaneceram lá até serem descobertos por um caçador de Ho-Chunk que os ajudou a se renderem aos brancos dias após o massacre em Bad Axe.

No início de 2 de agosto, os Sauk restantes tentaram cruzar o rio Mississippi. As tropas americanas, que chegaram às encostas durante a noite, os atacaram por trás. O barco a vapor "Guerreiro" voltou à cena por volta das 10h00, disparando seu canhão. Guerreiros e os quase famintos não-combatentes - homens, mulheres e crianças - foram massacrados indiscriminadamente na costa, nos pântanos e enquanto tentavam nadar ou passear de canoa pelo Mississippi. A maioria dos poucos que conseguiram atravessar foi caçada e morta por guerreiros Sioux agindo a pedido de oficiais americanos.


História / informações da marca Battle Axe

Gostaria de saber mais sobre a história e os produtos da marca Battle Axe. Pelo que sei, há conexões com os nomes JW Hickey & amp Sons, Hickey & amp Shouse e Souse & amp Hardin que estão estampadas em algumas das facas. Há também um antigo "Battle Axe Cutlery Co." na mistura. Até agora, encontrei muito pouca menção a qualquer um deles, mas adquiri algumas facas e parecem ser de muito boa qualidade e design. Se você puder aumentar meu conhecimento, eu ficaria grato.

Respostas a esta discussão

Jim-Eles eram 2 empresas diferentes. O antigo Battle Axe Cutlery co. foram feitos para ou por A.R. Justice, (Alfred Rudolph Justice), um atacadista de ferragens da Filadélfia por volta de 1877-1937, que se dedicou a talheres e prataria. Você pode encontrar exemplos de canivetes e baixelas com o carimbo Battle Axe.

A marca Battle Axe mais recente, por volta de 1975-1990, foi usada por um grupo de homens cuja especialidade era importação e venda de facas comemorativas de boa qualidade e algumas facas de produção. Essas eram facas de edição limitada de pequeno lote e geralmente serializadas. Eles criariam o design e uma fábrica em Solingen, Alemanha, os fabricaria. Pensa-se que foram fabricados pela fábrica Frederich Olbertz em Solingen. As facas usavam aço carbono 1095 e materiais de cabo de boa qualidade.

Aparentemente, diferentes membros do grupo projetaram e compraram facas diferentes, daí as muitas colaborações diferentes de nomes nas facas.

J.W. Hickey de Winston-Salem NC, Tommy Shouse de Winston-Salem e George Smith de Hardin Wholesale, que mais tarde se tornou sócio da Blue Grass Cutlery.

Obrigado pela resposta. Graças a você eu sei mais hoje do que sabia ontem

Nesse período (1975-1990), parece que havia muito trabalho criativo acontecendo no mundo da cutelaria. Bulldog e Fight'n Rooster estavam produzindo itens de alta qualidade, ótimo design e vendidos em pequenas tiragens.

Battle Axe estava fazendo a mesma coisa, mas eles não são tão conhecidos. Uma vez que sua história é recente e alguns dos principais jogadores ainda podem estar por aí, podemos esperar por uma história e / ou catálogo algum dia.

Jim-Eles eram 2 empresas diferentes. O antigo Battle Axe Cutlery co. foram feitos para ou por A.R. Justice, (Alfred Rudolph Justice), um atacadista de ferragens da Filadélfia por volta de 1877-1937, que se dedicou a talheres e prataria. Você pode encontrar exemplos de canivetes e baixelas com o carimbo Battle Axe.

A marca Battle Axe mais recente, por volta de 1975-1990, foi usada por um grupo de homens cuja especialidade era importação e venda de facas comemorativas de boa qualidade e algumas facas de produção. Essas eram facas de edição limitada de pequeno lote e geralmente serializadas. Eles criariam o design e uma fábrica em Solingen, Alemanha, os fabricaria. Pensa-se que foram fabricados pela fábrica Frederich Olbertz em Solingen. As facas usavam aço carbono 1095 e materiais de cabo de boa qualidade.

Aparentemente, diferentes membros do grupo projetaram & amp compraram facas diferentes, daí as muitas colaborações diferentes de nomes nas facas.

J.W. Hickey de Winston-Salem NC, Tommy Shouse de Winston-Salem e George Smith de Hardin Wholesale, que mais tarde se tornou sócio da Blue Grass Cutlery.

Jim-Engraçado, você deve mencionar Bulldog e Fight'n Rooster- Eu li (não confirmado) que todas as três marcas foram produzidas na mesma fábrica em Solingen. Bernard Levine pensou que Frederich Olbertz fez Battle Axe, então talvez eles tenham feito todas as 3 marcas. Sterling Buster é um membro do IKC e provavelmente pode confirmar o aspecto Fight'n Rooster. Buzz Parker provavelmente poderia confirmar a história da marca Bulldog.


O destino em constante mudança da velha Europa

O tempo é implacável quando a história está em questão. É fácil escrever sobre o desaparecimento de uma cultura e o surgimento de outra. Mas para os povos daquela época distante, as coisas eram diferentes. Esses foram processos que levaram centenas de anos para serem concluídos, e os povos primitivos mais fracos muitas vezes enfrentaram o desaparecimento e a assimilação, o que nunca é uma coisa agradável. Mas esse era o modo de vida nos tempos antigos, caracterizado por migrações em massa de povos tecnologicamente avançados, cujas inovações e habilidades muitas vezes trouxeram uma mudança abrupta e dramática na vida de culturas que se desenvolveram pacificamente por centenas de anos. E foi assim que a rápida disseminação dos indo-europeus trouxe uma mudança imparável para a Velha Europa. As culturas neolíticas originais tiveram que se fundir com os invasores, tentar resistir ou desaparecer completamente. E assim o futuro foi forjado e cimentado, um século de cada vez.

Imagem de cima: Pouco se sabe sobre a cultura do Machado de Batalha da Era Neolítica, mas os arqueólogos e estudiosos continuam a aplicar novas tecnologias para formar um quadro mais completo. (Imagem, Machados de Pedra no Museu de História Local de Turov). Fonte: Grigory Bruev


O Machado de Batalha - História

Por William McPeak

O machado com haste existe desde 6.000 aC, tanto para uso pacífico quanto para guerreiro. As chamadas culturas do machado de batalha (3200 a 1800 aC) se espalharam por grande parte do norte da Europa, desde o final da Idade da Pedra até o início da Idade do Bronze. As primeiras cabeças de machado eram feitas de pedra e usavam à mão um cabo de madeira conhecido como cabo para facilitar o manejo do machado. As técnicas de fixação do cabo incluíam cunha, flange, asa e meia. A socketing exigia que o cabo fosse perfurado com um orifício para encaixar uma pedra moldada através do cabo ou em cima dele. Muitos minerais pedregosos foram usados ​​para a cabeça, e a borda era afiada em ambos os lados e com bisel duplo.
[text_ad]

Com a descoberta dos metais, vieram os diversos trabalhos de acomodar machados para a guerra. De faces bastante rombudas em formas retangulares, a cabeça do machado assumiu a familiar borda frontal ligeiramente convexa e afunilou para trás até a ponta romba. Na Idade do Ferro (1000 aC), a cabeça do machado de ferro em forma de cunha era a forma padrão, perfurada perto da coronha para corte. Para a guerra, o machado de batalha era mais eficiente em um design leve. Machados com bordas duplas dianteiras e traseiras surgiram em algumas culturas antigas, mas, falando realisticamente, eram pesados ​​demais para uma eficiência real.

A Francisca: Machado de Batalha dos Francos

A cabeça de borda de chanfro único logo foi desenvolvida. Ao contrário de seu antecessor de implementos agrícolas, o machado de batalha foi feito para cortar carne, não madeira. Os legionários romanos carregavam uma picareta padrão com uma ponta curta em uma cabeça de 19 polegadas e um cabo de 30 polegadas. Por volta do século V, um machado de batalha com uma ponta estreita em forma de cunha, geralmente um arco plano ou lado superior em forma de S com uma borda convexa chanfrada e bastante plana de aproximadamente três polegadas virada para trás no calcanhar em uma varredura côncava em o lado inferior, apareceu no norte da Europa nas mãos dos francos. Este machado foi chamado de francisca (da palavra latina para Frank). Os francos constituíram a confederação alemã ocidental que evoluiria para um reino com várias partes sob os governantes merovíngios e, em seguida, um império sob os governantes carolíngios dos séculos sétimo e oitavo, particularmente Carlos Magno.

A francisca era usada como arma de arremesso e combate corpo-a-corpo. O historiador romano Procópio descreveu seu uso como arma de arremesso pelos francos: “Cada homem carregava uma espada, um escudo e um machado. Agora, a cabeça de ferro desta arma era grossa e extremamente afiada em ambos os lados, enquanto o cabo de madeira era muito curto. E eles estão acostumados a sempre atirar esses machados a um sinal no primeiro ataque e, assim, quebrar os escudos do inimigo e matar os homens. ” Procópio enfatizou que os francos atiraram seus machados imediatamente antes do combate corpo a corpo, com o objetivo de quebrar escudos e interromper a linha inimiga enquanto feriam ou matavam guerreiros inimigos. O peso da cabeça e o curto comprimento do cabo permitiam que o machado fosse lançado com considerável impulso a um alcance efetivo de cerca de 12 metros. Mesmo se a lâmina da lâmina não atingir o alvo, o peso da cabeça de ferro pode causar ferimentos graves.

Outra característica da francisca era sua tendência a quicar de forma imprevisível ao atingir o solo devido ao seu peso, formato único da cabeça, falta de equilíbrio e ligeira curvatura do punho, tornando difícil para os defensores bloquearem. Pode ricochetear nas pernas dos oponentes ou contra seus escudos e através das fileiras. Os francos tiraram proveito disso lançando a francisca em rajadas para confundir, intimidar e desorganizar as linhas inimigas antes ou durante uma carga para iniciar o combate corpo-a-corpo.

The francisca, after undergoing changes of the length of edge, became popular with other Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons, and made its way farther north to become a basic template for the expeditionary Vikings. The Vikings extended the francisca ax edge downward a further inch, with the underside at the heel cutting briefly back horizontally and then turning up into a deep concave arc. Called the bearded ax, the weapon would undergo changes such as sweeping into an arc at the heel of the edge. Scandinavian smiths had been working iron-edged weapons, and they usually made the ax head of iron and forged the edge into steel to make it a superior cutting face.

The Norse Battle-Ax

Another Norse style of the ninth century returned to the full arc of convex edge, tapering both the top and undersides of the head backward in a concave sweep to the haft, sometimes known as the shaved ax. This was probably the earliest broadax form and enabled a more effective sweeping cut rather than a simple chop. Although there were variations, the broadax continued to be developed from a basic one- or two-pound weapon with a haft of about 1½ feet of ash or oak. This was the common form of the European single-hand battle-ax thereafter. The Anglo-Saxon invasions of the fifth century and Viking raids from the late eighth and ninth centuries brought these early forms of the battle-ax to Britain.

By ad 1000, the Danes were popularizing a shaved ax design with as much as 12 inches of curved blade but again with the inside edges deeply concave. This was the Danish ax, with a weight of as much as four pounds and requiring a longer haft of three or four feet for both hands. In 1066, the English met the Norman invaders near Hastings with their primary professional infantry wielding a Danish battle-ax called the English long ax, which was essentially an early poleax for two-hand use.

The Ax vs Armor

The progression of improvements in edged weapons followed the improvement in armor in general. By the late 14th century, plate armor of surface-hardened steel was so resilient that steel sword points and most concussion weapons grazed off its curved surfaces. Although defined as an impact or concussion weapon, the battle-ax had an advantage over others of its class, the war hammer and the various designs of the mace and flail. The battle-ax was also an edged weapon—a powerful one. The various lengths and arcing edges of its head could inflict some massive damage when striking well. The popularity of the Danish long ax came from the force of its sweeping and cutting blows. A horseman had even better striking ability.

A Viking-made bearded ax, circa ad 1000.

Although the sword still reigned as the knightly weapon, by the 12th century a variety of single-handed battle-axes were adopted by the noble class of Europe as a horseman’s weapon. Manuscript miniature paintings of the medieval period show many a battle-ax cleaving into the helmeted head of a mounted knightly opponent. King Stephen of England took up the battle-ax after his sword was broken at the Battle of Lincoln in 1141. Richard the Lionheart was supposedly a famous wielder of the battle-ax. Thirteenth-century chroniclers made the point of noting the use of the battle-ax by the nobility. James, the second earl of Douglas of Scotland, son of the great patriot James the Black Douglas, used the battle-ax, although he perished at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388. Later, French marshal Breton Bertrand du Guesclin and his companion in arms Olivier de Clisson, future constable of France, both used the battle-ax.

By the late 14th century, the noble knight put aside the battle-ax as a backup to the sword, which had undergone improvements with more tempering and narrowing of the pointed blade. Then came surface-hardened steel. With steel armor to contend with, many returned to the usefulness of the battle-ax. By this time, a basic horseman’s ax evolved with the functional need of a longer haft to use while sitting astride a horse, where one could get the most out of it. The full convex edge and swept concave head of the broadax could be used to best advantage by performing the so-called draw cut on horseback. The draw cut was an arcing overhead stroke of the curved saber blade used by the light cavalries of Islam. The result was a deadly efficient follow-through. The forward momentum on horseback made the damage that much more efficient. The horseman’s ax had a haft of up to three feet, usually requiring two hands, and a hole bored at the butt of the haft for inserting a leather thong for carrying at the saddle and winding at the wrist.

Building a More Practical Ax

In the early 14th century, the battle-ax head was further modified—but at the opposite end. The butt of the battle-ax head was flared slightly out in a small hammer-like shape for more utility. Archers carried a short ax with a hammer-like butt to pound in and sharpen stakes for a trench palisade, and it was often preferred to carrying the usual short sword. Beginning in the late 14th century, the battle-ax began to appear adorned with butt-end alternatives similar to the war hammer to help puncture that impenetrable armor. The butt of the head was extended with a spike of up to about six inches, which was used as another puncturing option and counterbalance. A well-placed and powerful hit with the spike could puncture, but the ax’s worked steel edge could put a bigger slice in armor on its own. A further option was a vertical, four-sided spike of six inches extending above the center of the head. This rather awkward stabbing weapon was used mainly for delivering the coup de grace to a fallen opponent. Although the back spike became shorter, the vertical spike fell out of favor in comparison with battle-axes and the horseman’s ax.

A modern-day reproduction of the s-shaped francisca battle-ax.

More practical additions were at hand. By the early 14th century, some battle-ax heads appeared with short, downward extensions from the head and along the haft to further secure it. This idea was furthered by reinforcing the haft by riveting metal bands called langets, extending partially or fully down both sides of the length of the haft. The langets were a means of protecting the battle-ax head from being sheared from the haft. A more effective solution to that outcome was to put the ax head on an all-iron or steel haft. This appeared in cylindrical and polygonal forms around the middle of the 15th century. Although heavier, the all-metal ax was also efficient. For protecting the hand against glancing and sliding blows, a small metal disk guard was added at the top of the ax grip. Something smiliar in larger form regularly appeared on the two-handed poleax.

“My Kingdom for a Horse!”

At least one king favored the battle-ax to such extent as to gamble his kingdom on it. By the later 15th century, after 100 years of fighting between England and France, a civil war erupted in England between two houses of the Plantagenets and Lancastrians with a red rose symbol and the challenging Yorkists with a white rose. This was the War of the Roses. For more than 20 years, bloody battles pitting relatives against one another continued after the Yorkists effectively took power in 1461. In 1483 Richard III seized power, becoming perhaps the most reviled monarch in English history.

Revisionists, including William Shakespeare, made a concerted effort to discredit Richard. In his play Henry VI, Part 3, Shakespeare has Richard ready to do anything to grab the throne: “Or hew my way out with a bloody axe.” The ax reference is relevant for Richard because evidence showed that from youth he practiced particularly with the battle-ax—so much so that his right arm was supposedly much more muscular than his left, as was his right shoulder and back. This probably gave the impression that he was deformed—thus the hunchback tradition.

In August 1485 it all came to a head at Bosworth Field, where Richard was defeated by Henry Tudor and a large force of Welsh archers and French mercenaries. Richard had already successfully intercepted Henry’s reserve and after the first shock had entered a swirling melee. He cleaved his way with surprising speed toward the frightened Henry, who was surrounded by bodyguards, before his horse became mired in the mud and the king threw down the ax and drew his sword for better reach. He was finally surrounded by a great mass of Welsh spearmen and cut down. Richard died bravely on the battlefield, crying out: “Treason! Treason!”—not, as Shakespeare had it: “A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!”

Replaced by the Sword and the Gun

Both all-metal and wooden haft battle-axes moved into the 16th century but were increasingly upstaged by more a versatile array of swords: infantry and cavalry sabers, curve-bladed short swords, and broad swords. But the all-steel battle-ax, usually without the vertical spike, did enjoy some splendor in the art of chiseled grips and engraved and etched blades for parade and ceremonial uses during the 16th and early 17th centuries. The battle-ax was still a popular secondary weapon in eastern Europe. Ornately chiseled all-steel battle-axes were popular cavalry weapons with the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century and into the 18th century in the Middle East and India. There they were called the tabar and had more curvature on the edge than Western designs. But for Europe as a whole, practicality centered on the battle-ax transformation into two-handed forms—the many pole arms and staff weapons with ax heads: poleax, Scottish lochaber ax, Russian bardiche, and various longer halberds.

Similar weapons were still a choice on 17th and 18th century battlefields, although firearms now ruled the day. In North America, trade axes with the Viking head became the new weapon of choice for Native Americans, replacing their wood and stone tomahawks. Hand-to-hand combat with the tomahawk would by necessity become a skill developed by frontiersmen during the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. The U.S. Navy’s boarding ax of the late 18th century looked similar to a short bearded ax, with three or more sharp teeth at the bottom back side of the edge to rake up and clear downed rigging and burned wreckage. By the 19th century, the typical broadax tool was used in camps and on battlefields by sappers and miners and at sea for onboard tasks. In modern times it has chiefly been used for engineering tasks.

Of all the impact and concussion weapons of military history, the ax remains an important tool, whether on the battlefield, in the forest, at throwing competitions, or simply in the backyard for the more peaceable pursuit of gardening.


Battle of Bad Axe

The Battle of Bad Axe was the culmination of the Black Hawk War. The Black Hawk war was a military conflict between the Sauk, Meskwaki (Fox), and the United States Military, led by General Atkinson. The conflict began in 1832 and took place in northwestern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin. The Native Americans, led by Black Hawk, crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois. The Native Americans moved across the Mississippi in order to settle land that their tribes used to settle.

The Battle of Bad Axe, also known as the Bad Axe Massacre, was the final fight in the Black Hawk War. It was a two day encounter. The reason this battle is also known as a massacre is due to the fact that the United States Army and the steamboat Warrior slaughtered the Sauk and Fox tribes that were trying to retreat across the Mississippi River and surrender.

The Black Hawk War was fought throughout Southern Wisconsin between the Sauk and Fox Native Americans, called the British Band, and the United States Military. The fighting took place between May and August 1832. The Native Americans were led by Chief Black Hawk and the United States Military in the area was under the direction of Brigadier General Henry Atkinson. The war was caused over land dispute between the government and the Native Americans.

After losing the Battle of Wisconsin Heights on July 21, 1832, near present day Sauk City, Wisconsin, the Native Americans retreated to the west. They made it to the east bank of the Mississippi River near present day Victory, WI on August 1, 1832, and this was the first day of the Battle of Bad Axe. The name of the battle comes from the close proximity to the mouth of the Bad Axe River.

On the first day of the battle, the steamboat Warrior was on the Mississippi River just off shore of the fleeing Native Americans. The Native Americans, seeking to surrender, raised the white flag to the steamboat. After some miscommunication, the Warrior opened fire on the Natives on shore. After several hours of fighting, 23 Sauk were killed. That night, Black Hawk made a move to meet up with Chippewa in the north. Instead, realizing the United States Military was much closer than they thought, he took a small band of troops and set up a rear guard to distract the military.

August 2, 1832 was the second day of the Battle of Bad Axe. This day is where the name the Bad Axe Massacre comes from. The first attack of the day was the United States Military spies encountering Chief Black Hawk and his rear guard. Fourteen Sauk were lost while one spy suffered critical wounds. The rear guard moved towards the mouth of the Bad Axe River in a diversion attempt to lead the military away from the rest of the Sauk and Fox people. This diversion was partially successful. It took three fifths of the military with them. The remaining two fifths found the rest of the Sauk and Fox people. These two fifths pushed the Native Americans closer to the river where the steamboat Warrior was waiting. The Native Americans were forced into the water and were caught between the Warrior and the military. Only seventy of the four hundred Native Americans made it across the river. The rest were killed in the water or on the banks of the Mississippi. These seventy were captured or killed by the Sioux, long time enemies of the Sauk and who had sided with the United States.

Black Hawk was not looking for violence or bloodshed when he crossed the river. Several attempts were made at peaceful talks on his part. One was made before any conflict had officially begun. Black Hawk recalled the first attempt in his autobiography. “I received news that three or four hundred white men on horse-back had been seen about eight miles off. I immediately started three young men with a white flag to meet them and conduct them to our camp, that we might hold a council with them and descend Rock river again. I also directed them, in case the whites had encamped, to return, and I would go and see them. After this party had started I sent five young men to see what might take place. The first party went to the camp of the whites, and were taken prisoners. The last party had not proceeded far before they saw about twenty men coming toward them at full gallop. They stopped, and, finding that the whites were coming toward them in such a warlike attitude, they turned and retreated, but were pursued, and two of them overtaken and killed. The others made their escape.”[1] This was the very early beginnings of the Black Hawk war. The conflict occurred at Dixon’s Ferry and is known as the Battle of Stillman’s Run or the Battle of Sycamore Creek. Even though Black Hawks goal wasn’t met, this battle is still considered a win for him and the first of the Black Hawk war. Although Black Hawk lost his messengers, his braves managed to make Major Stillman retreat.

After several months and other engagements, Black Hawk was pressed by the military into a retreat from Wisconsin Heights. They made their retreat to the Mississippi River at a stream called Bad Axe. This is where the Black Hawk war ultimately ended. Another attempt at peace was made just before the Battle of Bad Axe occurred. Black Hawk went for his white flag with all intention of surrendering. “We had been here but a little while before we saw a steamboat (“Warrior”) coming. I told my braves not to shoot, as I intended going on board, so that we might save our women and children. I knew the captain (Throckmorton) and was determined to give myself up to him. I then sent for my white flag. While the messenger was gone, I took a small piece of white cotton and put it on a pole, and called to the captain of the boat, and told him to send his little canoe ashore and let me come aboard. The people, on board asked whether we were Sacs or Winnebago’s. I told a Winnebago to tell them that we were Sacs, and wanted to give ourselves up! A Winnebago on the boat called out to us “to run a/id hide, that the whites were going to shoot!” About this time one of my braves had jumped into the river, bearing a white flag to the boat, when another sprang in after him and brought him to the shore. The firing then commenced from the boat, which was returned by my braves and continued for some time. Very few of my people were hurt after the first fire, having succeeded in getting behind old logs and trees, which shielded them from the enemy’s fire.”[1]. As seen by these two excerpts, the military was not looking for any form a peaceful ending to this. They wanted the complete destruction of the Sauk that had crossed the Mississippi. Even though the Sauk were trying to flee back across the Mississippi River. “Early in the morning a party of whites being in advance of the army, came upon our people, who were attempting to cross the Mississippi. They tried to give themselves up the whites paid no attention to their entreaties, but commenced slaughtering them. In a little while the whole army arrived. Our braves, but few in number, finding that the enemy paid no regard to age or sex, and seeing that they were murdering helpless women and little children, determined to fight until they were killed. As many women as could, commenced swimming the Mississippi, with their children on their backs. A number of them were drowned, and some shot before they could reach the opposite shore.”[1] In order to try to protect his people, Black Hawk made an attempt to lead General Atkinson away from where his the Sauk were crossing the Mississippi. “Black Hawk, it will be remembered, with about twenty braves had been endeavoring to lead the army of Gen. Atkinson up the river, and had succeeded. Hence, he was several miles up the Mississippi during the real engagement, and heard of it through the Indians who had escaped, as before stated. He very justly termed this so-called battle of the Bad Axe, (because it occurred near the mouth of that small stream), a massacre. Gov. Ford estimated the Indian loss at 150 killed and as many drowned in the river, and fifty prisoners.”[2] This massacre on the east side of the Mississippi as well as a band of Sioux that slaughtered and of Black Hawks people that made it across the Mississippi meant the end of the Black Hawk war.

Colonel Joseph Dickson recounted his experiences of the Black Hawk war in a personal narrative. The bulk of his writing tells about the Battle of Wisconsin Heights and the Battle of Bad Axe. The final two battles in the war. “In the month of May, when on the first intelligence of hostilities by the Indians, I joined a mounted company of volunteers raised at Platteville. At the organization [of the company] I was elected orderly sergeant, John H. Rountree, captain and in that capacity I served one month, when in consequence of the absence of the captain, I was chosen to command the company and then served about one month. Then, by the order of Colonel Dodge, I took command of a spy company, and was in front of the army during the chases to Rock River, Fort Winnebago, and to the Wisconsin Heights and at the Wisconsin Heights I with my spy company commenced the attack on a band of Indians who were kept in the rear of the retreating Indian army and chased them to the main body of Indians, when we were fired at several times, but without injury, and I returned to the advancing army without loss or injury to my command. After the battle of the Wisconsin Heights, and the army was supplied with provisions, we again pursued the Indian trail, and I took the lead with my company and followed to the Bad Ax by command of General Atkinson. At the Battle of Bad Ax, I discovered, the evening before the battle, the trail of Black Hawk with a party of about forty Indians, to have left the main trail and gone up the river, which fact I reported to the Commanding General. On the next morning, I with my command encountered and engaged a company of Indians at a place near to where I had the evening before discovered the trail of Black Hawk and his party. During the battle that ensued, my command killed fourteen Indians and after a short time, say half an hour’s engagement, General Dodge, with his command, and General Atkinson with his regular army, arrived at the place where I had engaged this party consisting of about forty Indians and about the time of their arrival, we had killed and dispersed this band of Indians. The main body of the enemy had gone down the river after they entered the river bottom. I pursued with my command, passing General Henry with his command formed on the Mississippi Bottom I crossed the slough, and engaged a squad of Indians, who were making preparations to cross the river after which we were fired upon and returned the fire of several bands or squads of Indians, before the army arrived. After the battle was over, I was taken with others on board of a steamer which came along soon after, to Prairie du Chien, where I was properly cared for, and my wounds received suitable attention. Since which, I have spent a short period in Illinois, and the balance of the time to the present I have devoted myself to agricultural pursuits on my farm, four miles southwest of Platteville.” [3]. This manuscript gives a military soldiers perspective of the war. It shows the enthusiasm of some of the military personal in the war.


Tomahawks & Hatches: Part 1 of 3 – Early History of Axes and Battle Axes.

Flint stone hand axe 300,000 years old

Axes were among the earliest tools of man found in the Ice and Stone Age. A lump of flint was hacked into chips to make a hatchet the size of a man’s hand. These early impliments were used for chopping, cutting, scraping, and sawing (some had jagged edges) and were found throughout England, Europe, Asia, and North America – over a hundred thousand years ago. As man advanced to making pottery, sewing clothing, and tilling grains, he still used stone, bone, and wood for his tools.

Stone Age Handaxes

Approximately 10,000 years ago, copper was discovered as an easy metal to melt. When mixed with tin, it was found to be hard enough to make tools, including knives and hatchets. This mixture was called bronze and is referred to as the bronze age which lasted until the discovery of iron, approximately five thousand years later. The earliest found smelted iron was 5,000 BC in Mesopotamia and 3,000 BC in India and Egypt.

These early uses of iron were mainly ceremonial and too expensive (eight times the value of gold) for everyday use including military. Therefore, bronze was still common until the manufacturing of iron became cheap enough to be used for tools and weapons. This occurred approximately 1,200 BC which became known as the Iron Age. Later still, steel, which is a hardened iron, was in use in China at around 400 BC and India around 200 BC. Alexander the Great, during his conquest of India, at one point received from his conquest not gold, but thirty pounds of steel. However, steel was not common in Europe until medieval times.

Flake, Greenstone, Hollow-edged axes, Roundstone axes

Hollow edged axe by Gransfors

Round Stone Axe c/o Gransfors

Stone-Age Axes were the first axes made of flint and stone and were held by the hand. These included from earliest on: core axe, flake axe (large flake chipped from a core), Lihult axe (roughly hewn greenstone axe – igneous rock containing feldspar and hornblende – of western Sweden), thin-butted axe (from flint for use as a working axe), round stone axe (greenstone axe with rounded profile), and hollow-edged axe (with a concave blade).

What has been called the Battle Axe Culture (3200 – 1800 BC) were stone shaft holed axes that were mounted on the end of shafts similar to later hatchets and axes. These were not made of flint, but various stones, and though the name indicates they were carried in war, they were more for status or ceremonial usages. It is believed that the shaft hole was made so small that it could not be attached to a sufficiently strong handle necessary for battle. These included from the earliest on:

Polygonal Axe, Double-headed battle Axe, Boat Axe

Polygonal axe c/o Gransfors

Double-headed Battle Axe c/o Gransfors

1. Polygonal axe (3,400-3,000 BC) which included a flared edge, an arched butt, and angled body with grooves and ridges. Usually of greenstone, it was hammered out and polished over the whole surface. This axe was an early example of the later Central European copper axes. 2. Double-headed battle axe (3400-2900 BC) mainly of Germany and Denmark. It had a flared edge that was common in later types of double-headed axes along with a flared butt. They were made from hard and homogeneous stones such as porphyry and so too were finely polished. 3. Boat axe is the old name for the shaft axe of modern use. They were single edged with a flared butt – similar in shape and design of a spear head.

Socket or Celt Axe, Socket Axe Head, Palstave Axe, Copper Axe

Socketed or Celt Axe c/o Gransfors

Socket Axe Head c/o Gransfors

Bronze Age Axes (2,000 – 500 AD for northern Europe) were often copies of stone axes. With the discovery of the copper and tin mixture, stone axes gave way to bronze with a head of either pure copper or bronze. The bronze axe was cast in molds which enabled the design to be copied in mass. These included from earliest on: 1. Socketed or Celt axe which had a wedge shaped head and no shaft hole. Instead the handle was fixed into a socket at the butt end. It was made hollow so the handle of the shaft was inserted into the head. It proved to be a functional working axe as the handle was often quite long. Later types were smaller with a flared edge. 2. Palstave ax (1500 – 1000 BC) had a narrow butt which inserted into a split wooden handle. The blade was flared and the sides were often decorated with spiral or angular patterns. It was mounted in the split end of a wooden handle and tied into place with leather straps.

Iron Age Axe Heads

Iron age axes (from around 500 BC in Europe) were basically the same as bronze and stone axes reproduced in iron. However, the new materials and designs including the strength and thickness of metals, led the appearance of the axes to change gradually. Non-shaft-hole axes disappeared and were replaced by axes with a hole for a handle. The heads also became larger with broader or ‘bearded’ blades.

Axes Used in Battle. The first axes used in battle were the same that were used in everyday life. Though fiction in the action ‘barbarian’ genre, such as the popular Conan the Barbarian series, used specific axes for battle welded by muscular warrior types, in reality, those who were called to war were ordinary tribesmen, mainly fathers and sons, who grabbed whatever tool was available when battling opposing tribes or kingdoms. It was only later, around 400 AD, with the advent of iron, that the focus shifted to developing specific axes for fighting.

Franziska axe was an early, smaller axe similar to the modern hatchets, that was specifically designed for battle, however it was also useful in the hunt. It was first used by the Franks and later Teutonic tribes and Goths from around 400 – 500 AD. The axe heads were thick and sharp with a distinct short handle. It was effective mostly as a hand weapon in close combat, yet its design allowed it to be thrown as a projectile. However, most combatants most likely kept a firm grip on their prized weapon so as not to be left standing unarmed. When thrown, it would frequently be at a distance of ten or twelve paces from the enemy, yet could still be deadly at larger distances. Because of its unusual shape, when correctly thrown, a Franziska rotated a number of times in the air before the axe blade hit its target. It rotated once at four to five meters, twice at eight to nine meters, and three times at a distance of twelve to thirteen meters. Though carried into battle, these axes were very useful as a projectile during the hunt. When game was spotted, it could, like the spear, be thrown quickly and quietly from a distance with great precision. And once thrown, even if the target was missed, it could be retrieved without threat of attack from an enemy.

Bayeux Tapestry featuring Viking Battle Axe

Scandinavia Battle Axe became popular during the Viking Age (800-1100 AD). Nordic smiths developed these axes with longer handles and thinner blades, making the axe head extra light so as to be readily carried into battle and not wear out the warrior through use. This type of axe was commonly in use during the Battle of Hastings in 1066 England as both Franks and Anglo Saxon Housecarls carried them into battle (as documented in the Bayeux Tapestry).

Light axes on long shafts, known as Hunganian Fokos axes, were carried by 10 th century Hungarian warriors The Bulgarians also used a similar design. From the 15th century on, shepherd’s axes appeared in Europe from modern day Romania. The axe was used as a versatile tool that served as a small axe, hammer, and walking stick. These axes became inseparable from shepherds throughout Europe which included heavy, personalized decorative straps.

Predecessor to the Hatchet, during the European Middle Ages and Renaissance (11 th to the 16 th centuries), was a small axe with a short handle which was often carried on the belt. They were more refined than its earlier model – Franziska axes. Included among these shorter, hatchet-like axes were throwing axes made entirely of iron in use by the late Middle Ages. The handle was around 25 centimeters long and ended in a point. The butt also had a sharp spike and the cutting edge was around 16 centimeters long.

Large Battle Axes were used by knights of armor who fought on foot. Often these larger axes had the butt end in an iron spike and the hand was protected by an iron plate on the handle. Fifteenth century knights in Germany and France used heavy battle axes which were intended to crush the opponent’s metal armor. They had a shorter handle and more of a blunt edge so to pound the opponent to submission.

Bearded axe, half-moon, bardiche, and halberd all were the common name for large battle axes with a broad long head on a long handle. They had an elongated edge with a sabre-like curve called a beard. The lower part of the blade was fixed to the handle with a rivet. The handle was often about 1.4 meters long. Some models had the front part of the axe blade shaped into a hand guard. Many varieties had one or more points or hooks at the butt or protruding from the top of the blade. These bearded halberds had a deadly function in battle when knights of armor met on the battlefield. Later on, particularly in the seventeenth century and right up until the early eighteenth century, they had a more symbolic role carried by a staff sergeant of a particular platoon or company within a regiment.

Executioner’s Broad Axe gradually replaced the sword as the weapon of choice for beheadings during the latter part of the Middle Ages right up until the 19 th century (Sweden still beheaded with the broad axe right up to 1910). Though England and most European countries implemented the broad axe during executions, the French still preferred a heavy sword to lob off one’s head.

Axe declined to the sword in popularity, especially as steel swords developed and became the choice of weapon for military officers. However, ordinary citizens and peasants continued to use the axe at times of unrest or in self-defense against bandits as it was cheap and easily accessible.

Eighteenth Century Military Use of axes was limited to a small axe or hatchet worn on the belt, carried mainly by huntsmen rifle corps (such as German Jaeger units and American ranger outfits) also some light infantry companies including the American Royal Riflemen and British rifle companies. Halberds were common throughout Europe and used during the American French and Indian War and American Revolution – however mainly for symbolic use.

Tomahawks of North American were small axes introduced to North America by European settlers and explorers. Before the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans lived in a Stone Age in which only flint and stones were used for tools and weapons they had never seen iron objects. War clubs were often carried into battle which were bludgeoning weapons such as heavy bones or wooden clubs with stone heads latched at the end. When Europeans first began to explore the New World of the Americas, ‘trade axes’, similar to small European axes worn at the belt, played a major role in trade with the natives – garnishing mainly furs and pelts for shipment back to Europe. These axes were given the collective name of tomahawks.

The word tomahawk either came from the Lenape tribe’s word tamahak, meaning ‘cutting tool’, or from the Powhatan or Algonquian native tongues. These small steel axes, common among the Europeans, had quickly gained favor with the Native Americans for hunting and domestic work. Though the war club continued to be an effective close quarter weapon among Native Americans, these small axes gained importance in battle. Tomahawks, which could be thrown, were part of a long-established European craft and came to be one of the leading symbols of pioneers and Native Americans in the new continent. Colonists propagated a false image of the tomahawk as being solely unique to an ‘Indian’ culture as these axes were so heavily traded among the native population. Tomahawks were frequently carried by the original settlers and ‘mountain men’. Centuries later, Hollywood films continued to promote these small, hand held throwing axes as an invention of the American frontier.

Steel Head Tomahawk

Tomahawks and hatchets were light in weight and particularly useful to the military, could be effectively used with just one hand. Both Native Americans and white settlers, including militiamen and later American, British, and German Infantrymen (mainly rifle and light infantry companies) attached these light weight tomahawks to their belts. They could be most effective in close up hand to hand combat or thrown at the enemy from a distance. Scalping became common in North America as bounties were paid to Native Americans by both sides of European combatants. These scalps, the removal of a portion of the enemy’s hair (dead or alive) became proof of casualties inflicted on the enemy and money or trade was paid in return. However, unlike romantic novels and the movie industry, mostly scalps were removed with a sharp knife and rarely (only when a knife was unavailable) was a tomahawk used. Native American tomahawks were also used in celebrations and ceremonies.

Atkinson, Alice Minerva. The European Beginnings of American History: An Introduction to the History of the United States. 1912: Ginn & Company, Boston, MA.

Web site: Gransfors Bruks AB Sweden. www.gransforsbruk.com/en/axe-knowledge/the-history-of-the-axe/ Gransfors Bruks built a business based around handcrafted axes and axe expertise. The axe forge is open to the public. In addition to the forge and factory shop, there is an axe museum that has many ancient axes through the centuries on display.

Holmes, Sir Richard. Weapon: A Visual History of Arms and Armour. 2010: Dorling Kindersley, London, UK.

Grant, David. Tomahawks: Traditional to Tactical. 2007: Paladin Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Grose, Francis. Military Antiquities Respecting a History of the English Army. 1801: Oxford University, England.


Assista o vídeo: ASSASSINS CREED VALHALLA - COMO CONSEGUIR O MACHADO DE BATALHA